Friday, May 10, 2013

On the Origin of Species,,, On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Sony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery For the sixth edition of 1872, the short title was changed to The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation. Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Sony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream. Sony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T.H. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. Sony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery During the "eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, now the unifying concept of the life sciences. Sony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery In later editions of the book, Darwin traced evolutionary ideas as far back as Aristotle;[4] the text he cites is a summary by Aristotle of the ideas of the earlier Greek philosopher Empedocles.[5] Early Christian Church Fathers and Medieval European scholars interpreted the Genesis creation narrative allegorically rather than as a literal historical account;[6] Sony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery organisms were described by their mythological and heraldic significance as well as by their physical form. Nature was widely believed to be unstable and capricious, with monstrous births from union between species, and spontaneous generation of life. The Protestant Reformation inspired a literal interpretation of the Bible, Sony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery with concepts of creation that conflicted with the findings of an emerging science seeking explanations congruent with the mechanical philosophy of René Descartes and theempiricism of the Baconian method. After the turmoil of the English Civil War, the Royal Society wanted to show that science did not threaten religious and political stability. Sony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery John Ray developed an influential natural theology of rational order; in his taxonomy, species were static and fixed, their adaptation and complexity designed by God, and varieties showed minor differences caused by local conditions. In God's benevolent design, carnivores caused mercifully swift death, but the suffering caused by parasitism was a puzzling problem. Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery The biological classification introduced by Carolus Linnaeus in 1735 also viewed species as fixed according to the divine plan. In 1766, Georges Buffon suggested that some similar species, such as horses and asses, or lions, tigers, and leopards, might be varieties descended from a common ancestor. Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery The Ussher chronology of the 1650s had calculated creation at 4004 BC, but by the 1780s geologists assumed a much older world.Wernerians thought strata were deposits from shrinking seas, but James Hutton proposed a self-maintaining infinite cycle, anticipating uniformitarianism.[8] Charles Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin outlined a hypothesis of transmutation of species in the 1790s, and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a more developed theory in 1809. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery Both envisaged that spontaneous generation produced simple forms of life that progressively developed greater complexity, adapting to the environment by inheriting changes in adults caused by use or disuse. This process was later called Lamarckism. Sony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery Lamarck thought there was an inherent progressive tendency driving organisms continuously towards greater complexity, in parallel but separate lineages with no extinction.[9] Geoffroycontended that embryonic development recapitulated transformations of organisms in past eras when the environment acted on embryos, Sony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery and that animal structures were determined by a constant plan as demonstrated by homologies. Georges Cuvier strongly disputed such ideas, holding that unrelated, fixed species showed similarities that reflected a design for functional needs.[10] His palæontological work in the 1790s had established the reality of extinction, Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery which he explained by localcatastrophes, followed by repopulation of the affected areas by other species.[11] In Britain, William Paley's Natural Theology saw adaptation as evidence of beneficial "design" by the Creator acting through natural laws. All naturalists in English universities were Church of England clergymen, and science became a search for these laws.[12] Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery Geologists adapted catastrophism to show repeated worldwide annihilation and creation of new fixed species adapted to a changed environment, initially identifying the most recent catastrophe as the biblical flood.[13] Some anatomists such as Robert Grant were influenced by Lamarck and Geoffroy, but most naturalists regarded their ideas of transmutation as a threat to divinely appointed social order.Sony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery Darwin went to Edinburgh University in 1825 to study medicine. In his second year he neglected his medical studies for natural history and spent four months assisting Robert Grant's research into marine invertebrates. Grant revealed his enthusiasm for the transmutation of species, but Darwin rejected it.[15] Sony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery AtCambridge University starting in 1827, Darwin learnt science as natural theology from botanist John Stevens Henslow, and read Paley, John Herschel and Alexander von Humboldt. Filled with zeal for science, he studied catastrophist geology with Adam Sedgwick. In December 1831, he joined the Beagle expedition as a geologist and naturalist. Sony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery He read Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology and from the first stop ashore, at St. Jago, found Lyell's uniformitarianism a key to the geological history of landscapes. Darwin discovered fossils resembling huge armadillos, and noted the geographical distribution of modern species in hope of finding their "centre of creation".[18] Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery The three Fuegian missionaries the expedition returned to Tierra del Fuegowere friendly and civilised, yet to Darwin their relatives on the island seemed "miserable, degraded savages",[19] and he no longer saw an unbridgeable gap between humans and animals.[20] As the Beagle neared England in 1836, he noted that species might not be fixed.[21] Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery Richard Owen showed that fossils of extinct species Darwin found in South America were allied to living species on the same continent. In March 1837, ornithologist John Gould announced that Darwin's Rhea was a separate species from the previously described rhea (though their territories overlapped), Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery that mockingbirds collected on the Galápagos Islands represented three separate species each unique to a particular island, and that several distinct birds from those islands were all classified as finches.[22] Darwin began speculating, in a series of notebooks, on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain these findings, Sony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery and around July sketched a genealogical branching of a single evolutionary tree, discarding Lamarck's independent lineages progressing to higher forms.[23] Unconventionally, Darwin asked questions of fancy pigeon and animal breeders as well as established scientists. At the zoo he had his first sight of an ape, and was profoundly impressed by how human the orangutan seemed.[24] Sony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery In late September 1838, he started reading Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population with its statistical argument that human populations, if unrestrained, breed beyond their means and struggle to survive. Darwin related this to the struggle for existence among wildlife and botanist de Candolle's "warring of the species" in plants; Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery he immediately envisioned "a force like a hundred thousand wedges" pushing well-adapted variations into "gaps in the economy of nature", so that the survivors would pass on their form and abilities, and unfavourable variations would be destroyed. Sony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery By December 1838, he had noted a similarity between the act of breeders selecting traits and a Malthusian Nature selecting among variants thrown up by "chance" so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practical and perfected".[27] Darwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection "by which to work",Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery but he was fully occupied with his career as a geologist and held off writing a sketch of his theory until his book on The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs was completed in May 1842. Darwin continued to research and extensively revise his theory while focusing on his main work of publishing the scientific results of the Beagle voyage.[29] He tentatively wrote of his ideas to Lyell in January 1842;[31] Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery then in June he roughed out a 35-page "Pencil Sketch" of his theory.[32] Darwin began correspondence about his theorising with the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker in January 1844, and by July had rounded out his "sketch" into a 230-page "Essay", to be expanded with his research results and published if he died prematurely. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery In November 1844, the anonymously published popular science book Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, written by Scottish journalist Robert Chambers, widened public interest in the concept of transmutation of species. Vestiges used evidence from the fossil record and embryology to support the claim that living things had progressed from the simple to the more complex over time. Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery But it proposed a linear progression rather than the branching common descent theory behind Darwin's work in progress, and it ignored adaptation. Darwin read it soon after publication, and scorned its amateurish geology and zoology,[34] but he carefully reviewed his own arguments after leading scientists, including Adam Sedgwick, attacked its morality and scientific errors.[35] Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery Vestiges had significant influence on public opinion, and the intense debate helped to pave the way for the acceptance of the more scientifically sophisticated Origin by moving evolutionary speculation into the mainstream. While few naturalists were willing to consider transmutation, Herbert Spencer became an active proponent of Lamarckism and progressive development in the 1850s.[36] Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery Hooker was persuaded to take away a copy of the "Essay" in January 1847, and eventually sent a page of notes giving Darwin much needed feedback. Reminded of his lack of expertise in taxonomy, Darwin began an eight-year study of barnacles, becoming the leading expert on their classification. Using his theory, Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery he discovered homologies showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and he found an intermediate stage in the evolution of distinct sexes.[37] Darwin's barnacle studies convinced him that variation arose constantly and not just in response to changed circumstances. Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery In 1854, he completed the last part of his Beagle-related writing and began working full-time on evolution. His thinking changed from the view that species formed in isolated populations only, as on islands, to an emphasis on speciation without isolation; that is, he saw increasing specialisation within large stable populations as continuously exploiting new ecological niches. Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery He conducted empirical research focusing on difficulties with his theory. He studied the developmental and anatomical differences between different breeds of many domestic animals, became actively involved in fancy pigeon breeding, and experimented (with the help of his son Francis) on ways that plant seeds and animals might disperse across oceans to colonise distant islands. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery By 1856, his theory was much more sophisticated, with a mass of supporting evidence. An 1855 paper on the "introduction" of species, written by Alfred Russel Wallace, claimed that patterns in the geographical distribution of living and fossil species could be explained if every new species always came into existence near an already existing, closely related species. Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery Charles Lyell recognised the implications of Wallace's paper and its possible connection to Darwin's work, although Darwin did not, and in the spring of 1856 Lyell urged Darwin to publish his theory to establish priority. Darwin was torn between the desire to set out a full and convincing account and the pressure to quickly produce a short paper. Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery He decided he did not want to expose his ideas to review by an editor as would have been required to publish in an academic journal. On 14 May 1856, he began a "sketch" account, and by July had decided to produce a full technical treatise on species.[40] Darwin was hard at work on his "big book" on Natural Selection, Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery when on 18 June 1858 he received a parcel from Wallace, who stayed on the Maluku Islands (Ternate and Gilolo). It enclosed twenty pages describing an evolutionary mechanism, a response to Darwin's recent encouragement, with a request to send it on to Lyell if Darwin thought it worthwhile. Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery The mechanism was similar to Darwin's own theory.[40] Darwin wrote to Lyell that "your words have come true with a vengeance, ... forestalled" and he would "of course, at once write and offer to send [it] to any journal" that Wallace chose, adding that "all my originality, whatever it may amount to, will be smashed".Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery Lyell and Hooker agreed that a joint paper should be presented at the Linnean Society, and on 1 July 1858, the papers entitled On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection, by Wallace and Darwin respectively, were read out but drew little reaction. Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery While Darwin considered Wallace's idea to be identical to his concept of natural selection, historians have pointed out differences. Darwin described natural selection as being analogous to the artificial selection practised by animal breeders, and emphasised competition between individuals; Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery Wallace drew no comparison to selective breeding, and focused on ecological pressures that kept different varieties adapted to local conditions.[42][43][44] After the meeting, Darwin decided to write "an abstract of my whole work".[45] He started work on 20 July 1858, while on holiday atSandown,[46] and wrote parts of it from memory.[47] Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery Lyell discussed arrangements with publisher John Murray III, of the publishing house John Murray,[48] who responded immediately to Darwin's letter of 31 March 1859[49] with an agreement to publish the book without even seeing the manuscript, and an offer to Darwin of 23 of the profits.[50] Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery (eventually Murray paid £180 to Darwin for the 1st edition and by Darwin's death in 1882 the book was in its 6th edition, earning Darwin nearly £3000.[51]) Darwin had initially decided to call it An abstract of an Essay on the Origin of Species and Varieties Through natural selection, but with Murray's persuasion it was eventually changed to the snappier title: Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery On the Origin of Species, with the title page adding by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.[1] Here the term "races" is used as an alternative for "varieties"and does not carry the modern connotation of human races—the first use in the book refers to "the several races, for instance, Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery of the cabbage" and proceeds to a discussion of "the hereditary varieties or races of our domestic animals and plants".Darwin had his basic theory of natural selection "by which to work" by December 1838, yet almost twenty years later, when Wallace's letter arrived on 18 June 1858, Darwin was still not ready to publish his theory. Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery It was long thought that Darwin avoided or delayed making his ideas public for personal reasons. Reasons suggested have included fear of religious persecution or social disgrace if his views were revealed, and concern about upsetting his clergymen naturalist friends or his pious wife Emma. Charles Darwin's illness caused repeated delays. Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery His paper on Glen Roy had proved embarrassingly wrong, and he may have wanted to be sure he was correct. David Quammen has suggested all these factors may have contributed, and notes Darwin's large output of books and busy family life during that time.[53] A more recent study by science historian John van Wyhe has determined that the idea that Darwin delayed publication only dates back to the 1940s, Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery and Darwin's contemporaries thought the time he took was reasonable. Darwin always finished one book before starting another. While he was researching, he told many people about his interest in transmutation without causing outrage. He firmly intended to publish, but it was not until September 1854 that he could work on it full-time. Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery His estimate that writing his "big book" would take five years was optimistic. On the Origin of Species was first published on Thursday 24 November 1859, priced at fifteen shillings. The book had been offered to booksellers at Murray's autumn sale on Tuesday 22 November, and all available copies had been taken up immediately. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery In total, 1,250 copies were printed but after deducting presentation and review copies, and five for Stationers' Hall copyright, around 1,170 copies were available for sale.[1] Significantly, 500 were taken by Mudie's Library, ensuring that the book promptly reached a large number of subscribers to the library.[55] Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery The second edition of 3,000 copies was quickly brought out on 7 January 1860,[56] and incorporated numerous corrections as well as a response to religious objections by the addition of a new epigraph on page ii, a quotation fromCharles Kingsley, and the phrase "by the Creator" amended to the closing sentence.[57] Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery During Darwin's lifetime the book went through six editions, with cumulative changes and revisions to deal with counter-arguments raised. The third edition came out in 1861, with a number of sentences rewritten or added and an introductory appendix, An Historical Sketch of the Recent Progress of Opinion on the Origin of Species,[58] Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery while the fourth in 1866 had further revisions. The fifth edition, published on 10 February 1869, incorporated more changes and for the first time included the phrase "survival of the fittest", which had been coined by the philosopher Herbert Spencer in his Principles of Biology (1864).[59] Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery In January 1871, George Jackson Mivart's On the Genesis of Species listed detailed arguments against natural selection, and claimed it included falsemetaphysics.[60] Darwin made extensive revisions to the sixth edition of the Origin (this was the first edition in which he used the word "evolution"[61]), and added a new chapter VII, Miscellaneous objections, to address Mivart's arguments.[62] Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery The sixth edition was published by Murray on 19 February 1872 with "On" dropped from the title. Darwin had told Murray of working men in Lancashire clubbing together to buy the 5th edition at fifteen shillings and wanted it made more widely available; the price was halved to 7s 6d by printing in a smaller font. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery It includes a glossary compiled by W.S. Dallas. Book sales increased from 60 to 250 per month. In the United States, Asa Gray negotiated with a Boston publisher for publication of an authorised American version, but learnt that two New York publishing firms were already planning to exploit the absence of international copyright to printOrigin.[63] Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery Darwin was delighted by the popularity of the book, and asked Gray to keep any profits.[64] Gray managed to negotiate a 5% royalty with Appleton's of New York,[65] who got their edition out in mid January 1860, and the other two withdrew. In a May letter, Darwin mentioned a print run of 2,500 copies, but it is not clear if this referred to the first printing only as there were four that year.[1][66] Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery The book was widely translated in Darwin's lifetime, but problems arose with translating concepts and metaphors, and some translations were biased by the translator's own agenda.[67] Darwin distributed presentation copies in France and Germany, hoping that suitable applicants would come forward, as translators were expected to make their own arrangements with a local publisher. Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery He welcomed the distinguished elderly naturalist and geologist Heinrich Georg Bronn, but the German translation published in 1860 imposed Bronn's own ideas, adding controversial themes that Darwin had deliberately omitted. Bronn translated "favoured races" as "perfected races", and added essays on issues including the origin of life, Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery as well as a final chapter on religious implications partly inspired by Bronn's adherence to Naturphilosophie.[68] In 1862, Bronn produced a second edition based on the third English edition and Darwin's suggested additions, but then died of a heart attack.[69]Darwin corresponded closely with Julius Victor Carus, who published an improved translation in 1867.[70] Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery Darwin's attempts to find a translator in France fell through, and the translation by Clémence Royer published in 1862 added an introduction praising Darwin's ideas as an alternative to religious revelation and promoting ideas anticipating social Darwinism and eugenics, as well as numerous explanatory notes giving her own answers to doubts that Darwin expressed. Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery Darwin corresponded with Royer about a second edition published in 1866 and a third in 1870, but he had difficulty getting her to remove her notes and was troubled by these editions.[69][71] He remained unsatisfied until a translation by Edmond Barbier was published in 1876.[1] A Dutch translation by Tiberius Cornelis Winkler was published in 1860.[72] Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery By 1864, additional translations had appeared in Italian and Russian.[67] In Darwin's lifetime, Origin was published in Swedish in 1871,[73] Danish in 1872, Polish in 1873, Hungarian in 1873–1874, Spanish in 1877 and Serbian in 1878. By 1977, it had appeared in an additional 18 languages. Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery Page ii contains quotations by William Whewell and Francis Bacon on the theology of natural laws,[75] harmonising science and religion in accordance with Isaac Newton's belief in a rational God who established a law-abiding cosmos.[76] In the second edition, Darwin added an epigraph from Joseph Butler affirming that God could work through scientific laws as much as throughmiracles, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery in a nod to the religious concerns of his oldest friends.[57] The Introduction establishes Darwin's credentials as a naturalist and author,[77] then refers to John Herschel's letter suggesting that the origin of species "would be found to be a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process":Sony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery WHEN on board H.M.S. 'Beagle,' as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species—that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers. Sony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery

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