Sunday, June 29, 2014

The Scottish Enlightenment

The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution made Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse[73]–so much so Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation."[74] With the demise of Jacobitism and the advent of the Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous positions of power in politics, HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from being 'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland – or more precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core." Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan The Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes.[76] From the mid-century there were increasing calls for Home Rule for Scotland and the post of Secretary of State for Scotland was revived.[77] Towards the end of the century Prime Ministers of Scottish descent included William E. Gladstone,[7SONY Vaio VPC-EB3E1R/BQ CPU Fan 8] andthe Earl of Rosebery.[79] In the later 19th century the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader.[80] Dell Precision M4500 CPU Fan Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world, and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London.[81] After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. HP G71-340US CPU Fan It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre.[82]The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and for a time living conditions in some of the towns and cities were notoriously bad, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,[84] disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdoch, HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain.[85] In literature the most successful figure of the mid-19th century was Walter Scott. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel.[86] It launched a highly successful career that probably more than any other helped define and popularise Scottish cultural identity.[87] HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan In the late 19th century, a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations, such as Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald.[88] Scotland also played a major part in the development of art and architecture. The Glasgow School,  HP Envy 17 Series CPU Fan which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including theCeltic Revival the Arts and Crafts Movement, and Japonisme, which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan

Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh.[89]

This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe, prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossiancycleand then Walter Scott's Waverley novels.HP Envy 17-3000er CPU Fan However, the Highlands remained very poor and traditional.[95] The desire to improve agriculture and profits led to the Highland Clearances, in which much of the population of the Highlands suffered forced displacement as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan The clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain, but were particularly notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scots law, the abruptness of the change from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many evictions.[96] HP 532614-001 CPU Fan One result was a continuous exodus from the land—to the cities, or further afield to England, Canada, America or Australia.[97] The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901.[98] Even with the development of industry there were not enough good jobs.  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan

As a result, during the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.

After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons. HP 493001-001 CPU Fan The following "Ten Years' Conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts. The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers, known as the Great Disruption of 1843. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland.[10Toshiba BFB0605HA CPU Fan 0] In the late 19th century growing divisions between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals resulted in a further split in the Free Church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free Presbyterian Church in 1893.[101] Catholic Emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland.[101] Toshiba Satellite A110-101 CPU Fan Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish schools. From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards.[10HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca CPU Fan 2] The historic University of Glasgow became a leader in British higher education by providing the educational needs of youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class.[103] The University of St Andrews pioneered the admission of women to Scottish universities. From 1892 Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan Scotland played a major role in the British effort in the First World War. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money.[105] With a population of 4.8 million in 1911, Scotland sent over half a million men to the war, of whom over a quarter died in combat or from disease, and 150,000 were seriously wounded.[106] HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan

 Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig was Britain's commander on the Western Front.

The war saw the emergence of a radical movement called "Red Clydeside" led by militant trades unionists. Formerly a Liberalstronghold, the industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the Irish Catholic working class districts. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s.[107]

The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity,  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan but instead a serious depression hit the economy by 1922 and it did not fully recover until 1939. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment.[108] Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral. Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland permanently. Toshiba Satellite L650-1MT CPU Fan The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War.[109] SONY Vaio VGN-NW350F CPU Fan The Second World War brought renewed prosperity, despite extensive bombing of cities by the Luftwaffe. It saw the invention of radar by Robert Watson-Watt, which was invaluable in the Battle of Britain as was the leadership at RAF Fighter Command of Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding. Toshiba Satellite M35X-S329 CPU Fan After 1945, Scotland's economic situation became progressively worse due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes.[111] Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this recovery include a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing, SONY Vaio VGN-TX2XP/B CPU Fan (see Silicon Glen),[112] and the North Sea oil and gas industry.[113] The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of the United Kingdom, contributed to a growing movement for a return to direct Scottish control over domestic affairs.[114DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

] Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998[115] was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament to establish a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland.

Scotland's head of state is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II(since 1952). SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Keyboard The regnal numbering "Elizabeth II" caused controversy around the time of the Queen's coronation because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland. A legal action,MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), was brought to contest the right of the Queen to entitle herself Elizabeth II within Scotland, arguing that this was a breach of Article 1 of the Treaty of Union. ACER TravelMate 2800 Series Keyboard  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Keyboard

The Crown won the case. It was decided that future British monarchs would be numbered according to either their English or their Scottish predecessors, whichever number is higher.[117] For instance any future King James would be styled James VIII (since the last Scottish King James wasJames VII (also James II of England, etc.)) while the next King Henry would be King Henry IX throughout the UK even though there have been no Scottish kings of that name. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers have been devolved to, respectively, the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh. The United Kingdom Parliament retains power over a set list of areas explicitly specified in the Scotland Act 1998 as reserved matters, Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge S420 Keyboard including, for example, levels of UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.[118]The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland, as well as limited power to vary income tax. In 2008, the then prime minister, Gordon Brown, in a BBC Scotland interview, indicated that the Scottish Parliament could be given more tax-raising powers.[119] Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420S Keyboard The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to Westminster by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the United Kingdom. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420 Keyboard

For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK. Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places.

Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature with 129 members (MSPs), 73 of whom represent individual constituencies, and are elected on a first past the post system; Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420i Keyboard 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs serve for a four-year period (exceptionally five years from 2011–16). The Queen appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament, nominated by the Parliament, to be First Minister. Other ministers are also appointed by the First Minister and serve at his/her discretion. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad T420S Keyboard

Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government.[121]

In the 2011 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) formed a majority government after winning 69 seats out of 129. This was the first majority government since the modern post-devolution Scottish Parliament was established in 1999. SONY VGN-FE11M Keyboard The leader of the SNP,Alex Salmond, continued as First Minister. The Labour Party continued as the largest opposition party, with the Conservative Party, the Liberal Democrats, and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament. Before her death in 2014, Margo MacDonald was the only independent MSP sitting in parliament. ACER TravelMate 3232WXMi Keyboard The next Scottish Parliament general election will be held on 5 May 2016. The Scotland Bill, put forward by the Calman Commission and cleared by the UK House of Commons, proposes devolving more power to Scotland. The bill has yet to be enacted as law. The Scottish National Party, whose members did not take part in the consultation, believe the bill does not devolve enough powers to the Scottish Parliament.[122]  HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Keyboard Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.[123] The Scotland Office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom; the current incumbent is Alistair Carmichael.  HP 516884-001 Keyboard

Historical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. Some of these names are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors.

Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315Z Keyboard In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since 1996,[124] whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services. Community councils are informal organisations that represent specific sub-divisions of a council area. In the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom, there are 59 constituencies.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Keyboard Until 2013 the Scottish fire brigades and police forces were based on a system of regions introduced in 1975. For healthcare and postal districts, and a number of other governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the churches, there are other long-standing methods of subdividing Scotland for the purposes of administration.  HP Pavilion DV7-2177cl Keyboard

City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent.[125] There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee,Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling and Perth.

A policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. The late Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".[127] The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. SONY VAIO VPC-F12 Keyboard In 2007, the Scottish Government established a "National Conversation" on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, HP Pavilion dv6-3007tu Keyboard the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Scottish Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.[128] In August 2009 the SNP proposed a referendum bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. SONY VAIO VGN-NW35E/W Keyboard Immediate opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat.[129][130] These plans were put on hold by the Scottish National Party until after the 2011 Scottish Parliament elections.[131]After the May 2011 elections gave the SNP a majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland is to be held on 18 September 2014, with the Scottish Government having launched its consultation on 25 January 2012. TOSHIBA Satellite M640-BT2N23 Keyboard Scots law has a basis derived from Roman law,[133] combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis, and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.[134] DELL NSK-D8001 Keyboard

 Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law. Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.[135]

Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, SONY VGN-FE41S Keyboard criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (or before 1 October 2009, the House of Lords). The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session is housed atParliament House, in Edinburgh, TOSHIBA 6037B0028502 Keyboard which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.[136]  DELL Inspiron 1564 Keyboard

 District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.

For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for being the only legal system without a parliament.  HP Pavilion DV7-2173cl Keyboard This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament, which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven".[137] Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial in accordance with the rule of double jeopardy.  Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 Keyboard There is however the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice – see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy (Scotland) Act 2011.  ACER Aspire 1690 Keyboard Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts. Manslaughter, in England and Wales, is broadly similar toculpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland.  HP 519265-001 Keyboard

Procedure also differs. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen, rather than twelve jurors, as is more common in English-speaking countries.

The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners.[138] The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government. HP Pavilion DV7-3183cl Keyboard The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km2(30,414 sq mi),[139] comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, FUJITSU Siemens M1010 Keyboard and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre;[140] Compaq Presario CQ62-358TU Keyboard

Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.

The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of Yorkbetween Scotland and the Kingdom of England[141] and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.[19TOSHIBA 9Z.N4WSC.001 Keyboard ] Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkneyand Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472;[139] and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Keyboard The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch.[142] Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).  HP Pavilion DV6-1350us Keyboard

The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions.

The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven.  HP Pavilion DV7-3188cl Keyboard This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian, which were uplifted during the later Caledonian Orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and SkyeCuillins. ASUS F6VE Keyboard A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. TheHighlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. DELL NSK-DB301 Keyboard

There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair, a low lying dune pasture land.

The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found. HP Pavilion dv6-3057tx Keyboard

This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.

The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (124 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. DELL Vostro PP38L Keyboard They lie south of a secondfault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar.[145][146][147] The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 4–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of 843 m (2,766 ft).[ HP Pavilion DV7-3057nr Keyboard

The Southern Uplands is home to the UK's highest village, Wanlockhead (430 m or 1,411 ft above sea level).

The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from theAtlantic, it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, TOSHIBA Satellite l20-135 Keyboard such as Labrador, southernScandinavia, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895.[ Toshiba Satellite L30-10X CPU Fan

Winter maxima average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.[152]

The west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Toshiba Satellite A300-21H CPU Fan Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975.[152] Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding 3,000 mm (118.1 in).[153] In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than 800 mm (31.5 in) annually.[154SONY Vaio VGN-FS415M CPU Fan

] Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year,[155] while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.

Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca CPU Fan

There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets.[156] The golden eagle is something of a national icon.[157]

On the high mountain tops species including ptarmigan, mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months.[158] HP Pavilion dv9547cl CPU Fan Remnants of the native Scots pine forest exist[159] and within these areas the Scottish crossbill, the UK's onlyendemic bird species and vertebrate, can be found alongside capercaillie, wildcat, red squirrel and pine marten.In recent years various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s,[ HP G42-380LA CPU Fan ] and more recently there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland. On the west coast, IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan

remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula inArgyll, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.[165][166]

The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. Toshiba Satellite P300 CPU Fan However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenousplants and animals.[167] The UK's tallest tree is a grand fir planted beside Loch Fyne, Argyll in the 1870s, and the Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe. HP Pavilion dv7-4283cl CPU Fan Scotland has a western style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland. HP COMPAQ 2510P Series CPU Fan De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group(owners of HBOS); the Government owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life. HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea CPU Fan

Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in 2007, but fell to 37th in 2012, following damage to its reputation,[173] and in 2014 was ranked 64th.[174]

In 2012, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were estimated to be £26 billion, of which 59% (£15.4 billion) were attributable to manufacturing.[175] IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France and Norway constitute the country's major export markets.[175] Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012.[3] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan If Scotland became independent, it would hold 95% of the UK's current oil and gas reserves if they were split geographically using a median line from the English-Scottish border.If the reserves were split by population, that figure would be reduced to 9%.Scotland also has renewable energy potential, especially in tidal energy and offshore wind. HP Pavilion dv6-2057eo CPU Fan Whisky is probably the best known of Scotland's manufactured products. Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012[178] and were valued at £4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink exports.[179] It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000 indirectly. HP Pavilion dv7-1135nr CPU Fan It may contribute £400-682 million to Scotland, rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky produced is owned by non-Scottish companies.[181] Tourism is also widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment. IBM ThinkPad T43P-2668 CPU Fan In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending.[183] More recent data, from 2012–13, show that Scotland generated 9.1% (£53.1bn; this included a geographical share of North Sea oil revenue – without it, Toshiba Satellite A100-02M CPU Fan the figures were 8.2% and £47.6bn) of the UK's tax revenues and received 9.3% (£65.2bn) of spending.[184] Scotland's public spending deficit in 2012–13 was £12bn, a £3.5bn increase on the previous year; over the same period, the UK's deficit decreased by £2.6bn.[185] Over the past thirty years, Scotland contributed a relative budget surplusof almost £20billion to the UK economy. ACER Aspire 5730Z Series CPU Fan

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