Saturday, December 18, 2010

Large-screen television technology

Large-screen television technology developed rapidly in the late 1990s and 2000s. Various thin screen technologies are being developed, but only the liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma display(PDP) and Digital Light Processing (DLP) were released on the public market (Dell XPS M1210 Battery) .

These technologies have almost completely displaced cathode ray tubes (CRT) in television sales, due to the necessary bulkiness of the cathode ray tubes. However, just released technologies like organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and not-yet released technologies like surface-conduction electron-emitter display(SED) (Dell Studio XPS 1340 Battery) .

or field emission display (FED) are making their way to replace the first flat screen technologies in picture quality. The diagonal screen size of a CRT television is limited to about 40 inches because of the size requirements of the cathode ray tube, which fires a beam of electrons onto the screen, creating a viewable image (Dell Studio XPS 1640 Battery) .

A larger screen size requires a longer tube, making a CRT television with a large screen (50 to 80 inches) unrealistic because of size. The aforementioned technologies can produce large-screen televisions that are much thinner (Dell Vostro 1710 Battery) .

Viewing distances

Before deciding on a particular display technology size, it’s very important to calculate at what distances it’s going to be viewed from. As the display size increases so does the ideal viewing distance (Sony VGP-BPS13 battery) .

As a rule of thumb, the viewing distance should be roughly two to three times the screen size for standard definition (SD) displays.

Display specifications

The following are important factors for evaluating television displays:

  • Display size: This refers to the diagonal length of the display (Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery) .
  • Display resolution: This refers to the number of pixels in each dimension on a display. In general a higher resolution will yield a clearer, sharper image.
  • Dot pitch: This measures the size of an individual pixel, which includes the length of the subpixels and distances between subpixels (Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery) .
  • It can be measured as the horizontal or diagonal length of a pixel. A smaller dot pitch generally results in sharper images because there are more pixels in a given area. In the case of CRT based displays, pixels are not equivalent to the phosphor dots, as they are to the pixel triads in LC displays (Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery) .
  • Projection displays that use 3 monochrome CRTs do not have a dot structure, so this specification does not apply.
  • Response time: This is the time it takes for the display to respond to a given input. For an LC display it is defined as the total time it takes for a pixel to transition from black to white, and then white to black (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery) .
  • A display with slow response times displaying moving pictures may result in blurring and distortion. Displays with fast response times can make better transitions in displaying moving objects without unwanted image artefacts.
  • Brightness: This is the amount of light emitted from the display (Sony VGP-BPL9 battery) .
  • It is sometimes synonymous with the term luminance, which is defined as the amount of light per area and is measured in SI units as candela per square meter.
  • Contrast ratio: This is defined as the ratio of the luminance of the brightest color to the luminance of the darkest color on the display (Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery) .
  • High contrast ratios are desirable but the method of measurement varies greatly. It can be measured with the display isolated from its environment or with the lighting of the room being accounted for. Static contrast ratio is measured on a static image at some instant in time (Sony VGP-BPL11 battery) .
  • Dynamic contrast ratio is measured on the image over a period of time. Manufacturers can market either static or dynamic contrast ratio depending on which one is higher.
  • Aspect ratio: This is the ratio of the display width to the display height (Sony VGP-BPL15 battery) .
  • The aspect ratio of a traditional television is 4:3, which is being discontinued, the television industry is currently changing to the 16:9 ratio typically used by large-screen, high-definition televisions.
  • Viewing angle: This is the maximum angle at which the display can be viewed with acceptable quality (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery) .
  • The angle is measured from one direction to the opposite direction of the display, such that the maximum viewing angle is 180 degrees. Outside of this angle the viewer will see a distorted version of the image being displayed. The definition of what is acceptable quality for the image can be different among manufacturers and display types (Dell Latitude E6400 battery) .
  • Many manufacturers define this as the point at which the luminance is half of the maximum luminance. Some manufacturers define it based on contrast ratio and look at the angle at which a certain contrast ratio is realized.
  • Color reproduction/gamut: This is the range of colors that the display can accurately represent (HP Pavilion dv6000 Battery) .

Display technologies

LCD television

A pixel on an LCD consists of multiple layers of components: two polarizing filters, two glass plates with electrodes, and liquid crystal molecules (Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31S battery) .

The liquid crystals are sandwiched between the glass plates and are in direct contact with the electrodes. The two polarizing filters are the outer layers in this structure. The polarity of one of these filters is oriented horizontally, while the polarity of the other filter is oriented vertically (SONY VGN-FZ38M Battery) .

The electrodes are treated with a layer of polymer to control the alignment of liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. These rod-like molecules are arranged to match the horizontal orientation on one side and the vertical orientation on the other, giving the molecules a twisted, helical structure (SONY VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery) .

Twisted nematic liquid crystals are naturally twisted, and are commonly used for LCD’s because they react predictably to temperature variation and electric current (SONY VGN-FZ31z Battery) .

When the liquid crystals are in its natural state, light passing through the first filter will be rotated (in terms of polarity) by the twisted molecule structure, which allows the light to pass through the second filter. When voltage is applied across the electrodes, the liquid crystal structure is untwisted to an extent determined by the amount of voltage (Sony VGN-FZ31Z Battery) .

An extremely large voltage will cause the molecules to untwist completely, such that the polarity of any light passing through will not be rotated and will instead be perpendicular to the filter polarity. This filter will block the passage of light because of the difference in polarity orientation, and the resulting pixel will be black (SONY VGN-FZ31E Battery) .

The amount of light allowed to pass through at each pixel can be controlled by varying the corresponding voltage accordingly. In a color LCD each pixel consists of a red, green, and blue subpixel, which requires appropriate color filters in addition to the components mentioned previously (SONY VGN-FZ31J Battery) .

Each subpixel can be controlled individually to display a large range of possible colors for a particular pixel.

The electrodes on one side of the LCD are arranged in columns, while the electrodes on the other side are arranged in rows, forming a large matrix that controls every pixel (SONY VGN-FZ31M Battery) .

Each pixel is designated a unique row-column combination, and the pixel can be accessed by the control circuits using this combination. These circuits send charge down the appropriate row and column, effectively applying a voltage across the electrodes at a given pixel (SONY VGN-FZ31B Battery) .

Simple LCD’s such as those on digital watches can operate on what is called a passive-matrix structure, in which each pixel is addressed one at a time. This results in extremely slow response times and poor voltage control (SONY VGP-BPS13 Battery) .

A voltage applied to one pixel can cause the liquid crystals at surrounding pixels to untwist undesirably, resulting in fuzziness and poor contrast in this area of the image. LCD’s with high resolutions, such as large-screen LCD televisions, require an active-matrix structure (Dell Inspiron 1320 Battery) .

This structure is a matrix of thin-film transistors, each corresponding to one pixel on the display. The switching ability of the transistors allows each pixel to be accessed individually and precisely, without affecting nearby pixels. Each transistor also acts as a capacitor while leaking very little current, so it can effectively store the charge while the display is being refreshed (Dell Inspiron 1320n Battery) .

The following are types of LC display technologies:

  • Twisted Nematic (TN): This type of display is the most common and makes use of twisted nematic-phase crystals, which have a natural helical structure and can be untwisted by an applied voltage to allow light to pass through (Dell Inspiron 1464 Battery) .
  • These displays have low production costs and fast response times but also limited viewing angles, and many have a limited color gamut that cannot take full advantage of advanced graphics cards (Dell Inspiron 1564 Battery) .
  • These limitations are due to variation in the angles of the liquid crystal molecules at different depths, restricting the angles at which light can leave the pixel (Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery) .
  • In-Plane Switching (IPS): Unlike the electrode arrangement in traditional TN displays, the two electrodes corresponding to a pixel are both on the same glass plate and are parallel to each other. The liquid crystal molecules do not form a helical structure and instead are also parallel to each other (Dell Studio 1450 Battery) .
  • In its natural or "off" state, the molecule structure is arranged parallel to the glass plates and electrodes. Because the twisted molecule structure is not used in an IPS display, the angle at which light leaves a pixel is not as restricted, and therefore viewing angles and color reproduction are much improved compared to those of TN displays (Dell Studio 1457 Battery) .
  • However, IPS displays have slower response times. IPS displays also initially suffered from poor contrast ratios but has been significantly improved with the development of Advanced Super IPS (AS - IPS) (Dell Latitude D610 Battery) .
  • Multi-Domain Vertical Alignment (MVA): In this type of display the liquid crystals are naturally arranged perpendicular to the glass plates but can be rotated to control light passing through. There are also pyramid-like protrusions in the glass substrates to control the rotation of the liquid crystals such that the light is channeled at an angle with the glass plate (Toshiba NB100 Battery) .
  • This technology results in wide viewing angles while boasting good contrast ratios and faster response times than those of TN and IPS displays. The major drawback is a reduction in brightness (Toshiba Satellite M65 battery) .
  • Patterned Vertical Alignment (PVA): This type of display is a variation of MVA and performs very similarly, but with much higher contrast ratios (Toshiba Satellite M60 battery)

Plasma display

A plasma display is made up of many thousands of gas-filled cells that are sandwiched in between two glass plates, two sets of electrodes, dielectric material, and protective layers (Dell Latitude D830 Battery) .

The address electrodes are arranged vertically between the rear glass plate and a protective layer. This structure sits behind the cells in the rear of the display, with the protective layer in direct contact with the cells. On the front side of the display there are horizontal display electrodes that sit in between a magnesium-oxide (MgO) protective layer and an insulating dielectric layer (Dell Latitude D620 Battery) .

The MgO layer is in direct contact with the cells and the dielectric layer is in direct contact with the front glass plate. The horizontal and vertical electrodes form a grid from which each individual cell can be accessed. Each individual cell is walled off from surrounding cells so that activity in one cell does not affect another (Dell Inspiron Mini 10 Battery) .

The cell structure is similar to a honeycomb structure except with rectangular cells.

To illuminate a particular cell, the electrodes that intersect at the cell are charged by control circuitry and electric current flows through the cell, stimulating the gas (typically xenon and neon) atoms inside the cell (Sony VGN-FW11S Battery) .

These ionized gas atoms, or plasmas, then release ultraviolet photons that interact with a phosphormaterial on the inside wall of the cell. The phosphor atoms are stimulated and electrons jump to higher energy levels. When these electrons return to is natural state energy is released in the form of visible light (Sony VGN-FW11M Battery) .

Every pixel on the display is made up of three subpixel cells. One subpixel cell is coated with red phosphor, another is coated with green phosphor, and the third cell is coated with blue phosphor. Light emitted from the subpixel cells is blended together to create an overall color for the pixel (Sony VGN-FW139E/H battery) .

The control circuitry can manipulate the intensity of light emitted from each cell, and therefore can produce a large spectrum of colors. Light from each cell can be controlled and changed rapidly to produce a high-quality moving picture (Dell Latitude E5400 Battery) .

Projection television

A projection television uses a projector to create a small image from a video signal and magnify this image onto a viewable screen. The projector uses a bright beam of light and a lens system to project the image to a much larger size (Dell Latitude E4200 Battery) .

A front-projection television uses a projector that is separate from the screen which could be a suitably-prepared wall, and the projector is placed in front of the screen. The setup of a rear-projection television is in some ways similar to that of a traditional television, the projector is contained inside the television box and projects the image from behind the screen (Dell Vostro A840 Battery) .

Rear-projection television

The following are different types of rear-projection televisions, which differ based on the type of projector and how the image (before projection) is created (Dell Inspiron 300M Battery) :

  • CRT rear-projection television: Small cathode ray tubes create the image in the same manner that a traditional CRT television does, which is by firing a beam of electrons onto a phosphor-coated screen and then the image is projected to a large screen (Dell Studio 1737 battery) .
  • This is done to overcome the limit of size of cathode ray tube which is about 40 inches which is the maximum size a normal CRT television set (see image). The cathode ray tubes can be arranged in various ways. One arrangement is to use one tube and three phosphor (red, green, blue) coatings (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery) .
  • Alternatively, one black-and-white tube can be used with a spinning color wheel. A third option is to use three CRT's, one for red, green, and blue (Dell RM791 battery) .
  • LCD rear-projection television: A lamp transmits light through a small LCD chip made up of individual pixels to create an image. The LCD projector uses mirrors to take the light and create three separate red, green, and blue beams, which are then passed through three separate LCD panels (Dell XPS M1530 battery) .
  • The liquid crystals are manipulated using electric current to control the amount of light passing through. The lens system takes the three color beams and projects the image (Dell XPS M2010 battery) .
  • DLP rear-projection television: A DLP projector creates an image using a digital micromirror device (DMD chip), which on its surface contains a large matrix of microscopic mirrors, each corresponding to one pixel in an image (Dell Vostro 1000 battery) .
  • Each mirror can be rotated to reflect light such that the pixel appears bright, or the mirror can be rotated to direct light elsewhere and make the pixel appear dark. The mirror is made of aluminum and is rotated on an axle hinge. There are electrodes on both sides of the hinge controlling the rotation of the mirror using electrostatic attraction (Acer Aspire One battery) .
  • The electrodes are connected to an SRAM cell located under each pixel, and charges from the SRAM cell drive the movement of the mirrors. Color is added to the image-creation process either through a spinning color wheel (used with a single-chip projector) or a three-chip (red, green, blue) projector (Toshiba Satellite P10 Battery) .
  • The color wheel is placed between the lamp light source and the DMD chip such that the light passing through is colored and then reflected off a mirror to determine the level of darkness. A color wheel consists of a red, green, and blue sector, as well as a fourth sector to either control brightness or include a fourth color (SONY VGN-FZ210CE Battery) .
  • This spinning color wheel in the single-chip arrangement can be replaced by red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LED). The three-chip projector uses a prism to split up the light into three beams (red, green, blue), each directed towards its own DMD chip. The outputs of the three DMD chips are recombined and then projected (Dell Precision M70 Battery) .

Laser Phosphor Display

In this newest television technology, first unveiled in June 2010 at InfoComm, the image is provided by the use of lasers, which are located on the back of the television, reflected off a rapidly moving bank of mirrors to excite pixels on the television screen in a similar way to cathode ray tubes (Toshiba Satellite L305 Battery) .

The mirrors reflect the lasers across the screen and so produce the necessary number of image lines. The small layers of phosphors inside of the glass emit red, green or blue light when excited by a soft UV laser. This technology produces brilliant, high quality images on very large resolutions (Toshiba Satellite T4900 Battery) .

The laser can be varied in intensity or completely turned on or off without a problem, which means that a dark display would need less power to project its images. Unlike most other imaging technologies, the LPD images have no motion blur or flicker (Toshiba PA3399U-2BRS battery) .

According to Prysm, the brightness and color range of the LPD exceeds LCD and LED technologies. It also has a viewing angle of almost 180?. Its frequency lies near the 240 Hz and it has a 1.6 mm dot pitch. Both of these aspects exceed the current technologies such as LED (Toshiba Satellite A200 Battery) .

The technology is also very easy to assemble as all components, including the phosphors, mirrors and lasers are widely available. This makes development time short.

LPD is said to be eco-friendly throughout its manufacture (Toshiba Satellite 1200 Battery) .

As well as greatly reduced power consumption, does not contain toxic components, has no consumables and generates little heat.

Comparison of television display technologies



  • Slim profile (Toshiba Satellite M300 Battery)
  • Lighter and less bulky than rear-projection televisions
  • Is less susceptible to burn-in: Burn-in refers to the television displaying a permanent ghost-like image due to constant, prolonged display of the image. Light-emitting phosphors lose their luminosity over time and, when frequently used, the low-luminosity areas become permanently visible (Dell KM958 battery) .
  • LCDs reflect very little light, allowing them to maintain contrast levels in well-lit rooms and not be affected by glare.
  • Slightly lower power usage than equivalent sized Plasma displays.
  • Can be wall-mounted WD passport essential (500GB/640GB) .


  • Poor black level: Some light passes through even when liquid crystals completely untwist, so the best black color that can be achieved is varying shades of dark gray, resulting in worse contrast ratios and detail in the image WD passport essential (250GB/320GB) .
  • Narrower viewing angles than competing technologies. It is nearly impossible to use an LCD without some image warping occurring WD passport essential SE (750GB/1TB) .
  • LCDs rely heavily on thin-film transistors, which are easily damaged, resulting in a defective pixel. The number of defective pixels at which the LCD is determined to be unusable varies (see ISO 13406-2) WD passport elite(250GB/320GB) .
  • LCDs currently have a rejection rate of about 50% but this is improving. A larger screen size requires more transistors, which increases the chances of yielding a defective LCD. Technology advancements are slowly easing this problem WD passport elite(500GB/640GB) .
  • Typically have slower response times than Plasmas, which can cause ghosting and blurring during the display of fast-moving images. This is also improving by increasing the refresh rate of LCD displays WD passport studio for Mac(320GB/500GB) .

Plasma display


  • Slim profile
  • Can be wall mounted
  • Lighter and less bulky than rear-projection televisions WD passport studio for Mac(500GB/640GB)
  • Achieves better and accurate color reproduction than LCDs (68 billion (236) versus 16.7 million (224))
  • Produces deep, true blacks allowing for superior contrast ratios (up to 1:1,000,000)
  • Far wider viewing angles than those of LCD (up to 178°), images do not suffer from degradation at high angles unlike LCD's WD Elements series(250GB/320GB)
  • Absence of motion blur, because of very high refresh rates and faster response times (up to 0.001 milliseconds) make plasmas ideal for fast motion video (films or sports viewing) WD Elements SE(500GB/640GB)


  • Susceptible to Screen burn-in and image retention (however, newer models have built-in technologies to prevent this such as pixel shifting) WD Elements SE(750GB/1TB)
  • Phosphors lose luminosity over time, resulting in gradual decline of absolute image brightness (newer models are less susceptible to this, having lifespans exceeding 60,000 hours, far longer than older CRT technology)
  • Generally do not come in sizes smaller than 32 inches WD Elements desktop(500GB/640GB)
  • Susceptible to reflection glare in bright rooms
  • High power consumption
  • Heavier than LCDs due to the requirement of a glass screen to hold the gases
  • Damage to the glass screen can be permanent and far more difficult to repair than an LCD WD Elements desktop(750GB/1TB)

Projection television

Front-projection television


  • Significantly cheaper than flat-panel counterparts WD Elements desktop(1.5 TB/2TB)
  • Front-projection picture quality approaches that of movie theater
  • Front-projection televisions take up very little space because a projector screen is extremely slim, and even a suitably-prepared wall can be used WD passport essential SE (750GB/1TB)--USB 3.0)
  • Display size can be extremely large, typically limited by room height.


Rear-projection television


  • Significantly cheaper than flat-panel counterparts WD passport for Mac(640GB/1TB)
  • Projectors that are not phosphor-based (LCD/DLP) are not susceptible to burn-in
  • Rear-projection is not subject to glare


  • Rear-projection televisions are much bulkier than flat-panel televisions My book essential 4 generation (640GB/1TB)
  • Lamp may need to be replaced after heavy usage
  • Rear-projection has smaller viewing angles than those of flat-panel displays

Comparison of different types of rear-projection televisions WD My book essential 4 generation( 1.5TB/2TB)

CRT projector



LCD projector



  • The Screen-door effect: Individual pixels may be visible on the large screen, giving the appearance that the viewer is looking through a screen door Seagate expansion (1.5TB/2TB) .
  • Possibility of defective pixels
  • Poor black level: Some light passes through even when liquid crystals completely untwist, so the best black color that can be achieved is a very dark gray, resulting in worse contrast ratios and detail in the image. Some newer models use an adjustable iris to help offset this Seagate Freeagent Desktop (500GB/1TB) .
  • Not as slim as DLP projection television
  • Uses lamps for light, lamps may need to be replaced
  • Fixed number of pixels, other resolutions need to be scaled to fit this
  • Limited viewing angles Seagate Freeagent Go(250GB/320GB)

DLP projector


  • Slimmest of all types of projection televisions
  • Achieves excellent black level and contrast ratio
  • DMD chip can be easily repaired or replaced Seagate Freeagent Go(500GB/640GB)
  • Is not susceptible to burn-in
  • Better viewing angles than those of CRT projectors
  • Image brightness only decreases due to the age of the lamp
  • defective pixels are rare
  • Does not experience the screen-door effect Seagate Freeagent Go(750GB/1TB)


  • Uses lamps for light, lamps need to be replaced on average once every year and a half to two years . Current models with LED lamps reduce or eliminate this. Estimated lifetime of LED lamps is over 100,000 hours Seagate Freeagent Goflex(250GB/320GB) .
  • Fixed number of pixels, other resolutions need to be scaled to fit this. This is a limitation only when compared with CRT displays.
  • The Rainbow Effect: This is an unwanted visual artifact that is described as flashes of colored light seen when the viewer looks across the display from one side to the other Seagate Freeagent Goflex(500GB/640GB) .
  • This artifact is unique to single-chip DLP projectors. The Rainbow Effect is significant only in DLP displays that use a single white lamp with a "color wheel" that is synchronized with the display of red, green and blue components. LED illumination systems that use discrete red Seagate Freeagent Goflex(750GB/1TB) ,
  • green and blue LEDs in concert with the display of red, green and blue components at high frequency reduce, or altogether eliminate, the Rainbow effect Seagate Freeagent Goflex Pro(500GB/750GB) .

A LED-backlight LCD television is an LCD TV that uses LED backlighting rather than the cold cathode fluorescent lights (CCFLs) used in traditional LCD televisions. It is not a true LED display but is often called "LED TV" by some manufacturers Seagate Freeagent Goflex desktop(1TB/2TB) .

The use of LED backlighting has a dramatic impact, resulting in a thinner panel, less power consumption, and a brighter display with better contrast levels. It also generates less heat than an ordinary LCD TV Seagate Freeagent go for Mac(320GB/640GB) .

The LEDs can come in three forms: dynamic RGB LEDs which are positioned behind the panel, white Edge-LEDs positioned around the rim of the screen which use a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen (the most common) and full-array which are arranged behind the screen but they are incapable of dimming or brightening individually Samsung G2 protable (250gb/320GB) .

LED backlighting techniques

RGB dynamic LEDs

This method of backlighting allows dimming to occur in locally specific areas of darkness on the screen. This can show truer blacks, whites and PRs at much higher dynamic contrast ratios, at the cost of less detail in small bright objects on a dark background, such as star fields Samsung G2 protable (500GB/640GB) .


This method of backlighting allows for LED-backlit TVs to become extremely thin. The light is diffused across the screen by a special panel which produces a uniform color range across the screen Samsung S2 protable (320GB/500GB) .

Full Array LEDs

Many brands use LED backlighting technology and may offer a range of benefits over CCFL LCD TVs such as reduced energy consumption, better contrast and brightness, greater colour range, more rapid response to changes in scene and a capacity to provide the means to render an image more accurately Samsung S1 Mini (120GB/160GB) .

Differences between LED-backlit and CCFL-backlit LCD displays

LED-backlit LCD TVs differ from conventional CCFL-backlit LCD TVs in the following:

  • Produce images with greater dynamic contrast.
  • With Edge-LED lighting they can be extremely slim. Models on the market can be approximately one inch thick.
  • Offer a wider color gamut, especially when RGB-LED backlighting is used Samsung S1 Mini (250GB/320GB) .
  • Less environmental pollution on disposal.
  • Higher sales price.
  • Generally 20-30% lower power consumption Samsung story station (1TB/1.5TB) .


TV manufacturers can use an LED backlight instead of the standard Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps (LCD-CCFL) used in most LCD televisions. It is important to distinguish this method of simply backlighting a conventional LCD panel, from a hypothetical true LED display, or an Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display Samsung Story station (1.5TB/2TB) .

LCD-based televisions described as 'LED TVs' are vastly different from self-illuminating OLED, OEL or AMOLED display technologies. In terms of the use of the term 'LED TV' in the UK, the ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) has made it clear in prior correspondence that it does not object to the use of the term, but does require it to be clarified in any advertising Samsung story station Esata(1TB/1.5TB) .

There are several methods of backlighting an LCD panel using LEDs including the use of either White or RGB (Red, Green and Blue) LED arrays positioned behind the panel; and Edge-LED lighting, which uses white LEDs arranged around the inside frame of the TV along with a special light diffusion panel designed to spread the light evenly behind the LCD panel Samsung G3 station (1TB/1.5TB).

An LED backlight offers several general benefits over regular CCFL backlight TVs, typically higher brightness. Compared to regular CCFL backlighting, there may also be benefits to color gamut. However advancements in CCFL technology mean wide color gamuts and lower power consumption are also possible Maxtor one touch 4 plus (500GB/750GB) .

The principal barrier to wide use of LED backlighting on LCD televisions is cost.

The variations of LED backlighting do offer different benefits. The first commercial LED backlit LCD TV was the Sony Qualia 005 (introduced in 2004) Maxtor one touch 4 plus (1TB/1.5TB) .

This featured RGB LED arrays to offer a color gamut around twice that of a conventional CCFL LCD television (the combined light output from red, green and blue LEDs produces a more pure white light than is possible with a single white light LED) Maxtor cool black(640GB/1TB) .

RGB LED technology continues to be used on selected Sony BRAVIA LCD models, with the addition of 'local dimming' which enables excellent on-screen contrast through selectively turning off the LEDs behind dark parts of a picture frame Toshiba canvio for Mac(750GB/1TB) .

Edge LED lighting was also first introduced by Sony (September 2008) on the 40 inch BRAVIA KLV-40ZX1M (referred to as the ZX1 in Europe). The principal benefit of Edge-LED lighting for LCD televisions is the ability to build thinner housings (the BRAVIA KLV-40ZX1M is as thin as 9.9mm) Toshiba anvio for Mac(500GB/750GB) .

Samsung has also introduced a range of Edge-LED lit LCD televisions with extremely thin housings.

LED-backlit LCD TVs are considered a more sustainable choice, with a longer life and better energy efficiency than plasmas and conventional LCD TVs. Unlike CCFL backlights, LEDs also use nomercury in their manufacture Toshiba canvio portable(750GB/1TB).

However, other elements such as gallium and arsenic are used in the manufacture of the LED emitters themselves, meaning there is some debate over whether they are a significantly better long term solution to the problem of TV disposal Toshiba canvio portable(320GB/500GB) .

Because LEDs are able to be switched on and off more quickly than CCFL displays and can offer a higher light output, it is theoretically possible to offer very high contrast ratios. They can produce deep blacks (LEDs off) and a high brightness (LEDs on), however care should be taken with measurements made from pure black and pure white outputs Hitachi XL (1TB/2TB) ,

as technologies like Edge-LED lighting do not allow these outputs to be reproduced simultaneously on-screen.

In September 2009 Nanoco Group announced that it has signed a joint development agreement with a major Japanese electronics company under which it will design and develop quantum dots for LED Backlights in LCD televisions Hitachi X mobile(320GB/500GB) .

Quantum dots are valued for displays, because they emit light in very specific gaussian distributions. This can result in a display that more accurately renders the colors than the human eye can perceive Hitachi X mobile (250GB/320GB) .

Quantum dots also require very little power since they are not color filtered. In September 2010, LG Electronics revealed their new product which claimed as the world's slimmest full LED 3D TV at the IFA consumer electronics trade show in Berlin Hitachi life studio desk (500GB/1TB) .

No comments:

Post a Comment