Tuesday, January 21, 2014

War of 1812

http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/ The War of 1812 was a 32-month military conflict between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies and its Indian allies. The outcome resolved many issues which remained from the American War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indiantribes against American expansion, HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexing British North American territory (part of modern-day Canada) which had been denied to them in the settlement ending the American Revolutionary War. [3] The war was fought in three principal theatres. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan Firstly, at sea, warships and privateers of each side attacked the other's merchant ships, while the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the United States and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Secondly, both land and naval battles were fought on the American–Canadian frontier, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan which ran along the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence River and the northern end ofLake Champlain. Thirdly, the American South and Gulf Coast also saw major land battles in which the American forces defeated Britain's Indian allies and a British invasion force at New Orleans. Some invasions or counter strikes were unsuccessful, while others successfully attacked enemy objectives and took possession of opposition territory. IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan At the end of the war both sides signed the Treaty of Ghent, and all parties returned occupied land to its pre war owner. With the majority of its army and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars until 1814, the British at first used a defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan The Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. In September 1814, a British force invaded and occupied eastern Maine. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan This territory, along with parts of Michigan and Wisconsin, were seized and held by the British and their Indian allies for the duration of the war. In thesouthwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington, D.C, but they were repulsed in an attempt to take Baltimore. American victories in September 1814 repulsed the British invasion of New York, and the British suffered a major defeat at New Orleans in January 1815. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan、 In the United States, late victories over invading British armies at the battles of Plattsburg, Baltimore(inspiring their national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner"), and New Orleans produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain.[4] SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan Peace brought an "Era of Good Feelings" to the U.S. in which partisan animosity nearly vanished. In Upper and Lower Canada, British and Provincial militia victories over invading American armies became iconic and promoted the development of a distinct Canadian identity which included strong loyalty to Britain. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan Today, particularly in loyalist-founded Ontario, memory of the war retains its significance because the defeat of the invasions ensured that the Canadas would remain part of the British Empire rather than be annexed by the United States. In Canada, numerous ceremonies took place in 2012 to commemorate the war, offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace across the border.[5] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan The war is scarcely remembered in Britain today, as it regarded the conflict as a sideshow to the much larger Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe. As Risjord (1961) notes, an unstated but powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults (including the Chesapeake affair).[7] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but was it also about vindication of American identity".HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law.[10] Also, historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy".[11] FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan The American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U.S. cotton and 50% of other U.S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition.[12] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan The United States' view was that Britain's restrictions violated its right to trade with others. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 175 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.[13] While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan it competed in wartime with merchant shipping and privateers for a small pool of experienced sailors and turned to impressmentwhen it could not operate ships with volunteers alone. Britain did not recognize the right of a British subject to relinquish his status as a British subject, emigrate and transfer his national allegiance as a naturalized citizen to any other country. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan Thus while the United States recognized British-born sailors on American ships as Americans, Britain did not. It was estimated that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin stated that 9,000 were born in Britain.[14] The Royal Navy went after them by intercepting and searching U.S. merchant ships for deserters. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan Impressment actions such as theLeander Affair and the ChesapeakeLeopard Affair outraged Americans, because they infringed on national sovereignty and denied America's ability to naturalize foreigners.[15] Moreover, a great number of British sailors serving as naturalized Americans on U.S. ships were Irish. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan An investigation by Captain Isaac Chauncey in 1808 found that 58% of the sailors based in New York City were either naturalized citizens or recent immigrants, the majority of foreign sailors (134 of 150) being from Britain. Moreover, eighty of the 134 British sailors were Irish.[16] HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become United States citizens. Britain did not recognize naturalized United States citizenship, so in addition to recovering deserters, it considered United States citizens born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the widespread use of forged identity or protection papers by sailors. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan This made it difficult for the Royal Navy to distinguish Americans from non-Americans and led it to impress some Americans who had never been British. (Some gained freedom on appeal.)[17] American anger at impressment grew when British frigates were stationed just outside U.S. harbours in view of U.S. shores and searched ships for contraband and impressed men while in U.S. territorial waters.[18] HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan "Free trade and sailors' rights" was a rallying cry for the United States throughout the conflict. The Northwest Territory, comprising the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, was the battleground for conflict between the Indian Nations and the United States.[19]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan The British Empire had ceded the area to the United States in theTreaty of Paris in 1783, both sides ignoring the fact that the land was already inhabited by various Indian nations. These included the Miami, Winnebago, Shawnee, Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, Delaware and Wyandot. Some warriors, who had left their nations of origin, Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan followed Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet and the brother of Tecumseh. Tenskwatawa had a vision of purifying his society by expelling the "children of the Evil Spirit": the American settlers.[20] Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh formed a confederation of numerous tribes to block American expansion. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan The British saw the Indian nations as valuable allies and a buffer to its Canadian colonies and provided arms. Attacks on American settlers in the Northwest further aggravated tensions between Britain and the United States.[21] The confederation's raids and existence hindered American expansion into rich farmlands in the Northwest Territory.[ HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan Pratt writes: "There is ample proof that the British authorities did all in their power to hold or win the allegiance of the Indians of the Northwest with the expectation of using them as allies in the event of war. Indian allegiance could be held only by gifts, and to an Indian no gift was as acceptable as a lethal weapon. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Guns and ammunition, tomahawks and scalping knives were dealt out with some liberality by British agents".[23] Raiding grew more common in 1810 and 1811; Westerners in Congress found the raids intolerable and wanted them permanently ended.[24] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan However, according to the U.S Army Center of Military History, the "land-hungry frontiersmen", with "no doubt that their troubles with the Indians were the result of British intrigue", exacerbated the problem by "[ circulating stories] after every Indian raid of British Army muskets and equipment being found on the field". HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan Thus, "the westerners were convinced that their problems could best be solved by forcing the British out of Canada".[25] The British had the long-standing goal of creating a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover much of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan They made the demand as late as the fall of 1814 at the peace conference, but lost control of western Ontario in 1813 at key battles on and around Lake Erie. These battles destroyed the Indian confederacy which had been the main ally of the British and cut off communication with the proposed neutral zone, which remained largely under British and Indian control. At American insistence the British dropped the demands. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan American expansion into the Northwest Territory was being obstructed by indigenous leaders like Tecumseh, who were supplied and encouraged by the British. Americans on the western frontier demanded that interference be stopped.[27] There is dispute, however, over whether or not the American desire to annex Canada brought on the war. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan Several historians believe that the capture of Canada was intended only as a means to secure a bargaining chip, which would then be used to force Britain to back down on the maritime issues. It would also cut off food supplies for Britain's West Indian colonies, and temporarily prevent the British from continuing to arm the Indians.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan However, a significant minority of historians believes that a desire to annex Canada did bring on the war. They point out that annexation would achieve the long-standing goal of driving the British out of North America, permanently solve the Indian problem, and gain a significant amount of valuable land. This view was more prevalent before 1940, but continues to be held by a number of historians. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan Upper Canada (modern southern Ontario) had mostly been settled by Revolution-era exiles from the United States (United Empire Loyalists) or postwar American immigrants. The Loyalists were hostile to union with the United States, while the immigrant settlers were generally uninterested in politics and remained neutral or supported the British during the war. The Canadian colonies were thinly populated and only lightly defended by the British Army. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan Americans then believed that many men in Upper Canada would rise up and greet an American invading army as liberators. That did not happen. One reason American forces retreated after one successful battle inside Canada was that they could not obtain supplies from the locals.[43] Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan But the Americans thought that the possibility of local support suggested an easy conquest, as former President Thomas Jefferson believed: "The acquisition of Canada this year, as far as the neighborhood of Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent".[ASUS F80Q CPU Fan Annexation was supported by American businessmen who wanted to gain control of Great Lakes trade.While the British government was largely oblivious to the deteriorating North-American situation because of its involvement in a continent-wide European War, the U.S. was in a period of significant political conflict between the Federalist Party(based mainly in the Northeast), ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan which favoured a strong central government and closer ties to Britain, and the Democratic-Republican Party (with its greatest power base in the South and West), which favoured a weak central government, preservation of slavery, expansion into Indian land, and a stronger break with Britain. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan By 1812, the Federalist Party had weakened considerably, and the Democratic-Republicans, with James Madison completing his first term of office and control of Congress, was in a very strong position to pursue its more aggressive agenda against Britain and attempt to further weaken its Federalist rivals.[46] HP G70-120EA CPU Fan Throughout the war, support for the U.S. cause would be weak (or sometimes non-existent) in Federalist areas of the Northeast, though after the war, the self-destruction of the Federalists at the Hartford Conventionled to broader, retroactive support from all parts of the country. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan\ On June 1, 1812, President James Madison sent a message to Congress recounting American grievances against Great Britain, though not specifically calling for a declaration of war. After Madison's message, the House of Representatives deliberated for four days behind closed doors before voting 79 to 49 (61% in favor) the first declaration of war, and the Senate agreed by 19 to 13 (59% in favor). HP 606609-001 CPU Fan The conflict began formally on June 18, 1812, when Madison signed the measure into law and proclaimed it the next day.[47] This was the first time that the United States had declared war on another nation, and the Congressional vote would prove to be the closest vote to formally declare war in American history. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan (The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 1991, while not a formal declaration of war, was a closer vote.) None of the 39 Federalists in Congress voted in favor of the war; critics of war subsequently referred to it as "Mr. Madison's War".[48] Earlier in London on May 11, an assassin had killed Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, which resulted in Lord Liverpool coming to power. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan Liverpool wanted a more practical relationship with the United States. On June 23, he issued a repeal of the Orders in Council, but the United States was unaware of this, as it took three weeks for the news to cross the Atlantic. [49]On June 28, 1812, HMS Colibri was despatched from Halifax under a flag of truce to New York. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan On July 9, she anchored offSandy Hook, and three days later sailed on her return with a copy of the declaration of war; the British ambassador, Mr. Foster; and consul, Colonel Barclay. She arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia eight days later. The news of the declaration took even longer to reach London. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan In response to the U.S. declaration of war, Isaac Brock issued a proclamation alerting the citizenry in Upper Canada of the state of war and urging all military personnel "to be vigilant in the discharge of their duty" to prevent communication with the enemy and to arrest anyone suspected of helping the Americans. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan Although the outbreak of the war had been preceded by years of angry diplomatic dispute, neither side was ready for war when it came. Britain was heavily engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, most of the British Army was deployed in the Peninsular War (in Portugal and Spain), and the Royal Navy was compelled to blockade most of the coast of Europe. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan The number of British regular troops present in Canada in July 1812 was officially stated to be 6,034, supported by Canadian militia.[52] Throughout the war, the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was the Earl of Bathurst. For the first two years of the war, he could spare few troops to reinforce North America and urged the commander-in-chief in North America (Lieutenant General Sir George Prevost) to maintain a defensive strategy. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan The naturally cautious Prevost followed these instructions, concentrating on defendingLower Canada at the expense of Upper Canada (which was more vulnerable to American attacks) and allowing few offensive actions. The United States was not prepared to prosecute a war, for Madison had assumed that the state militias would easily seize Canada and that negotiations would follow. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan In 1812, the regular army consisted of fewer than 12,000 men. Congress authorized the expansion of the army to 35,000 men, but the service was voluntary and unpopular; it offered poor pay, and there were few trained and experienced officers, at least initially.[53] The militia objected to serving outside their home states, were not open to discipline, and performed poorly against British forces when outside their home states. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan American prosecution of the war suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England, where anti-war speakers were vocal. "Two of the Massachusetts members [of Congress], Seaver and Widgery, were publicly insulted and hissed on Change in Boston; while another, SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan Charles Turner, member for thePlymouth district, and Chief-Justice of the Court of Sessions for that county, was seized by a crowd on the evening of August 3, [1812] and kicked through the town".[54] The United States had great difficulty financing its war. It had disbanded its national bank, and private bankers in the Northeast were opposed to the war. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan The failure of New England to provide militia units or financial support was a serious blow.[55] Threats of secession by New England states were loud, as evidenced by the Hartford Convention. Britain exploited these divisions, blockading only southern ports for much of the war and encouraging smuggling.[56] Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan On July 12, 1812, General William Hull led an invading American force of about 1,000 untrained, poorly equipped militia across theDetroit River and occupied the Canadian town of Sandwich (now a neighbourhood of Windsor, Ontario).[57] By August, Hull and his troops (numbering 2,500 with the addition of 500 Canadians) Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan retreated to Detroit, where they surrendered to a significantly smaller force of British regulars, Canadian militia and Native Americans, led by British Major General Isaac Brock and Shawnee leader Tecumseh.[58] The surrender not only cost the United States the village of Detroit, but control over most of the Michigan Territory. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan Several months later, the U.S. launched a second invasion of Canada, this time at the Niagara peninsula. On October 13, United States forces were again defeated at the Battle of Queenston Heights, where General Brock was killed.[59] Military and civilian leadership remained a critical American weakness until 1814. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan The early disasters brought about chiefly by American unpreparedness and lack of leadership drove United States Secretary of War William Eustis from office. His successor, John Armstrong, Jr., attempted a coordinated strategy late in 1813 (with 10,000 men) aimed at the capture of Montreal, but he was thwarted by logistical difficulties, uncooperative and quarrelsome commanders and ill-trained troops. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan After losing several battles to inferior forces, the Americans retreated in disarray in October 1813.A decisive use of naval power came on the Great Lakes and depended on a contest of building ships. The U.S. started a rapidly expanded program of building warships at Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario, where 3,000 men were recruited, many from New York City, to build 11 warships early in the war. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan In 1813, the Americans won control of Lake Erie in the Battle of Lake Erie and cut off British and Native American forces in the west from their supply base; they were decisively defeated by General William Henry Harrison's forces on their retreat towards Niagara at the Battle of the Thames in October 1813.[61] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan Tecumseh, the leader of the tribal confederation, was killed and his Indian coalition disintegrated.[62] While some natives continued to fight alongside British troops, they subsequently did so only as individual tribes or groups of warriors, and where they were directly supplied and armed by British agents. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan The Americans controlled western Ontario, and permanently ended the threat of Indian raids supplied by the British in Canada into the American Midwest, thus achieving a basic war goal.[63] Control of Lake Ontario changed hands several times, with both sides unable and unwilling to take advantage of temporary superiority. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded much of the coastline, though it was allowing substantial exports from New England, which traded with Canada in defiance of American laws. The blockade devastated American agricultural exports, but it helped stimulate local factories that replaced goods previously imported. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan The American strategy of using small gunboats to defend ports was a fiasco, as the British raided the coast at will. The most famous episode was a series of British raids on the shores of Chesapeake Bay, including an attack on Washington that resulted in the British burning of the White House, the Capitol, the Navy Yard, and other public buildings, in the "Burning of Washington".HP G62-244CA CPU Fan The British power at sea was enough to allow the Royal Navy to levy "contributions" on bayside towns in return for not burning them to the ground. The Americans were more successful in ship-to-ship actions. They sent out several hundred privateers to attack British merchant ships; in the first four months of war they captured 219 British merchant ships. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan British commercial interests were damaged, especially in the West Indies. After Napoleon abdicated on April 6, 1814, the British could send veteran armies to the United States, but by then the Americans had learned how to mobilize and fight.[66] British General Prevost launched a major invasion of New York State with these veteran soldiers, HP G62-244CA CPU Fan but the American fleet under Thomas Macdonough gained control of Lake Champlain and the British lost the Battle of Plattsburgh in September 1814. Prevost, blamed for the defeat, sought a court-martial to clear his name, but he died in London awaiting it.[67] The British then launched a successful attack on Chesapeake Bay, ASUS A6000R CPU Fan capturing and burning Washington, looting Alexandria, and unsuccessfully attacking Baltimore.The embarrassing Burning of Washington led to Armstrong's dismissal as U.S. Secretary of War. A British invasion of Louisiana (unknowingly launched after the Treaty of Ghent was negotiated to end the war) was defeated with very heavy British losses by General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan The victory made Jackson a national hero, restored the American sense of honour,[68] and ruined the Federalist party's efforts to condemn the war as a failure.[69] With the ratification of the peace treaty in February 1815, the war ended before the U.S. new Secretary of War James Monroe could put his new offensive strategy into effect, and before the British could launch renewed attacks. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan Once Britain and The Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, France and Britain became allies. Britain ended the trade restrictions and the impressment of American sailors, thus removing two more causes of the war. After two years of warfare, the major causes of the war had disappeared. Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan Neither side had a reason to continue or a chance of gaining a decisive success that would compel their opponents to cede territory or advantageous peace terms.[70] As a result of thisstalemate, the two countries signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814. News of the peace treaty took two months to reach the U.S., during which fighting continued. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan The war fostered a spirit of national unity and an "Era of Good Feelings" in the U.S.,[71] as well as in Canada.[72] It opened a long era of peaceful relations between the United States and the British Empire. In 1812, Britain's Royal Navy was the world's largest, with over 600 cruisers in commission and some smaller vessels. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Although most of these were involved in blockading the French navy and protecting British trade against (usually French) privateers, the Royal Navy still had 85 vessels in American waters, counting all British Navy vessels in North American and the Caribbean waters.[74] But, the Royal Navy's North American squadron based in Halifax, Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan

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