Sunday, August 21, 2011

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt ( October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th President of the United States (1901–1909). He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTH Battery

He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTJ Battery

Born into a wealthy family, Roosevelt was a sickly child who suffered from asthma and stayed at home studying natural history. To compensate for his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. Home-schooled, he became an eager student of nature. He attended Harvard, where he boxed and developed an interest in naval affairs.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JTQ Battery

In 1881, one year out of Harvard, he was elected to the New York State Assembly as its youngest member. Roosevelt's first historical book, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), established his professional reputation as a serious historian. After a few years of operating a cattle ranch in the Dakotas, Roosevelt returned to New York City and gained fame fighting police corruption. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVB/C Battery

The Spanish–American Warbroke out while Roosevelt was, effectively, running the Department of the Navy. He promptly resigned and led a small regiment in Cuba known as theRough Riders, earning a nomination for the Medal of Honor, which was received posthumously on his behalf on January 16, 2001. Sony VAIO VGN-SR290JVH/C Battery

After the war, he returned to New York and was elected Governor in a close-fought election. Within two years, he was elected Vice President of the United States.

In 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated; and Roosevelt became President at the age of 42, taking office at the youngest age of any other U.S. president in history.Sony VAIO VGN-SR290NTB Battery

Roosevelt attempted to move the Republican Party toward Progressivism, including trust busting and increased regulation of businesses. Roosevelt coined the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his domestic agenda, emphasizing that the average citizen would get a fair share under his policies.Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN/S Battery

As an outdoorsman and naturalist, he promoted the conservation movement. On the world stage, Roosevelt's policies were characterized by his slogan, "Speak softly and carry a big stick". Roosevelt was the force behind the completion of the Panama Canal;Sony VAIO VGN-SR29XN/S Battery

he sent out theGreat White Fleet to demonstrate American power; and he negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Roosevelt was the first American to win the Nobel Prize in any field.

Roosevelt declined to run for re-election in 1908. After leaving office, he embarked on a safari to Africa and a tour of Europe. Sony VAIO VGN-SR2RVN/S Battery

On his return to the US, a bitter rift developed between Roosevelt and his anointed successor as president, William Howard Taft. In 1912, Roosevelt attempted to wrest the Republican nomination from Taft, and when he failed, he launched the Bull Moose Party.Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAB Battery

In the election, Roosevelt became the only third-party candidate to come in second place, beating Taft but losing to Woodrow Wilson. After the election, Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition to South America; the river on which he traveled now bears his name.Sony VAIO VGN-SR390NAH Battery

He contracted malaria on the trip, which damaged his health, and he died a few years later, at the age of 60. Roosevelt has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.


Roosevelt often described his ancestry as "half Irish and half Dutch."Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery

The Roosevelt family, colonists of Dutch origin, had been in New York since the mid-17th century. Roosevelt was born into considerable wealth, for the family by the 19th century had grown in wealth, power, and influence from the profits of several businesses, including hardware and plate-glass importing. Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

The family was strongly Democratic in its political affiliation until the mid-1850s, then joined the new Republican Party. Theodore's father, known in the family as "Thee", was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. Sony VAIO VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

"Father," as the children called him, was an ardent Unionist, a prominent supporter ofAbraham Lincoln and the Union effort during the American Civil War. His mother Martha "Mittie" Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Roswell, Georgia, and she maintained Confederate sympathies. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery

Mittie's brother, Theodore's uncle, James Dunwoody Bulloch, was a United States Navy officer who became a Confederate admiral and naval procurement officer and secret agent in Britain. Another uncle, Irvine Bulloch, was a midshipman on the Confederate raider CSS Alabama; both remained in England after the war.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery

Theodore Roosevelt was distantly related by birth to the 32nd president of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (they were fifth cousins), and he was the uncle of Franklin D. Roosevelt's wife, Eleanor Roosevelt.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery


Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City, the second of four children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1878) and Martha "Mittie" Bulloch (1835–1884).Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery

He had an older sister, Anna, and two younger siblings: his brother Elliott (the father of future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt) and his sister Corinne.

Sickly and asthmatic as a child, Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early years, and had frequent ailments. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery

Despite his illnesses, he was hyperactive and often mischievous. His lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age seven upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal's head, the young Roosevelt and two of his cousins formed what they called the "Roosevelt Museum of Natural History". Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery

Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught, studied, and prepared for display. At age nine, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled "The Natural History of Insects".

Encouraged by his father, the boy began exercising and boxing to combat his poor physical condition.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery

Two trips abroad had a lasting impact: family tours of Europe in 1869 and 1870, and Egypt 1872 to 1873.

Theodore, Sr. had a tremendous influence on his son, of whom Roosevelt wrote, "My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery

He combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. He would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness."


Young "Teedie", as he was nicknamed as a child, was mostly home schooled by tutors and his parents. Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery

A leading biographer says: "The most obvious drawback to the home schooling Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the various areas of human knowledge." He was solid in geography (thanks to his careful observations on all his travels) and well-read in history, strong in biology, French, and German, but deficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek.Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery

He matriculated at Harvard College in 1876. His father's death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Roosevelt redoubled his activities. He did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but fared poorly in Latin and Greek. He studied biology with considerable interest and was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist.Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery

He had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorizing every detail. He was an eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest people. He could multitask in impressive fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery

While at Harvard, Roosevelt was active in rowing, boxing, the Alpha Delta Philiterary society, the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and was a member of the Porcellian Club. He also edited a student magazine. He was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship.Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery

Upon graduating, Roosevelt underwent a physical examination, and his doctor advised him that because of serious heart problems, he should find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. He chose to embrace strenuous life instead. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa (22nd of 177) from Harvard with an A.B. magna cum laude in 1880 and entered Columbia Law School.Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery

When offered a chance to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life.

First marriage

In 1880, Roosevelt married Alice Hathaway Lee (July 29, 1861 – February 14, 1884) of Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery

She died young of an undiagnosed case of kidney failure (in those days calledBright's disease) two days after their infant Alice was born. Her pregnancy had masked the illness. Theodore Roosevelt's mother Mittie died of typhoid fever on the same day, at 3 am, some eleven hours earlier, in the same house. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery

After the nearly simultaneous deaths of his mother and wife, Roosevelt left his daughter in the care of his sister, Anna "Bamie/Bye" in New York City. In his diary, he wrote a large X on the page and wrote, "the light has gone out of my life." (See diary photo).Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery

For the rest of his life, Roosevelt never spoke of his wife Alice publicly or privately and did not write about her in his autobiography. As late as 1919, when Roosevelt was working with Joseph Bucklin Bishop on a biography that included a collection of his letters, Roosevelt made no mention of either his first or second marriage, which took place in London.Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery

The Naval War of 1812

While at Harvard, Roosevelt began a systematic study of the role played by the nascent US Navy in the War of 1812, largely completing two chapters of a book he would publish after graduation. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery

Helped in part by his two uncles, he did his own research using original source materials and official US Navy records. Roosevelt's carefully-researched book was comparable to modern doctoral dissertations, complete with drawings of individual and combined ship maneuvers, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery

charts depicting the differences in iron throw weights of cannon shot between American and British forces, and analyses of the differences between British and American leadership down to the ship-to-ship level. Published after Roosevelt's graduation from college, The Naval War of 1812 was praised for its scholarship and style. Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery

This book established Roosevelt's reputation as a serious historian. One modern naval historian wrote: "Roosevelt’s study of the War of 1812 influenced all subsequent scholarship on the naval aspects of the War of 1812 and continues to be reprinted. More than a classic, it remains, after 120 years, a standard study of the war."Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery

State Assemblyman

Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator did. Already a leading player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers;Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery

they lost to the Stalwart faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he debated with his friend Henry Cabot Lodge the pros and cons of staying loyal. When asked by a reporter whether he would support Blaine, he replied, "That question I decline to answer.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery

It is a subject I do not care to talk about." Upon leaving the convention, he complained "off the record" to a reporter about Blaine's nomination. In a crucial moment of his budding political career, he resisted the instinct to bolt from the Party that would overwhelm his political sense in 1912.Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery

In an account of the convention, another reporter quoted Roosevelt as saying that he would give "hearty support to any decent Democrat." He would later take great (and to some historical critics such as Henry Pringle, disingenuous) pains to distance himself from his earlier comment, indicating that while he made it, it had not been made "for publication."Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery

Leaving the convention with his idealism disillusioned by party politics, Roosevelt said he had no further aspiration but to retire to his ranch in the Badlands of the Dakota Territory, which he had purchased the previous year while on a buffalo hunting expedition.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery

Cowboy in Dakota

Roosevelt built a second ranch, which he named Elk Horn, thirty-five miles (56 km) north of the boomtown ofMedora, North Dakota. On the banks of the Little Missouri, Roosevelt learned to ride western style, rope, and hunt. He rebuilt his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern magazines.Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery

As a deputy sheriff, Roosevelt hunted down three outlaws who stole his river boat and were escaping north with it up the Little Missouri. Capturing them, he decided against hanging them (apparently yielding to established law procedures in place of vigilante justice),Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery

and sending his foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial in Dickinson, guarding them forty hours without sleep and reading Tolstoy to keep himself awake. When he ran out of his own books, he read a dime store western that one of the thieves was carrying."Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery

While searching for a group of relentless horse thieves, Roosevelt metSeth Bullock, the famous sheriff of Deadwood, South Dakota. The two would remain friends for life.

Return to New York

After the uniquely-severe U.S. winter of 1886-1887 wiped out his herd of cattle (together with those of his competitors) and his $60,000 investment, Roosevelt returned to the East. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery

In 1885, he had built Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York on Long Island, which was his home and estate until his death. In 1886, Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City, portraying himself as "The Cowboy of the Dakotas"; he came in third.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery

Second marriage

Following the election, he went to London in 1886 and married his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow. They honeymooned in Europe, and Roosevelt led a group to the summit of Mont Blanc, an achievement that resulted in his induction into the British Royal Society.Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery

They had five children:Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch "Archie", and Quentin.

Reentering public life

Civil Service Commission

In the 1888 presidential election, Roosevelt campaigned in the Midwest for Benjamin Harrison.Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

President Harrison appointed Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission, where he served until 1895. In his term, Roosevelt vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded enforcement of civil service laws. His close associate, friend and biographer, Joseph Bucklin Bishop, described Roosevelt's assault on the spoils system:Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery

The very citadel of spoils politics, the hitherto impregnable fortress that had existed unshaken since it was erected on the foundation laid by Andrew Jackson, was tottering to its fall under the assaults of this audacious and irrepressible young man....Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery

Whatever may have been the feelings of the (fellow Republican party) President (Harrison) — and there is little doubt that he had no idea when he appointed Roosevelt that he would prove to be so veritable a bull in a china shop—he refused to remove him and stood by him firmly till the end of his term.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/L Battery

During this time, the New York Sun described Roosevelt as "irrepressible, belligerent, and enthusiastic"

Despite Roosevelt's support for Harrison's reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Bourbon Democrat), reappointed him to the same post.Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/S Battery

New York City Police Commissioner

Roosevelt became president of the board of New York City Police Commissioners in 1895. During his two years in this post, Roosevelt radically reformed the police department. The police force was reputed as one of the most corrupt in America. Sony VAIO VGN-NS110E/W Battery

The NYPD's history division records that Roosevelt was "an iron-willed leader of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New York City Police Commission in 1895." Roosevelt and his fellow commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a bicycle squad enforce New York's traffic laws, and standardized the use of pistols by officers.Sony VAIO VGN-NS115N/S Battery

Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms and annual physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits based on their physical and mental qualifications and not on political affiliation, established meritorious service medals, and closed corrupt police hostelries. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11J/S Battery

During his tenure, a Municipal Lodging House was established by the Board of Charities, and Roosevelt required officers to register with the Board. He also had telephones installed in station houses.Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/L Battery

In 1894, Roosevelt met Jacob Riis, the muckraking Evening Sun newspaper journalist who was opening the eyes of New York's rich to the terrible conditions of the city's millions of poor immigrants with such books as, How the Other Half Lives.In Riis' autobiography, he described the effect of his book on the new police commissioner:Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/S Battery

When Roosevelt read [my] book, he came....No one ever helped as he did. For two years we were brothers in (New York City's crime-ridden) Mulberry Street. When he left I had seen its golden age.... There is very little ease where Theodore Roosevelt leads, as we all of us found out. Sony VAIO VGN-NS130E/W Battery

The lawbreaker found it out who predicted scornfully that he would “knuckle down to politics the way they all did,” and lived to respect him, though he swore at him, as the one of them all who was stronger than pull....that was what made the age golden, that for the first time a moral purpose came into the street. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/L Battery

In the light of it everything was transformed.

Roosevelt made a habit of walking officers' beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure they were on duty. As Governor of New York State before becoming Vice President in March 1901, Roosevelt signed an act replacing the Police Commissioners with a single Police Commissioner.Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/S Battery

Assistant Secretary of the Navy

Roosevelt had always been fascinated by naval history. Urged by Roosevelt's close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. Sony VAIO VGN-NS140E/W Battery

Because of the inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long, this gave Roosevelt control over the department. Ten days after the battleship Maine exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, the Secretary left for a massage, and Roosevelt became Acting Secretary for four hours. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/L Battery

Roosevelt told the Navy worldwide to prepare for war, ordered ammunition and supplies, brought in experts, and went to Congress asking authority to recruit as many sailors as he wanted, thus moving the nation toward war. Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/S Battery

Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish-American War and was an enthusiastic supporter of testing the U.S. military in combat, at one point saying, "I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one".Sony VAIO VGN-NS190J/W Battery

War in Cuba

Upon the 1898 Declaration of War launching the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt resigned from the Navy Department. With the aid of U.S. Army Colonel Leonard Wood, Roosevelt found volunteers from cowboys from the Western territories to Ivy League friends from New York, forming the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/L Battery

The newspapers called them the "Rough Riders."

Originally, Roosevelt held the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and served under Colonel Wood. In Roosevelt's own account, The Rough Riders, "after General Young was struck down with the fever, Wood took charge of the brigade.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/P Battery

This left me in command of the regiment, of which I was very glad, for such experience as we had had is a quick teacher." Accordingly, Wood was promoted to Brigadier General of Volunteer Forces, and Roosevelt was promoted to Colonel and given command of the Regiment.Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/S Battery

Under his leadership, the Rough Riders became famous for dual charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898 (the battle was named after the latter "hill," which was the shoulder of a ridge known as San Juan Heights). Out of all the Rough Riders, Roosevelt was the only one with a horse, as the troopers' horses had been left behind because transport ships were scarce. Sony VAIO VGN-NS235J/W Battery

He rode back and forth between rifle pits at the forefront of the advance up Kettle Hill, an advance that he urged in absence of any orders from superiors. He was forced to walk up the last part of Kettle Hill on foot, because of barbed wire entanglement and after his horse, Little Texas, tired.Sony VAIO VGN-NS240E/L Battery

For his actions, Roosevelt was nominated for the Medal of Honor, which was later disapproved. As historian John Gablewrote, "In later years Roosevelt would describe the Battle of San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898, as 'the great day of my life' and 'my crowded hour.'.... (but) Malaria and other diseases now killed more troops than had died in battle.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/L Battery

In August, Roosevelt and other officers demanded that the soldiers be returned home. The famous 'round robin letter', and a stronger letter by Roosevelt – now acting brigade commander – were leaked to the press by the commanding general, enraging Secretary of War, Russell Alger and President McKinley.Sony VAIO VGN-NS290J/S Battery

Roosevelt believed that it was this incident that cost him the Medal of Honor."

In September 1997, Congressman Rick Lazio, representing the 2nd District of New York, sent two award recommendations to the U.S. Army Military Awards Branch. Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/L Battery

These recommendations, addressed to Brigadier General Earl Simms, the Army's Adjutant General, and Master Sergeant Gary Soots, Chief of Authorizations, were successful in garnering the award. In 2001, Roosevelt was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.Sony VAIO VGN-NS50B/W Battery

The medal is displayed in the Roosevelt Room of the White House. He was the first and, thus far, the only President of the United States to be awarded America's highest military honor, and the only person in history to receive both his nation's highest honor for military valor and the world's foremost prize for peace.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/L Battery

His oldest son,Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., would also be awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously, for his actions at Normandy on June 6, 1944.

After return to civilian life, Roosevelt preferred to be known as "Colonel Roosevelt" or "The Colonel." As a moniker, "Teddy" remained much more popular with the public, despite the fact he found it vulgar and called it "an outrageous impertinence." Political friends and others working closely with Roosevelt customarily addressed him by his rank.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/P Battery

Governor and Vice-President

On leaving the Army, Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in 1898 as a Republican. He made such an effort to root out corruption and "machine politics" that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election, against the wishes of McKinley's manager, Senator Mark Hanna.Sony VAIO VGN-NS51B/W Battery

Roosevelt was a powerful campaign asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan in a landslide based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and new prestige abroad. Bryan stumped for Free Silver again, but McKinley's promise of prosperity through the gold standard, Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/L Battery

high tariffs, and the restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory. Bryan had strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America's innocence. Roosevelt countered with many speeches that argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability,Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/P Battery

and the Americans to have a proud place in the world. Roosevelt's six months as Vice President (March to September 1901) were uneventful. On September 2, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair, Roosevelt first used in a public speech a saying that would later be universally associated with him: "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far."Sony VAIO VGN-NS52JB/W Battery

Presidency 1901–1909

On September 6, President McKinley was shot while at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Initial reports in the succeeding days suggested his condition was improving, so Roosevelt embarked on a vacation at Mount Marcy in northeastern New York.Sony VAIO VGN-NS70B/W Battery

He was returning from a climb to the summit on September 13 when a park ranger brought him a telegram informing him that McKinley's condition had deteriorated, and he was near death.

Roosevelt and his family immediately departed for Buffalo. Sony VAIO VGN-NS71B/W Battery

When they reached the nearest train station at North Creek, at 5:22 am on September 14, he received another telegram informing him that McKinley had died a few hours earlier. Roosevelt arrived in Buffalo that afternoon, and was sworn in there as President at 3:30 pm by U.S. District Judge John R. Hazel.Sony VAIO VGN-NS72JB/W Battery

Roosevelt kept McKinley's cabinet and promised to continue McKinley's policies. One of his first notable acts as president was to deliver a 20,000-word address to Congress asking it to curb the power of large corporations (called "trusts"). For his aggressive attacks on trusts over his two terms, he has been called a "trust-buster."Sony VAIO VGN-NS90HS Battery

In the 1904 presidential election, Roosevelt won the presidency in his own right in a landslide victory. His vice president was Charles Fairbanks.

Roosevelt also dealt with union workers. In May 1902, United Mine Workers went on strike to get higher pay wages and shorter workdays.Sony VAIO VGN-NS92JS Battery

He set up a fact-finding commission that stopped the strike, and resulted in the workers getting more pay for fewer hours.

In August 1902, Roosevelt was the first president to be seen riding in an automobile in public.Sony VAIO VGN-NS92XS Battery

This took place in Hartford, CT. The car was a Columbia Electric Victoria Phaeton, manufactured in Hartford. The police squad rode bicycles alongside the car. (The reference includes a photo of the event.)

In 1905, he issued a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which allows the United States to "exercise international policy power" so they can intervene and keep smaller countries on their feet.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S Battery

Roosevelt helped the wellbeing of people by passing laws such as The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and The Pure Food and Drug Act. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 banned misleading labels and preservatives that contained harmful chemicals. The Pure Food and Drug Act banned food and drugs that are impure or falsely labeled from being made, sold, and shipped.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF Battery

The Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan came into play in 1907, banning all school segregation of Japanese, yet controlling Japanese immigration in California. That year, Roosevelt signed the proclamation establishing Oklahoma as the 46th state of the Union.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF Battery

Building on McKinley's effective use of the press, Roosevelt made the White House the center of news every day, providing interviews and photo opportunities. After noticing the White House reporters huddled outside in the rain one day, he gave them their own room inside, effectively inventing the presidential press briefing.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

The grateful press, with unprecedented access to the White House, rewarded Roosevelt with ample coverage.

He chose not to run for another term in 1908, and supported William Taft for the presidency, instead of Fairbanks. Fairbanks withdrew from the race, and would later support Taft for re-election against Roosevelt in the 1912 election.Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF Battery

Roosevelt appointed a record 75 federal judges. Roosevelt appointed three Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (1902),William Rufus Day (1903), William Henry Moody (1906). In addition to these three, Roosevelt appointed 19 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 53 judges to the United States district courts.Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W Battery

African safari

In March 1909, shortly after the end of his presidency, Roosevelt left New York for a safari in east and central Africa. Roosevelt's party landed in Mombasa,British East Africa (now Kenya), traveled to the Belgian Congo (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) before following the Nile to Khartoum in modernSudan. Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF Battery

Financed by Andrew Carnegie and by his own proposed writings, Roosevelt's party hunted for specimens for the Smithsonian Institution and for theAmerican Museum of Natural History in New York. The group, led by the legendary hunter-tracker R. J.Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B Battery

Cunninghame, included scientists from the Smithsonian and was joined from time to time by Frederick Selous, the famous big game hunter and explorer. Among other items, Roosevelt brought with him four tons of salt for preserving animal hides, a lucky rabbit's foot given to him by boxer John L. Sullivan, Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC Battery

an elephant-rifle donated by a group of 56 admiring Britons, and the famous Pigskin Library, a collection of classics bound in pig leather and transported in a single reinforced trunk.

Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped more than 11,397 animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. Sony VAIO VGN-NW35E Battery

These included 512 big game animals, including six rare white rhinos. The expedition consumed 262 of the animals. Tons of salted animals and their skins were shipped toWashington; the quantity was so large that it took years to mount them all, and the Smithsonian shared many duplicate animals with other museums. Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/S Battery

Regarding the large number of animals taken, Roosevelt said, "I can be condemned only if the existence of the National Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and all similar zoological institutions are to be condemned." Sony VAIO VGN-NW380F/T Battery

Although the safari was ostensibly conducted in the name of science, it was as much a political and social event as it was a hunting excursion; Roosevelt interacted with renowned professional hunters and land-owning families, and made contact with many native peoples and local leaders.Sony VAIO VGN-NW50JB Battery

He later wrote a detailed account in the book African Game Trails, where he describes the excitement of the chase, the people he met, and the flora and fauna he collected in the name of science.

Republican Party schism

Roosevelt certified William Howard Taft to be a genuine "progressive" in 1908, when Roosevelt pushed through the nomination of his Secretary of War for the Presidency.Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/N Battery

Taft easily defeated three-time candidate William Jennings Bryan. Taft promoted a different progressivism, one that stressed the rule of law and preferred that judges rather than administrators or politicians make the basic decisions about fairness. Sony VAIO VGN-NW51FB/W Battery

Taft usually proved a less adroit politician than Roosevelt and lacked the energy and personal magnetism, not to mention the publicity devices, the dedicated supporters, and the broad base of public support that made Roosevelt so formidable. Sony VAIO VGN-NW70JB Battery

When Roosevelt realized that lowering the tariff would risk severe tensions inside the Republican Party—pitting producers (manufacturers and farmers) against merchants and consumers—he stopped talking about the issue. Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/N Battery

Taft ignored the risks and tackled the tariff boldly, on the one hand encouraging reformers to fight for lower rates, and then cutting deals with conservative leaders that kept overall rates high. The resulting Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909 was too high for most reformers, but instead of blaming this on Senator Nelson Aldrich and big business, Sony VAIO VGN-NW71FB/W Battery

Taft took credit, calling it the best tariff ever. He again had managed to alienate all sides. While the crisis was building inside the Party, Roosevelt was touring Africa and Europe, to allow Taft to be his own man.

Unlike Roosevelt, Taft never attacked business or businessmen in his rhetoric. Sony VAIO VGN-NW91FS Battery

However, he was attentive to the law, so he launched 90 antitrust suits, including one against the largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for an acquisition that Roosevelt had personally approved. Consequently, Taft lost the support of antitrust reformers (who disliked his conservative rhetoric),Sony VAIO VGN-NW91GS Battery

of big business (which disliked his actions), and of Roosevelt, who felt humiliated by his protégé. The left wing of the Republican Party began agitating against Taft. Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin created the National Progressive Republican League (precursor to the Progressive Party (United States, 1924)) Sony VAIO VGN-NW91VS Battery

to defeat the power of political bossism at the state level and to replace Taft at the national level. More trouble came when Taft fired Gifford Pinchot, a leading conservationist and close ally of Roosevelt. Pinchot alleged that Taft's Secretary of InteriorRichard Ballinger was in league with big timber interests.Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery

Conservationists sided with Pinchot, and Taft alienated yet another vocal constituency.

Roosevelt, back from Europe, unexpectedly launched an attack on the courts. His famous speech at Osawatomie, Kansas, in August 1910 was the most radical of his career and openly marked his break with the Taft administration and the conservative Republicans.Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

Osawatomie was well known as the base used by John Brown when he launched his bloody attacks on slavery. Taft was deeply upset. Roosevelt was attacking both the judiciary and the deep faith Republicans had in their judges (most of whom had been appointed by McKinley, Roosevelt or Taft.) Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery

In the 1910 Congressional elections, Democrats swept to power, and Taft's reelection in 1912 was increasingly in doubt. In 1911, Taft responded with a vigorous stumping tour that allowed him to sign up most of the party leaders long before Roosevelt announced.Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Republican primaries

Late in 1911, Roosevelt finally broke with Taft and LaFollette and announced himself as a candidate for the Republican nomination. Roosevelt, however, had delayed too long, and Taft had already won the support of most party leaders in the country. Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery

Because of LaFollette's nervous breakdown on the campaign trail before Roosevelt's entry, most of LaFollette's supporters went over to Roosevelt, the new progressive Republican candidate.

Roosevelt, stepping up his attack on judges, carried nine of the states that held preferential primaries, LaFollette took two, and Taft only one.Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

The 1912 primaries represented the first extensive use of the presidential primary, a reform achievement of the progressive movement. However, these primary elections, while demonstrating Roosevelt's continuing popularity with the electorate, were not nearly as pivotal as primaries became later in the century.Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

There were fewer states where a common voter had an opportunity to express a recorded preference. Many more states selected convention delegates at state party conventions, or in caucuses, which were not as open as they later became. Sony VGP-BPS13AS Battery

While Roosevelt was popular with the public, most Republican politicians and party leaders supported Taft, and their support proved difficult to counter in states without primaries.

Formation of the Bull Moose Party

At the Republican Convention in Chicago, despite being the incumbent, Taft's victory was not immediately assured. Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

After two weeks, Roosevelt, realizing he would not win the nomination outright, asked his followers to leave the convention hall. They moved to the Auditorium Theatre, and then Roosevelt, along with key allies such as Pinchot and Albert Beveridge created the Progressive Party, Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

structuring it as a permanent organization that would field complete tickets at the presidential and state level. It was popularly known as the "Bull Moose Party", which got its name after Roosevelt told reporters, "I'm as fit as a bull moose." At the convention Roosevelt cried out, "We stand at Armageddon and we battle for the Lord."Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

Roosevelt's platform echoed his 1907–08 proposals, calling for vigorous government intervention to protect the people from the selfish interests.

To destroy this invisible Government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanshipof the day." Sony VGP-BPS13Q Battery

– 1912 Progressive Party Platform, attributed to him and quoted again in his autobiography where he continues "'This country belongs to the people. Its resources, its business, its laws, its institutions, should be utilized, maintained, or altered in whatever manner will best promote the general interest.'Sony VGP-BPS13S Battery

This assertion is explicit. ... Mr. Wilson must know that every monopoly in the United States opposes the Progressive party. ... I challenge him ... to name the monopoly that did support the Progressive party, whether ... the Sugar Trust, the Steel Trust, the Harvester Trust, the Standard Oil Trust, the Tobacco Trust, or any other.Sony VAIO VGN-AW110J/H Battery

... Ours was the only programme to which they objected, and they supported either Mr. Wilson or Mr. Taft...

Assassination attempt

While Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 14, 1912,Sony VAIO VGN-AW11M/H Battery

a saloonkeeper named John Schrank shot him, but the bullet lodged in his chest only after penetrating his steel eyeglass case and passing through a thick (50 pages) single-folded copy of the speech he was carrying in his jacket. Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11S/B Battery

correctly concluded that since he wasn't coughing blood, the bullet had not completely penetrated the chest wall to his lung, and so declined suggestions he go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt.Sony VAIO VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

He spoke for 90 minutes. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose." Afterwards, probes and x-ray showed that the bullet had traversed three inches (76 mm) of tissue and lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle but did not penetrate the pleura, Sony VAIO VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

and it would be more dangerous to attempt to remove the bullet than to leave it in place. Roosevelt carried it with him for the rest of his life.

Because of the bullet wound, Roosevelt was taken off the campaign trail in the final weeks of the race (which ended election day, November 5).Sony VAIO VGN-AW120J/H Battery

Though the other two campaigners stopped their own campaigns in the week Roosevelt was in the hospital, they resumed it once he was released. The bullet lodged in his chest caused his chronic rheumatoid arthritis- which he had suffered from for years- to get worse and it soon prevented him from doing his daily stint of exercises;Roosevelt would soon become obese as well.Sony VAIO VGN-AW150Y/H Battery

Roosevelt, for many reasons, failed to move enough Republicans in his direction. He did win 4.1 million votes (27%), compared to Taft's 3.5 million (23%). However, Wilson's 6.3 million votes (42%) were enough to garner 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt had 88 electoral votes to Taft's 8 electoral votes. Sony VAIO VGN-AW160J/Q Battery

This meant that Taft became the only incumbent president to place third in a re-election bid. But Pennsylvania was Roosevelt's only eastern state; in the Midwest, he carried Michigan,Minnesota and South Dakota; in the West, California and Washington; he did not win any southern states.Sony VAIO VGN-AW170Y/Q Battery

1913–1914 South American Expedition

Roosevelt's popular book Through the Brazilian Wilderness describes his expedition into the Brazilian jungle in 1913 as a member of the Roosevelt-Rondon Scientific Expedition, co-named after its leader, Brazilian explorer Cândido Rondon. Sony VAIO VGN-AW180Y/Q Battery

The book describes the scientific discovery, scenic tropical vistas, and exotic flora and fauna experienced during the adventure. A friend, Father John Augustine Zahm, had searched for new adventures and found them in the forests of South America. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190JAH Battery

After a briefing of several of his own expeditions, he persuaded Roosevelt to commit to such an expedition in 1912. To finance the expedition Roosevelt received support from the American Museum of Natural History, promising to bring back many new animal specimens.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NAB Battery

Once in South America, a new far more ambitious goal was added: to find the headwaters of the Rio da Duvida, the River of Doubt, and trace it north to the Madeira and thence to the Amazon River. It was later renamed Roosevelt River in honor of the former President.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NBB Battery

Roosevelt's crew consisted of his 24-year-old son Kermit, Colonel Rondon, a naturalist, George K. Cherrie, sent by the American Museum of Natural History, Brazilian Lieutenant Joao Lyra, team physician Dr. José Antonio Cajazeira, and 16 skilled paddlers and porters (called camaradas in Portuguese). Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NCB Battery

The initial expedition started, probably unwisely, on December 9, 1913, at the height of the rainy season. The trip down the River of Doubt started on February 27, 1914.

During the trip down the river, Roosevelt suffered a minor leg wound after he jumped into the river to try to prevent two of his crew's canoes from smashing against the rocks.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YAB Battery

The flesh wound he absorbed, however, soon gave him tropical fever that resembled the malaria he contracted while in Cuba fifteen years before. Because the bullet he absorbed in his chest during his failed assassination attempt in 1912 was never removed, his health worsened from the infection.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YBB Battery

This weakened Roosevelt so greatly that six weeks into the adventure, he had to be attended day and night by the expedition's physician and his son, Kermit. By then he could not walk because of both the infection in his injured leg and an infirmity in his other from a traffic accident a decade earlier.Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YCB Battery

Roosevelt was riddled with chest pains, fighting a fever that soared to 103 °F (39 °C), and at times so delirious that he would repeat endlessly the opening line from Coleridge's poem Kubla Khan. Regarding his condition as a threat to the survival of the others,Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YDB Battery

Roosevelt insisted he be left behind to allow the by then poorly-provisioned expedition to proceed as rapidly as it could. Only an appeal by his son convinced him to continue.

Despite his continued decline and loss of over 50 pounds (20 kg) of his original 220, Sony VAIO VGN-AW220J/B Battery

Commander Rondon had been repeatedly slowing down the pace of the expedition in dedication to his commission's mapmaking and other geographical goals that demanded regular stops to fix the expedition's position by sun-based survey.

Upon Roosevelt's return to New York, friends and family were startled by his physical appearance and fatigue.Sony VAIO VGN-AW230J/H Battery

Roosevelt wrote to a friend that the trip had cut his life short by ten years. He might not have known just how accurate that analysis would prove. For the rest of his few remaining years he would be plagued by flare-ups of malaria and leg inflammations so severe that they would require surgery.Sony VAIO VGN-AW235J/B Battery

Before Roosevelt had even completed his sea voyage home, doubts were raised over his claims of exploring and navigating a completely uncharted river over 625 miles (1,000 km) long. When he had recovered sufficiently he addressed a standing-room-only convention organized in Washington, Sony VAIO VGN-AW290JFQ Battery

D.C. by the National Geographic Society and satisfactorily defended his claims. The River of Doubt later was named the Rio Roosevelt.

World War I

When World War I began in 1914, Roosevelt strongly supported the Allies and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF Battery

Roosevelt angrily denounced the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it a failure regarding the atrocities in Belgium and the violations of American rights. In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Roosevelt said were unpatriotic Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H Battery

because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America's by supporting neutrality. He insisted one had to be 100% American, not a "hyphenated American" who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Wilson refused.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF Battery

Roosevelt's attacks on Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria.Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H Battery

His family and supporters threw their support to Roosevelt's old military companion, General Leonard Wood, who was ultimately defeated by Warren G. Harding.

His son Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH Battery

Quentin was his youngest son and probably his favorite. It is said the death of his son distressed him so much that Roosevelt never recovered from his loss.


Despite his rapidly declining health, Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. He was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, "The two things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt's jingoism."Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF Battery

On January 6, 1919, Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster Bay of a coronary thrombosis (heart attack), preceded by a 2½-month illness described as inflammatory rheumatism, and was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery. Upon receiving word of his death, his son Archie telegraphed his siblings simply, "The old lion is dead."Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery

The U.S. Vice-President at that time, Thomas R. Marshall, said that "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight."

Political positions and speeches

Theodore Roosevelt introduced the phrase "Square Deal" to describe his progressive views in a speech delivered after leaving the office of the Presidency in August 1910. Sony VAIO VGN-AW50DB/H Battery

In his broad outline, he stressed equality of opportunity for all citizens and emphasized the importance of fair government regulations of corporate 'special interests'.

Roosevelt was one of the first Presidents to make conservation a national issue. Sony VAIO VGN-AW51JGB Battery

In a speech that Roosevelt gave at Osawatomie, Kansas, on August 31, 1910, he outlined his views on conservation of the lands of the United States. He favored using America's natural resources, but opposed wasteful consumption. One of his most lasting legacies was his significant role in the creation of 5 national parks, Sony VAIO VGN-AW52JGB Battery

18 national monuments, and 150 National Forests, among other works of conservation. Roosevelt was instrumental in conserving about 230 million acres (930,000 km2) of American soil among various parks and other federal projects. Sony VAIO VGN-AW53FB Battery

In the Eighth Annual Message to Congress (1908), Roosevelt mentioned the need for federal government to regulate interstate corporations using the Interstate Commerce Clause, also mentioning how these corporations fought federal control by appealing to states' rights.Sony VAIO VGN-AW70B/Q Battery

Positions on immigration, minorities, and civil rights

In an 1894 article on immigration, Roosevelt said, "We must Americanize in every way, in speech, in political ideas and principles, and in their way of looking at relations between church and state. We welcome the German and the Irishman who becomes an American.Sony VAIO VGN-AW71JB Battery

We have no use for the German or Irishman who remains such... He must revere only our flag, not only must it come first, but no other flag should even come second."

Roosevelt was the first president to appoint a representative of the Jewish minority to a cabinet position - Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Oscar S. Straus, 1906–09.Sony VAIO VGN-AW72JB Battery

In 1886 he said: "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth." He later became much more favorable.Sony VAIO VGN-AW73FB Battery

About African Americans, Roosevelt said, "I have not been able to think out any solution of the terrible problem offered by the presence of the Negro on this continent, but of one thing I am sure, and that is that inasmuch as he is here and can neither be killed nor driven away, Sony VAIO VGN-AW80NS Battery

the only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man, giving him no more and no less than he shows himself worthy to have."

Roosevelt appointed numerous African Americans to federal office, such as Walter L. Cohen of New Orleans, Louisiana, a leader of the Black and Tan Republican faction whom he named register of the federal land office. Sony VAIO VGN-AW80S Battery

Starting in 1907 eugenicists in many States started the forced sterilization of the sick, unemployed, poor, criminals, prostitutes, and the disabled. Roosevelt said in 1914: "I wish very much that the wrong people could be prevented entirely from breeding; and when the evil nature of these people is sufficiently flagrant,Sony VAIO VGN-AW80US Battery

this should be done. Criminals should be sterilized and feeble-minded persons forbidden to leave offspring behind them."


Roosevelt was a prolific author, writing with passion on subjects ranging from foreign policy to the importance of the national park system.Sony VAIO VGN-AW81DS Battery

Roosevelt was also an avid reader of poetry. American poet, Robert Frost said of TR, "He was our kind. He quoted poetry to me. He knew poetry."

As an editor of Outlook magazine, he had weekly access to a large, educated national audience. Sony VAIO VGN-AW81JS Battery

In all, Roosevelt wrote about 18 books (each in several editions), including his Autobiography, The Rough Riders History of the Naval War of 1812, and others on subjects such as ranching, explorations, and wildlife. His most ambitious book was the four volume narrative The Winning of the West,Sony VAIO VGN-AW81YS Battery

which connected the origin of a new "race" of Americans (i.e. what he considered the present population of the United States to be) to the frontier conditions their ancestors endured throughout the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries.

In 1907, Roosevelt became embroiled in a widely publicized literary debate known as the nature fakers controversy. Sony VAIO VGN-AW82DS Battery

A few years earlier, naturalist John Burroughs had published an article entitled "Real and Sham Natural History" in the Atlantic Monthly, attacking popular writers of the day such as Ernest Thompson Seton, Charles G. D. Roberts and William J. Long for their fantastical representations of wildlife. Sony VAIO VGN-AW82JS Battery

Roosevelt agreed with Burroughs' criticisms, and published several essays of his own denouncing the booming genre of "naturalistic" animal stories as "yellow journalism of the woods". It was the President himself who popularized the negative term "nature faker" to describe writers who depicted their animal characters with excessive anthropomorphism.Sony VAIO VGN-AW82YS Battery

Character and beliefs

Roosevelt intensely disliked being called "Teddy," and was quick to point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career. He attended church regularly. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83FS Battery

Of including the motto "In God We Trust" on money, in 1907 he wrote, "It seems to me eminently unwise to cheapen such a motto by use on coins, just as it would be to cheapen it by use on postage stamps, or in advertisements." He was also a member of the Freemasons and Sons of the American Revolution.Sony VAIO VGN-AW83GS Battery

Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, "the strenuous life". To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing,tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina,Sony VAIO VGN-AW83HS Battery

leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced judo attaining a third degree brown belt and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter.

He was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper's Weekly, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood.Sony VAIO VGN-AW90NS Battery

Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician.Sony VAIO VGN-AW90S Battery


Historians credit Roosevelt for changing the nation's political system by permanently placing the presidency at center stage and making character as important as the issues. His notable accomplishments include trust busting and conservationism.Sony VAIO VGN-AW90US Battery

However, he has been criticized for his interventionist and imperialist approach to nations he considered "uncivilized". His friend, historian Henry Adams, proclaimed, "Roosevelt, more than any other living man ....showed the singular primitive quality that belongs to ultimate matter – the quality that mediaeval theology assigned to God – he was pure act.Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CDS Battery

" Historians typically rank Roosevelt among the top five presidents.


Roosevelt was included with George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln at the Mount Rushmore Memorial, designed in 1927 with the approval of Republican President Calvin Coolidge.Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CJS Battery

For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt's commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honor. In the late 1990s, Roosevelt's supporters again took up the flag for him. On January 16, 2001, President Bill Clinton awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CYS Battery

Roosevelt's eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became one of only two father-son pairs to receive this honor (the other pair being Arthur and Douglas MacArthur).Sony VAIO VGN-AW91DS Battery

Roosevelt's legacy includes several other important commemorations. The United States Navy named two ships for Roosevelt: the USS Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600), a submarine that was in commission from 1961 to 1982; and the USS Theodore Roosevelt(CVN-71), an aircraft carrier that has been on active duty in the Atlantic Fleet since 1986.Sony VAIO VGN-AW91JS Battery

On November 18, 1956, the United States Postal Service released a 6¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Roosevelt.

The Roosevelt Memorial Association (later the Theodore Roosevelt Association) or "TRA", was founded in 1920 to preserve Roosevelt's legacy. Sony VAIO VGN-AW91YS Battery

The Association preserved Roosevelt's birthplace, "Sagamore Hill" home, papers, and video film. In 1941, it published the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia, a compendium of Roosevelt's key writings, sayings and conversations, which is available online.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CDS Battery

Among the hundreds of schools and streets named in Roosevelt's honor are Roosevelt High School in Seattle, Washington, the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood, the district's main arterial, Roosevelt Way N.E., and Roosevelt Middle School in Eugene, Oregon.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CJS Battery

The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles is named after him, as is the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City.

In Chicago, the city renamed 12th Street to Roosevelt Road. In Philadelphia, Roosevelt Boulevard, also known as U.S. 1, was named in his honor in 1918.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CYS Battery

In popular culture

Roosevelt's 1901 saying "Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick" is still quoted by politicians and columnists in different countries—not only in English but also in translation to various other languages.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92DS Battery

A quote from Roosevelt's 1912 Progressive Party platform was cited as an epigram by Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks, in his 2006 manifesto: "Behind the ostensible government sits enthroned an invisible government, owing no allegiance and acknowledging no responsibility to the people.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92JS Battery

To destroy this invisible government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day."

Roosevelt's lasting popular legacy, however, is the stuffed toy bears—teddy bears—named after him following an incident on a hunting trip in Mississippi in 1902.Sony VAIO VGN-AW92YS Battery

Roosevelt famously ordered the mercy killing of a wounded black bear. After the cartoonist Clifford K. Berryman illustrated the President with a bear, a toy maker heard the story and asked Roosevelt if he could use his name on a toy bear. Sony VAIO VGN-AW93FS Battery

Roosevelt approved, and the teddy bear was born. Bears and later bear cubs became closely associated with Roosevelt in political cartoons thereafter.

On June 26, 2006, Roosevelt, again, made the cover of TIME magazine with the lead story, Sony VAIO VGN-AW93GS Battery

"The Making of America—Theodore Roosevelt—The 20th Century Express": "At home and abroad, Theodore Roosevelt was the locomotive President, the man who drew his flourishing nation into the future."

In 1905, Roosevelt, an admirer of various western figures, named Captain Bill McDonald of the Texas Rangers,Sony VAIO VGN-AW93HS Battery

as his bodyguard and entertained the legendary Texan in the White House. Ironically, in the 1912 campaign, McDonald was Woodrow Wilson's bodyguard. Wilson thereafter named the Democrat McDonald as U.S. Marshal for the Northern district of Texas.Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZFS Battery

Roosevelt has been portrayed many times in film and on television. The actor Karl Swenson played him in the 1967 western picture Brighty of the Grand Canyon, the story of a real-life burro who guided Roosevelt on a hunting trip to find mountain lions.Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZGS Battery

Brian Keith portrayed Roosevelt in the 1975 film The Wind and the Lion, a dramatization of the Perdicaris incident of 1904.

In the play Arsenic and Old Lace, and the 1944 film of the same name, the character Teddy Brewster is convinced he's Roosevelt,Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZHS Battery

and is enlisted in this role by his aunts to bury their victims' bodies in the cellar by building "another lock for the canal". When he runs up the stairs brandishing an imaginary sword and yelling "Charge!", his aunt Abby Brewster explains to Officer Brophy, "The stairs are always San Juan Hill".Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11EN Battery

He was also portrayed by actor Tom Berenger in 1997 for the TNT movie "Rough Riders", a made-for-cable film about his exploits during the Spanish-American War in Cuba.

Frank Albertson played Roosevelt in the episode "Rough and Ready" of the CBS series My Friend Flicka."Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11MN Battery

Robin Williams portrayed Roosevelt in the form of a wax mannequin that comes to life in Night at the Museum and its sequel Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian.

Roosevelt was portrayed in several episodes of the comic book story The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck: Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11XN Battery

the young Scrooge McDuck first meets Roosevelt in his Badlands years, later in a fictional siege of Fort Duckburg and finally in Panama during the construction of the Panama Canal.

George Burroughs Torrey painted a portrait of him.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ12VN Battery

Since 2000, Roosevelt has been portrayed by a number of reprisers including historian and Rhodes Scholar, Clay Jenkinson of North Dakota and Joe Wiegand of Tennessee. Wiegand has portrayed Roosevelt in all 50 US states. In 2008, Wiegand portrayed TR in the White House at TR's 150th Birthday.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ12XN Battery

Theodore Roosevelt is an important character in the alternate history series, Timeline-191, by Harry Turtledove. He was a New Yorker who moved to Montana to become a rancher after Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt rejects his marriage proposal. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31VT Battery

He raises and leads his own volunteer cavalry regiment (nicknamed the Unauthorized Regiment) in the Second Mexican War, fighting alongside George Armstrong Custer to repulse the Anglo-Canadian army led by Charles George Gordon. He later becomes the Democratic 28th president of the United States and leads the United States to victory in theGreat War on the side of the Central Powers. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31XT Battery

He runs for a third term as President, but is defeated by Socialist candidate, Upton Sinclair and dies of a brain hemorrhage in 1924. He is buried inArlington National Cemetery as a final insult to the Confederate States of America and is regarded as one of the most esteemed Presidents in United States (alternate) history.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560 Battery


Theodore Roosevelt was one of the first presidents whose voice was recorded for posterity. Several of his recorded speeches survive. A 4.6-minute voice recording, which preserves Roosevelt's lower timbre ranges particularly well for its time, is among those available from the Michigan State University libraries. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N24 Battery

(This is the 1912 recording of The Right of the People to Rule, recorded by Edison at Carnegie Hall). In what some consider the best example of Roosevelt's animated oratorical style, an audio clip sponsored by the Authentic History Center includes his defense of the Progressive Party in 1912 wherein he proclaims it the "party of the people" in contrast with the other major parties.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N30 Battery

The Theodore Roosevelt Association (TRA) is a historical and cultural organization dedicated to honoring the life and work of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919), the 26thpresident of the United States. The group is based in Oyster Bay, New York, Roosevelt's hometown.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P Battery


The organization was founded in 1919 by friends and supporters of the late president originally as the Permanent Memorial National Committee. Soon renamed the Roosevelt Memorial Association (RMA), it was chartered under Title 36 of the United States Code in 1920.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P20 Battery

In parallel with the RMA was an organization for women, The Women's Theodore Roosevelt Association that had been founded in 1919 by an act of the New York State Assembly. Both organizations merged in 1953 under the current name.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P22 Battery

The two ancestor organizations that eventually combined to form the modern Association established four public sites: the reconstructed Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site, New York City, dedicated in 1923 and donated to the National Park Service in 1963;Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P28 Battery

Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park,Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York, dedicated in 1928 and given to the people of Oyster Bay; Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac in Washington, D.C., given to the federal government in 1932; and Sagamore Hill,Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P30 Battery

Roosevelt's Oyster Bay home, which opened to the public in 1953 and, together with nearbyOld Orchard, home to Theodore Roosevelt Jr., was donated to the National Park Service in 1963. Along with the 1963 gifts of the Birthplace and Sagamore Hill properties, the TRA donated an endowment to help support both parks sites. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P34 Battery

The TRA currently owns Theodore Roosevelt's simple cabin, "Pine Knot", near Charlottesville, VA, which is managed by The Edith and Theodore Roosevelt Pine Knot Foundation.

Theodore Roosevelt Collection

One of the two TRA ancestor organizations, the Roosevelt Memorial Association (RMA), collected manuscripts, diaries, correspondence and other items relating to Roosevelt's personal and professional life.Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561 Battery

In 1923, the RMA opened a research library at the Birthplace in New York City, and continued to build its archive. During 1943, the organization presented the entire collection of materials to Harvard University, Roosevelt's alma mater. Today the Theodore Roosevelt Collection is housed in Harvard's Houghton Library. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561N20 Battery

The collection continues to be a major resource for the study of the life and times of the 26thpresident of the United States. (Note: The only larger Theodore Roosevelt Collection is that at the Library of Congress, which includes Roosevelt's Presidential Papers, donated personally by Roosevelt.) Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561P20 Battery

Theodore Roosevelt Film Collection

The compilation of the film collection was originally embarked upon by the RMA in January 1919. Later, during 1924, the RMA formally established the Roosevelt Motion Picture Library housed at the Birthplace. The TRA donated the Roosevelt Motion Picture Library to the Library of Congress in 1962. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ562P Battery

Leadership of the TRA

Led in the years 1919-1957 by Secretary and Director Hermann Hagedorn (1882-1964), the Association engaged in a wide spectrum of programs and activities to preserve Roosevelt's memory. Dr. John Allen Gable served as executive director from 1974 until his sudden death in early 2005. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery

After interim appointments, the TRA's leadership decided to expand and modernize the organization and hired James Bruns as Director to implement an organizational growth strategy. Bruns was the former President and CEO of the Atlanta History Center (AHC) and while there had been quite successful tenure developing the museum's physical and financial resources as well as raising almost 30 million dollars.Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery

Before the AHC position, Bruns had worked for a number of years at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC, where he oversaw the building of the National Postal Museum and also had raised hundreds of millions of dollars for various projects. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery

Bruns was let go from the TRA in 2009, after failing to get a proposed Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Center/Museum (see below) off the ground.


In recent years, the organization's endeavors included creation and maintenance of About Theodore Roosevelt, the TRA web site at www.theodoreroosevelt.Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery

org which has been criticized by scholars as hagiographic and hard to navigate. The organization also conducts the Theodore RooseveltR Police Awards (given in New York, Dallas, Boston, and Nashville to police officers who have overcome handicaps), and the Theodore Roosevelt Teddy Bear program, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery

which each year gives Teddy Bears to hospitalized children in New York City and Nashville during the December Holiday season. The TRA also publishes a quarterly journal, conducts occasional historical and educational conferences, and sponsors public speaking contests for high school students in New York. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery

Annual Dinner/Meetings

Annual meetings of the Theodore Roosevelt Association - held near TR's October 27th birthday - occur generally in places that are somehow associated with TR - Boston/Cambridge where he attended college and met his first wife, New York/Oyster Bay where he lived most of his life,Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery

Norfolk around the USS Theodore Roosevelt, Washington DC where he worked as Asst. Sec. of Navy, Vice President and President, Atlanta GA where his mother grew up, and even the Netherlands where the Roosevelts originated. The annual dinner frequently includes the awarding of the Theodore Roosevelt Distinguished Service Medal (DSM).Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery

Annual meetings often include lectures on TR, visits to Roosevelt-related sites, and silent auctions and bartering/selling of TR collectibles by collector members of the association.

Proposed Presidential Center/Museum

Press announcements in March 2007 concerning the appointment of James Bruns as president of the TRA noted a plan to build a museum and research center dedicated to the 26th president. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery

In Oyster Bay, NY, where the project was proposed to be built on a site popularly known as "Firemens Field" - local debate was strenuous. A citizens group - the Coalition to Save Firemen's Field - was formed to defend the proposed site of the new museum from development. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q Battery

Many residents cited grave concerns over increased traffic to the Museum over two-lane roads for a five mile perimeter around the proposed site: roads that were already frequently choked with traffic jams. Others noted redundancy with the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site -Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/W Battery

former home of the President - and the adjacent Old Orchard Museum, housing an impressive multimedia museum dedicated to TR. After failing to gain the necessary political and financial support, the Theodore Roosevelt Association abandoned the project in 2009.Sony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

Members of the TRA Board

TR's great-grandson Tweed Roosevelt serves as the organization's current (2010) president. He is joined on the board and in the association by members from a wide variety of walks of life, and numerous members of the Roosevelt family including great-grandson Mark Ames,Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/Q Battery

great-granddaughter Susan Roosevelt Weld, great-great-grandson Simon Roosevelt, great-grandson Theodore Roosevelt IV, and several cousins of TR. Other members include but are not limited to those in finance, the judicial/legal arenas, the military, and teaching.Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/R Battery


Interests of the membership are as varied as were Theodore Roosevelt's own interests. Members include Rough Rider fans, political memorabilia collectors, and Theodore Roosevelt impersonators. Some members join simply because they enjoy "Teddy" bears.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTB Battery

Rights and Privileges of Members

Membership in the Association includes a subscription to the quarterly TRA Journal, and invitations to Association functions. Members also receive free admission to Sagamore Hill (Oyster Bay, NY) and the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, upon presentation of their membership cards.Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTP Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTQ Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTR Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTW Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAC Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAD Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NBB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCA Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCB Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCC Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS50B/W Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery

No comments:

Post a Comment