Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Washington began to pull himself out of debt

Washington began to pull himself out of debt in the mid-1760s by diversifying his previously tobacco-centric business interests into other ventures[64] and paying more attention to his affairs.In 1766, he started switching Mount Vernon's primary cash crop away from tobacco to wheat, a crop that could be processed and then sold in various forms in the colonies, DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard and further diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, weaving and (in the 1790s) whiskey production.[64] Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.SAMSUNG Q320 Laptop Keyboard A successful planter, he was a leader in the social elite in Virginia. From 1768 to 1775, he invited some 2000 guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those he considered "people of rank". As for people not of high social status, his advice was to "treat them civilly" but "keep them at a proper distance, for they will grow upon familiarity, in proportion as you sink in authority".HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard In 1769, he became more politically active, presenting the Virginia Assembly with legislation to ban the importation of goods from Great Britain.American Revolution (1775–1783) Main articles: George Washington in the American Revolution and Military career of George Washington SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard Washington opposed the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, and began taking a leading role in the growing colonial resistance when protests against the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) became widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal, drafted by his friend George Mason, TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard calling for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed.[69] Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges".In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard which called for the convening of a Continental Congress, among other things. In August, Washington attended the First Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.After the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April 1775, the colonies went to war. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war.[72] Washington had the prestige, military experience, charisma and military bearing of a military leader and was known as a strong patriot. Virginia, the largest colony, deserved recognition, and New England—where the fighting began—realized it needed Southern support. HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard Washington did not explicitly seek the office of commander and said that he was not equal to it, but there was no serious competition.[73] Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed General and Commander-in-chief.[74] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard Washington had three roles during the war. In 1775–77, and again in 1781 he led his men against the main British forces. Although he lost many of his battles, he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war's end. He plotted the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress.[75] HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan Second, he was charged with organizing and training the army. He recruited regulars and assignedBaron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff, to train them. The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress,[76] but Washington pressured the Congress to provide the essentials.[77]  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan In June 1776, Congress' first attempt at running the war effort was established with the committee known as "Board of War and Ordnance", succeeded by the Board of War in July 1777, a committee which eventually included members of the military.[76] The command structure of the armed forces was a hodgepodge of Congressional appointees DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan (and Congress sometimes made those appointments without Washington's input) with state-appointments filling the lower ranks and of all of the militia-officers. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites (like John Sullivan) never mastered the art of command. HP 550 CPU Fan Eventually, he found capable officers, such as General Nathanael Greene, General Daniel Morgan, "the old wagoner", with whom he had served in The French and Indian War, Henry Knox, his chief of artillery, and his chief-of-staff Alexander Hamilton. The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently they lost most of the pitched battles. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan The great successes, at Boston (1776), Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781), came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops.[75] Daniel Morgan's annihilation of Banastre Tarleton's legion of dragoons at Cowpens in February of 1781, came as a result of Morgan's employment of superior line tactics against his British opponent, DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan resulting in one of the very few double envelopments in military history, another being Hannibal's defeat of the Romans at Cannae in 216 b.c. The decisive defeat of Col. Patrick Ferguson's Tory Regiment at King's Mountain demonstrated the superiority of the riflery of American "over mountain men" over British-trained troops armed with musket and bayonet. HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan These "over-mountain men" were led by a variety of elected officers, including the 6'6" William Campbell who had become one of Washington's officers by the time of Yorktown. Similarly, Morgan's Virginia riflemen proved themselves superior to the British at Saratoga, a post-revolutionary war development being the creation of trained "rifle battalions" in the European armies. Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan Third, and most important, Washington was the embodiment of armed resistance to the Crown—the representative man of the Revolution. His long-term strategy was to maintain an army in the field at all times, and eventually this strategy worked. His enormous personal and political stature and his political skills kept Congress, HP 532614-001 CPU Fan the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal. Furthermore, by voluntarily resigning his commission and disbanding his army when the war was won (rather than declaring himself monarch), he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Yet his constant reiteration of the point that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as erratic militias (clearly demonstrated in the rout at Camden, where only the Maryland and Delaware Continentals under Baron DeKalb held firm), helped overcome the ideological distrust of a standing army. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in July 1775, during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbean, and some manufacturing was attempted.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan They obtained a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) by the end of 1776, mostly from France.Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery onDorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston in March 1776 and Washington moved his army to New York City.[  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan Although highly disparaging toward most of the Patriots, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These articles were bold, as Washington was an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire. ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan Defeat at New York City and Fabian tactics In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan The Americans were heavily outnumbered, many men deserted, and Washington was badly beaten. Subsequently, Washington was forced to retreat across the East River at night. He did so without loss of life or materiel.Washington retreated north from the city to avoid encirclement, enabling Howe to take the offensive and capture Fort Washington on November 16 with high Continental casualties. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan Washington then retreated across New Jersey; the future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to expiring enlistments and the string of losses.[83] On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a comeback with a surprise attack on a Hessian outpost in western New Jersey.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan He led his army across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another over British regulars at Princeton in early January. The British retreated back to New York City and its environs, which they held until the peace treaty of 1783. HP Probook 4325s laptop keyboard Washington's victories wrecked the British carrot-and-stick strategy of showing overwhelming force then offering generous terms. The Americans would not negotiate for anything short of independence.  SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series laptop keyboard These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate Patriot victory, however, since many soldiers did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington and Congress reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles. HP Pavilion dv6-3004tu laptop keyboard Historians debate whether or not Washington preferred a Fabian strategy[Note 4] to harass the British with quick, sharp attacks followed by a retreat so the larger British army could not catch him, or whether he preferred to fight major battles.[Note 5] While his southern commander Greene in 1780–81 did use Fabian tactics, Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard Washington did so only in fall 1776 to spring 1777, after losing New York City and seeing much of his army melt away. Trenton and Princeton were Fabian examples. By summer 1777, however, Washington had rebuilt his strength and his confidence; he stopped using raids and went for large-scale confrontations, as at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth and Yorktown. HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard In the late summer of 1777, the British under John Burgoyne sent a major invasion army south from Quebec, with the intention of splitting off rebellious New England. General Howe in New York took his army south to Philadelphia instead of going up the Hudson River to join with Burgoyne near Albany. TOSHIBA Satellite L40-17U laptop keyboard It was a major strategic mistake for the British, and Washington rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe, while closely following the action in upstate New York. In pitched battles that were too complex for his relatively inexperienced men, Washington was defeated. At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777, Howe outmaneuvered Washington, SONY VAIO VGN-CR363 laptop keyboard and marched into the American capital at Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York.[  Lenovo 25-011670 laptop keyboard It was a major turning point militarily and diplomatically. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. Compaq Presario CQ71-402SA laptop keyboard This attempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him. In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out ascorched earth campaign that destroyed at least 40 Iroquois villages in central and upstate New York; the Indians were British allies who had been raiding American settlements on the frontierHP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard In July 1780, 5,000 veteran French troops led by the comte de Rochambeau arrived at Newport, Rhode Island to aid in the war effort.[98] The Continental Army having been funded by $20,000 in French gold, Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia.  HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard The surrender at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, marked the end of major fighting in continental North America.[99] Washington could not know that after Yorktown, the British would not reopen hostilities. They still had 26,000 troops occupying New York City, Charleston and Savannah, together with a powerful fleet. The French army and navy departed, so the Americans were on their own in 1782–83. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard The treasury was empty, and the unpaid soldiers were growing restive, almost to the point of mutiny or possible coup d'├ętat. Washington dispelled unrest among officers by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracyin March 1783, and Congress came up with the promise of a five-year bonus. GATEWAY MX8741 Laptop Keyboard With the initial peace treaty articles ratified in April, a recently formed Congressional committee under Hamilton, was considering needs and plans for a peacetime army. On May 2, 1783, the Commander in Chief submitted his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment[101] to the Committee, essentially providing an official Continental Army position. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The original proposal was defeated in Congress in two votes (May 1783, October 1783) with a truncated version also being rejected in April of 1784.[102] By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. HP Mini 210-1109TU Laptop Keyboard Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[103] On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession.  HP Mini 110-1109TU Laptop Keyboard At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief. Historian Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe.[ HP G71t-300 CTO Laptop Keyboard King George III called Washington "the greatest character of the age" because of this.[105] Historian John Shy says that by 1783 Washington was "a mediocre military strategist but had become a master political tactician with an almost perfect sense of timing and a developed capacity to exploit his charismatic reputation, using people who thought they were using him".[10ASUS F6A Laptop Keyboard Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784.[74] He was visiting his land holdings in Western Pennsylvania that had been given to him decades earlier by the British in consideration for his service in the French and Indian War.[ Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard There, he confronted squatters, including David Reed and the Covenanters, who left the land only after losing a 1786 court case heard in Washington, Pennsylvania.[107] Washington was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention.[ HP Pavilion DV6-1040ev Laptop Keyboard He participated little in the debates (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected.[ SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard After the Convention, his support convinced many to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states.The diagnosis of Washington's final illness and the immediate cause of his death have been subjects of debate since the day he died. In the days immediately following his death, Craik and Dick's published account stated that they felt his symptoms had been consistent with what they called "cynanchetrachealis", HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard a term of that period for describing severe inflammation of the structures of the upper airway.Even at that early date, there were accusations of medical malpractice, with some believing that Washington had been bled to death. Various modern medical authors have speculated that Washington probably died from a severe case of epiglottitis which was complicated by the given treatments ASUS F82Q Laptop Keyboard (all of which were accepted medical practice in Washington's day)—most notably the massive deliberate blood loss, which almost certainly caused hypovolemic shock.[Note 9] Throughout the world, men and women were saddened by Washington's death. In France, First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte ordered ten days of mourning throughout the country; COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard in the United States, thousands wore mourning clothes for months.[153] To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and her following his death. Only a total of five letters between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three from him to Martha.[ HP AEUT3U00140 Laptop Keyboard On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, where his body was interred.] Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the planned crypt below the rotunda of the center section of the Capitol (then still under construction) for his body, a plan supported by Martha. HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard In December 1800, the House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid with a 100-foot (30 m) square base. Southern representatives and senators, in later opposition to the plan, defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have Washington's body remain at Mount Vernon.[ SONY VAIO VGN-NW240F Laptop Keyboard In 1831, for the centennial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. That year, an unsuccessful attempt was made to steal the body of Washington.[158] Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832, debated the removal of President Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard built by architect Charles Bulfinch in the 1820s during the reconstruction of the burned-out structure after the British set it afire in August 1814, during the "Burning of Washington". Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said: COMPAQ Presario CQ60-201EP Laptop Keyboard Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil.[157] HP G72-b80SB Laptop Keyboard His remains were moved on October 7, 1837 to the new tomb constructed at Mount Vernon, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia.[159] After the ceremony, the inner vault's door was closed and the key was thrown into the Potomac.[As Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, HP Pavilion dv7-4070us CPUFan hero of the revolution and the first president of the United States, George Washington's legacy remains among the greatest in American history.[Note 10] Congressman Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade, famously eulogized Washington: First in war—first in peace—and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and enduring scenes of private life; HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting. To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender; ACER Aspire 4820T Series CPUFan correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand; the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his life—although in extreme pain, not a sigh, not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed his well-spent life. HP Pavilion dv7-3007tx CPUFan Such was the man America has lost—such was the man for whom our nation mourns. Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in particular, and was called the "Father of His Country" as early as 1778Dell Latitude E6510 CPUFan Washington's Birthday (celebrated on Presidents' Day), is a federal holiday in the United States.During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 passed on January 19, 1976, HP Envy 17 Series CPUFan with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976.This restored Washington's position as the highest-ranking military officer in U.S. history.See also: Historical rankings of Presidents of the United States and Cultural depictions of George Washington.See also: Parson Weems § The cherry-tree anecdoteToshiba Satellite A135-S4499 CPUFan Perhaps the best known story about Washington's childhood is that he chopped down his father's favorite cherry tree and admitted the deed when questioned: "I can't tell a lie, Pa." The anecdote was first reported by biographer Parson Weems, who after Washington's death interviewed people who knew him as a child over a half-century earlier. HP 441137-001 CPUFan The Weems text was very widely reprinted throughout the 19th century, for example in McGuffey Readers. Adults wanted children to learn moral lessons from history, especially as taught by example from the lives of great national heroes like Washington. After 1890 however, HP Pavilion dv6-2150us CPUFan historians insisted on scientific research methods to validate every statement, and there was no documentation for this anecdote apart from Weems' report that he learned it in an interview with an old person. Joseph Rodman in 1904 noted that Weems plagiarized other Washington tales from published fiction set in England, but no one has found an alternative source for the cherry tree story.[ ACER eMachines G620 Series CPUFan Starting with victory in their Revolution, there were many proposals to build a monument to Washington. After his death, Congress authorized a suitable memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Republicans took control of Congress in 1801. The Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party;  TOSHIBA UDQFRZH05C1N CPUFan furthermore, the values of Republicanism seemed hostile to the idea of building monuments to powerful men.Further political squabbling, along with the North-South division on the Civil War, blocked the completion of the Washington Monument until the late 19th century. By that time,  Compaq Presario C714NR CPUFan Washington had the image of a national hero who could be celebrated by both North and South, and memorials to him were no longer controversial. Predating the obelisk on the National Mall by several decades, the first public memorial to Washington was built by the citizens of Boonsboro, Maryland, in 1827.[  DELL DFS531205PC0T(F6K2-CCW) CPUFan Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States.[169] He appears on contemporary currency, including the one-dollar bill and the quarter coin, and on U.S. postage stamps. Along with appearing on the first postage stamps issued by the U.S. Post Office in 1847,[ HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPUFan Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, and Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the best known American landmarks, was built in his honor. The George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, HP G42-221BR CPUFan was constructed between 1922 and 1932 with voluntary contributions from all 52 local governing bodies of the Freemasons in the United States. Many places and entities have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., one of two national capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). HP KSB06105HA CPUFan The state ofWashington is the only state to be named after a United States President.[173] George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington's large endowment in 1796. SONY 148781311 laptop keyboard Washington College inChestertown, Maryland (established by Maryland state charter in 1782) was supported by Washington during his lifetime with a 50 guineas pledge,[174] and with service on the college's Board of Visitors and Governors until 1789 (when Washington was elected President).[ TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard According to the US Census Bureau's 1993 geographic data, Washington is the 17th most common street name in the United States,[176] and the only person's name so honored. There are many "Washington Monuments" in the United States, including two well-known equestrian statues, one in Manhattan and one in Richmond, Virginia. HP Pavilion dv5-1233se laptop keyboard The first statue to show Washington on horseback was dedicated in 1856 and is located in Manhattan's Union Square.The second statue is known as either the Virginia Washington Monument or as the George Washington Equestrian Statue and was unveiled in 1858. It was the second American statue of Washington on horseback but figures prominently in the official seal of the Confederate States of America.  IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard A marble statue of Washington was made from life by sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon, and now sits in the Rotunda of the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia. A duplicate, one of 22 bronze exact replicas,[181] was given to the British in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia and now stands in front of the National Galleryat Trafalgar Square.[ SONY VAIO VGN-AR230G laptop keyboard The serious collection and publication of Washington's documentary record began with the pioneer work of Jared Sparks in the 1830s, Life and Writings of George Washington (12 vols., 1834–1837). The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745–1799 (1931–44) is a 37 volume set edited by John C. Fitzpatrick.  ASUS X53S laptop keyboard It contains over 17,000 letters and documents and is available online from the University of Virginia.The definitive letterpress edition of his writings was begun by the University of Virginia in 1968, and today comprises 52 published volumes, with more to come. It contains everything written by Washington, or signed by him, together with most of his incoming letters. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard Part of the collection is available online from the University of Virginia.Along with Martha's biological family, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir, Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brother, John Augustine Washington. The year before his uncle's death, Bushrod became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard George, however, apparently did not get along well with his mother, Mary Ball Washington (Augustine's second wife), who was a very demanding and difficult person.As a young man, Washington had red hair.A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard However, Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair,[188] as is represented in several portraits, including the well-known, unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction, The Athenaeum portrait. Washington had unusually great physical strength that amazed younger men. Jefferson called Washington "the best horseman of his age",ACER Extensa 5635Z laptop keyboard and both American and European observers praised his riding; the horsemanship benefited his hunting, a favorite hobby. Washington was an excellent dancer and frequently attended the theater, often referencing Shakespeare in letters.[ DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard He drank in moderation and precisely recorded gambling wins and losses, but Washington disliked the excessive drinking, gambling, smoking, and profanity that was common in colonial Virginia. Although he grew tobacco, he eventually stopped smoking, and considered drunkenness a man's worst vice; SONY 148738411 laptop keyboard Washington was glad that post-Revolutionary Virginia society was less likely to "force [guests] to drink and to make it an honor to send them home drunk." Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President.[ ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide, which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria, probably contributed to the loss. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood. DELL Inspiron 1564 laptop keyboard Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.[193] Prior to these, he had a set made with real human teeth,likely ones he purchased from "several unnamed 'Negroes,' presumably Mount Vernon slaves" in 1784. DELL E141395 laptop keyboard Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum.This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office,including the one still used on the $1 bill.Washington was the only prominent Founding Father to arrange in his will for the manumission of all his slaves following his death. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard He privately opposed slavery as an institution which he viewed as economically unsound and morally indefensible. He also regarded the divisiveness of his countrymen's feelings about slavery as a potentially mortal threat to the unity of the nation. SONY VAIO VGN-CR23G laptop keyboard, HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

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