Thursday, October 9, 2014

The latter occur in four instances

2] The latter occur in four instances; two pairs of text float on either side of Christ, two around Michael. Beneath the lily, in white paint[36] are the words of Christ: VENITE BENEDICTI PATRIS MEI POSSIDETE PARATUM VOBIS REGNUM A CONSTITUTIONE MUNDI ("Come ye blessed of my father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundations of the world"). DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard The text beneath the sword reads: DISCEDITE A ME MALEDICTI IN IGNEM ÆTERNUM QUI PARATUS EST DIABOLO ET ANGELIS EJUS ("Depart from me ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels").[C] The inscriptions follow the 14th-century convention of showing figures, imagery and motifs associated with the saved to Christ's right, and those of the damned to his left. HP Mini 110-3004tu Laptop Keyboard TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard The words beneath the lily (the benedicti) read upwards towards Heaven, their curves leaning in towards Christ. The text to the left (the maledicti) flows in the opposite direction; from the highest point downwards. The inscriptions to Christ's right are decorated in light colours, to the extent that they are usually difficult to discern in reproductions. The lettering opposite faces downwards, and is applied with black paint. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard A number of panels are in poor condition, owing variously to darkening of the colours, accumulated dirt, and poor decisions during early restorations.[54] The altarpiece stayed in the chapel from the time of its installation until the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution, when it was hidden in the attic for decades. When it was brought out, the nude souls – thought to be offensive – were painted over with clothing and flames; DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard it was moved to a different room, hung 3 metres (10 ft) from the ground, and portions were whitewashed. In 1836, the Commission of Antiquities retrieved it and began plans to have it restored.[55] Four decades later it underwent major restoration – between 1875 and 1878 – when many of these additions were removed, but not without significant damage to the original paintwork,[54] HP Mini 110-3118cl Laptop Keyboard such as the loss of pigment to the wall-hangings in the donor panels, which were originally red and gold.[56] In general, the central inside panels are better preserved than the interior and exterior wings.[54] De Salins' panel is damaged; its colours have darkened with age; originally the niche was a light blue (today it is light green) and the shield held by the angel was painted in blue.[54] APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard The panels were laterally divided so that both sides could be displayed simultaneously,[1] and a number of the panels were transferred to canvas.Since before 1000 the Last Judgement had been developing as a complex subject in art, and from the 11th century became a very common subject as a wall-painting in churches, typically placed over the main door in the west wall, where it would be seen by worshippers as they left the building.[57] HP G62-b04SL CPU Fan Elements of the image had gradually been added, with Saint Michael weighing the souls a late arrival, first seen in 12th-century Italy. Since it has no biblical basis it is often thought to draw from pre-Christian parallels, such as depictions of Anubis performing a similar role in Ancient Egyptian art.[58]In medieval English a wall-painting of the Last Judgement was called a doom.[59]  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan Van der Weyden may have drawn influence from Stefan Lochner's c. 1435 Last Judgement, and a similar c. 1420 painting now in the Hotel de Ville, Diest, Belgium. Points of reference include Christ raised over a Great Deësis of saints, apostles and clergy above depictions of the entrance to Heaven and the gates of Hell. In both earlier works Christ perches on a rainbow; in the Deësis panel he also is above a globe. DELL Inspiron N3010 Series CPU Fan While these two earlier works are filled with dread and chaos, van der Weyden's panels display the same sorrowful, but self-controlled dignity of his best works. This is most evident in the manner in which the oversized and dispassionate Christ orchestrates the scene from Heaven.[60] The work's moralising tone is apparent from some of its more overtly dark iconography, HP 550 CPU Fan HP 646578-001 CPU Fan its choice of saints, and how the scales tilt far lower beneath the weight of the damned than the saved. The damned to Christ's left are more numerous and less detailed than the saved to his right. In these ways it can be compared to Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece, which served much the same purpose, having been commissioned for the Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim, which cared for the dying. DELL Vostro A860 CPU Fan The similarities between the altarpiece and the c. late 1460s Last Judgement by van der Weyden's apprentice Hans Memling has led art historians to suggest a common tie, Florentine banker Angelo Tani, gave commissions to van der Weyden before his death in 1464. Because Memling's apprenticeship post-dated the completion and installation of the altarpiece, HP Pavilion dv6-3125ej CPU Fan art historians speculate that Tani or Memling would have seen it in situ, or that Memling came into possession of a workshop design.[61]Two additional works with similar depictions of Christ – a Martin Schongauer at the Louvre dated c. 1469 and another in Germany from about 1493 – suggest the existence of the input of members of his workshop.[62] Compaq Presario A916NR CPU Fan In Memling's work the Deësis and Christ's placement, above St Michael with his scales, are almost identical to the Beaune Altarpiece.[35] Despite the marked similarities, the crowded scenes in Memling's Last Judgement contrast sharply with "the hushed serenity of Rogier's composition," according to Lane,[35] and in a mirror image of van der Weyden's altarpiece, Memling shows the saved outweighing the damned in St Michael's scales. HP 532614-001 CPU Fan The Justice of Trajan and Herkinbald was a set of four large panels painted by the Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden that decorated one wall of a court-room in the Town Hall of Brussels. They represented the Justice of Trajan, a Roman emperor, and The Justice of Herkinbald, a legendary Duke of Brabant. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan The panels were intended as a reminder to judges to dispense impartial justice and were admired by generations of visitors, including Albrecht Dürer.[1] They were destroyed when the city was bombarded by the French in 1695 and are now known only from descriptions and from a tapestry copy in the Historical Museum of Bern.[2][3] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan The work is thought to have preoccupied van der Weyden for several years, and is believed to have been, in conception and excution, on a scale and breath and skill to equal Jan van Eyck'sGhent Altarpiece. The panels were recorded and described in a number of sourced until the 17th century; espicially detailed are the inscriptions on the frames, which are likely the same as those contained on the edges of the tapestry.  HP 489126-001 CPU Fan Each panel was about eleven feet in height and together they spanned a distance of about thirty five feet. The theme of the panels was justice safeguarded by divine intervention.[5] The legends of Trajan and Herkinbald appear to occur together for the first time in 1308 in the Alphabetum Narrationum (Alphabet of Tales), a collection of over 800 tales attributed to Arnold of Liége(previously to Etienne de Besançon)  HP Envy 17-2290nr CPU Fan arranged by themes and intended to be used as a basis forhomilies. The theme Iustitia (Justice) included just these two legends, although the legend of Trajan is given in a slightly different version from that depicted in the paintings and tapestry.[6] The first panel showed a widow begging justice from Trajan for the murder of her son and Trajan ordering the execution of the soldier accused by the woman (in the tale in the Alphabetum Narrationum, ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan Trajan offered the widow his son as a replacement for her murdered son). The second panel depicted the story in the Golden Legend of Pope Gregory I's miraculous resurrection and conversion of Trajan, thus releasing him from Purgatory. Gregory is shown holding Trajan's exhumed skull, in which the tongue has been miraculously preserved and thus able to utter the death sentence, demonstrating the justness of that sentence. FUJITSU Lifebook T5010 Series CPU Fan Van der Weyden is known to have portrayed himself as a bystander in this scene. The third panel depicted Herkinbald on his death bed slitting the throat of his nephew, who had committed a rape. The fourth panel showed Herkinbald miraculously receiving the Host, despite refusing to confess the slaying of his nephew as a sinful act.[2][7] Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan Both Nicholas of Cusa (in 1453) and Dubuisson-Aubenay (in the 1620s) mentioned that the work contained a self-portrait, generally though to be faithfully reproduced in the 'Herkinbald slaying his nephew' passage. The tapestry dates from about 1450. It measures 461 cm by 1053 cm (about 15 feet by 35 feet) and was probably woven in eitherTournai or Brussels,  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan two important centres of tapestry manufacture and both associated with van der Weyden. It is a wall tapestry, woven in wool, silk, and gold and silver thread. It was commissioned by George of Saluzzo on his appointment as Bishop of Laussanne in 1440. Saluzzo wanted a tapestry depicting justice scenes for the courtroom above his chapter house. HP Probook 4325s laptop keyboard He apparently knew that van der Weyden had painted these scenes and ordered them copied. It was not an exact copy but the earliest surviving work which depicts the same scenes.[7] In the passages depicting Pope Gregory I, one of the bystanders is more finely and carefully worked than the others, and this is almost certainly a copy of the self-portrait that van der Weyden had originally incorporated in his painting. HP Pavilion dv6-3004tu laptop keyboard It is one of only two self-portraits that survive, both as copies (of which the other has two versions), of van der Weyden. Campbell remarks it gives a better impression of van der Weyden's disdainful appearance than the other. Matthias Grünewald (c. 1470 – August 31, 1528) was a German Renaissance painter of religious works who ignored Renaissance classicism to continue the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard His first name is also given as Mathis and his surname as Gothart or Neithardt. Only ten paintings—several consisting of many panels—and thirty-five drawings survive, all religious, although many others were lost at sea in the Baltic on their way to Sweden as war booty. His reputation was obscured until the late nineteenth century, and many of his paintings were attributed to Albrecht Dürer, who is now seen as his stylistic antithesis. HP Mini 110-3004tu laptop keyboard His largest and most famous work is the Isenheim Altarpiece created 1506 to 1515 or perhaps 1512 to 1516. The details of his life are unusually unclear for a painter of his significance at this date, despite the fact that his commissions show that he had reasonable recognition in his own lifetime. The first source for his biography is the German art historian Joachim von Sandrart, who describes him around 1505 working on the exterior decoration of an altarpiece by Albrecht Dürer in Frankfurt. HP Pavilion dv5-1114ez laptop keyboard This is the sort of work typically performed by apprentices and therefore an estimate of his age can be reached, suggesting he was born in 1480-83.[1] Sandrart records that Grünewald had as an apprentice the painter Hans Grimmer, who would become famous in his time, but most of whose works were lost in the Thirty Years' War.[2] Sandrart describes Grünewald as leading a withdrawn and melancholy life, and marrying unhappily.[3] TOSHIBA Satellite L40-17U laptop keyboard More recent investigations have provided further information on Grünewald's life. In 1511 he became court artist of Uriel von Gemmingen, Archbishop of Mainz, and he also worked for the next archbishop, Albert of Brandenburg. In 1512 he settled in nearbyFrankfurt where records indicate he bought a house and married Anna, a converted Jew, then probably aged 18.  Lenovo 25-011670 laptop keyboard The marriage was not happy and in 1523 she would be institutionalised with what is variously described as mental illness and demonic possession.[4] From 1512 to 1514 or 1515 he worked on the Isenheim altarpiece, apparently in partnership with another Mathis, variously surnamed Nithart, Neithart, von Würzburg (after his place of birth), or Gothardt. Compaq Presario CQ71-402SA laptop keyboard Grünewald seems to have left Isenheim in a hurry, returning to Frankfurt, and his subsequent poverty suggests he was not fully paid for the altarpiece. In 1527 he entered the services of the wealthy and noble von Erbach family, apparently with a child (whether his own or adopted, is unclear). He most probably died in 1532, although sources vary.[5] HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard There has been considerable uncertainty about the details of his life. In 1938 Walter Karl Zülch published the theory that Grünewald and his partner Nithart/Gothardt were the same person; this Nithart/Gothardt was a painter, engineer, and "water artist" born in Würzburg in the 1460s or maybe 1470s and probably dying in 1528.  HP COMPAQ NC6120 laptop keyboard This theory is now generally discredited, although more recent historians believe Nithart/Gothardt may have pretended to be Grünewald for business reasons.[6] Grünewald's first dated painting is probably in Munich, dated 1503 on a much later note which apparently records an older inscription. Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard There is much speculation about Grünewald's politics, with some people associating him with the Reformation or support for the lower classes. He may have left the Archbishop of Mainz because of sympathies either with the German Peasants' War, or Lutheranism (he had some Lutheran pamphlets and papers at his death). GATEWAY MX8741 Laptop Keyboard Only religious works are included in his small surviving corpus, the most famous being the Isenheim Altarpiece, completed 1515, now in the Musée d'Unterlinden, Colmar. Its nine images on twelve panels are arranged on double wings to present three views (rather than just the open and closed states of triptych altarpieces), according to the season or occasion. HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard The first view with the outer wings closed shows a Crucifixion flanked by Saint Sebastien and Saint Anthony, with a predella showing the entombment. When the first set of wings is opened, the AnnunciationAngelic Concert (sometimes interpreted as the Birth of EcclesiaMary bathing Christ, and Resurrection are displayed. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ73B/B CPU Fan The third view discloses a carved and gilded wood altarpiece by Nikolaus Hagenauer, flanked by the Temptation of St. Anthony and Anthony's visit to Saint Paul. As well as being by far his greatest surviving work, the altarpiece contains most of his surviving painting by surface area, being 2.65 metres high and over 5 metres wide at its fullest extent. Dell Latitude E6510 CPU Fan His other works are in Germany, except for a small Crucifixion in Washington and another in Basel, Switzerland. Around 1510 he was asked to paint four saints in grisaille for the outside of the wings of Albrecht Dürer's Heller Altarpiece (de) in Frankfurt. Dürer's work was destroyed by fire and survives only in copies, but fortunately the wings have survived, SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan one pair of saints being displayed in Frankfurt's Municipal Art Gallery and the other in Karlsruhe's, Staatliche Kunsthalle. There are also the lateTauberbischofsheim altarpiece in the Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, and the Establishment of the Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome(1517–1519), Augustiner Museum, Freiburg. A large panel of Saint Erasmus and Saint Maurice in Munich probably dates from 1521–24, and was apparently part of a larger altarpiece project, the rest of which has not survived. HP Pavilion dv6-3370ca CPU Fan Other works are in Munich, Karlsruhe,Aschaffenberg and Stuppach (:de). Altogether four somber and awe-filled Crucifixions survive. The visionary character of his work, with its expressive colour and line, is in stark contrast to Dürer's works. His paintings are known for their dramatic forms, vivid colors, and depiction of light. HP G62-341NR CPU Fan The Protestant theologian Philipp Melanchthon is one of the few contemporary writers to refer to Grünewald, who is rather puzzlingly described as "moderate" in style, when compared with Dürer and Cranach; what paintings this judgement is based on is uncertain. By the end of the century, when the Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph II, embarked on his quest to secure as many Dürer paintings as possible, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan the Isenheim Altarpiece was already generally believed to be a Dürer. In the late 19th century he was rediscovered, and became something of a cult figure, with the angst-laden expressionism—and absence of any direct classicism—of the Isenheim Altarpiece appealing to both German Nationalists and Modernists. Joris-Karl Huysmans promoted his art enthusiastically in both novels and journalism, rather as Proust did that of Vermeer. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan His apparent sympathies with the peasants in the Peasants' War also brought him admiration from the political left. The composer Paul Hindemith based his 1938 opera Mathis der Maler on the life of Grünewald during the German Peasants' War; scene Six includes a partial re-enactment of some scenes from the Isenheim Altarpiece. DELL XPS M170 CPU Fan Elias Canetti wrote his novel Auto-da-Fé surrounded by reproductions of the Isenheim altarpiece stuck to the wall. German author W.G. Sebald traces the life story of Grünewald in his first literary work, After Nature. This book-length prose-poem uses the preoccupations of Grünewald and especially his creation of the Isenheim Altarpiece to communicate an intensely apocalyptic vision of a world that has abandoned nature.[7SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan ] The Isenheim Altarpiece also features in the last chapter of Sebald's novel The Emigrants, in which the painter Max Ferber describes his intuition of the extreme power of pain after seeing Grünewald's work The Isenheim Altarpiece is an altarpiece sculpted and painted by, respectively, the Germans Niclaus of Haguenau andMatthias Grünewald in 1512–1516.[1] It is on display at the Unterlinden Museum at Colmar, Alsace, in France. HP Pavilion dv6z-3100 CTO CPU Fan The museum celebrated the 500th anniversary of this masterpiece in 2012.[2] By far Grünewald's greatest and largest work, it was painted for the Monastery of St. Anthony in Isenheim near Colmar, which specialized in hospital work. The Antonine monks of the monastery were noted for their care of plague sufferers as well as their treatment of skin diseases, such asergotism. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan The image of the crucified Christ is pitted with plague-type sores, showing patients that Jesus understood and shared their afflictions. With the exception of certain holy days, the wings of the altarpiece were kept closed, displaying The Crucifixion framed on the left by the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian pierced by arrows, and on the right by Saint Anthony the Great, remaining placid although he is being taunted by a frightening monster. SONY Vaio VPC-EB2S1E/WI CPU Fan The two saints protect and heal the sick, Saint Anthony as the patron saint of the victims of Saint Anthony's fire and Saint Sebastian, whose aid was invoked to ward off the plague. Grünewald's Crucifixion stands as one of the most poignant representations of this scene in Western art due to the artist's masterful depiction of horrific agony, with Christ's emaciated body writhing under the pain of the nails driven through his hands and feet.  Dell Vostro 3500 CPU Fan This body covered with sores and riddled with thorns must have terrified the sick, but also left no doubt about Christ's suffering, thus comforting them in their communion with the Saviour, whose pain they shared. Mary, the mother of Jesus, is shown at Christ's right, collapsing in anguish in the arms of John, the beloved disciple of Christ, and shrouded in a large piece of white cloth. ASUS BFB0705HA CPU Fan At Christ's left, John the Baptist is accompanied by a lamb, symbolising the sacrifice of Jesus. The presence of John the Baptist is anachronistic. Beheaded by order of Herod in 29 AD, he could not possibly have witnessed the death of Christ. This last figure announces the New Testament by crying out in Latin, illum oportet crescere me autem minui (Vulgate, John3:30), "He must increase, but I must decrease."[John 3:30] HP Pavilion dv6720er CPU Fan The inclusion of John the Baptist in this scene is symbolic, since he is considered as the last of the prophets to announce the coming of the Messiah. The outer wings of the Isenheim Altarpiece were opened for important festivals of the liturgical year, particular those in honour of the Virgin Mary. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Thus are revealed four scenes: the left wing represents the Annunciation during which thearchangel Gabriel comes to announce to Mary that she will give birth to Jesus, the son of God. The Virgin Mary is depicted in a chapel to indicate the sacred character of the event. In the central corpus, the Concert of Angels and the Nativity are not independent scenes but instead fit within a unified concept: DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard the viewer witnesses Christ's coming to earth as a newborn baby, who will be led to combat the forces of evil personified by certain of the angels, disturbing in their physical appearance. A number of symbols provide keys to aid in interpretation: the enclosed garden represents Mary's womb and is a sign of her perpetual virginity, the rose bush without thorns refers to her as free of original sin, the fig tree symbolises mother's milk. TOSHIBA Satellite P500 Laptop Keyboard The bed, the bucket and the chamber pot underscore the human nature of Christ. Lastly, the right wing shows the Resurrection, in which Christ emerges from the tomb and ascends into Heaven bathed in light transfiguring the countenance of the Crucified into the face of God. The Resurrection and the Ascension are therefore encapsulated in a single image.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard Saint Augustine and Guy Guers, Saint Anthony, Two Bearers of Offerings, Saint Jerome, Christ and the Twelve Apostles by Niclaus of Haguenau With its inner wings open, the Altarpiece allowed pilgrims and the afflicted to venerate Saint Anthony, protector and healer of Saint Anthony's fire. Saint Anthony occupies the place of honour at the centre of the corpus and at his side a pig is depicted, the emblem of the Antonite order. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard On his left and right, two bearers of offerings illustrate these contributions in kind, an important source of income for the Antonites. This central section is framed by Saint Augustine and Saint Jerome, two of the four great fathers of the Latin Church. Guy Guyers, who had commissioned the Altarpiece, is depicted kneeling at the feet of Saint Augustine. DELL AEFM8U00310 Laptop Keyboard - Visit of Saint Anthony to Saint Paul the Hermit The two hermits meet in a stunning landscape, intended to represent the Theban Desert. Grünewald created a fantastic universe, surrounding the date palm with a strange mixture of vegetation, in marked contrast with the calmness and tranquillity of the encounter, in which the animals in attendance take part, with the crow bringing two morsels of bread to the two recluses.  DELL 0P445M Laptop Keyboard In this dreamlike scene, medicinal plants, painted in naturalistic fashion, sprout at the feet of the two main figures. - Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons This panel depicts Saint Anthony being tormented by monstrous creatures sent by Satan. Trampled to the ground, beaten with sticks, torn by claws and bitten, Saint Anthony appeals to God for help who sends angels to combat these evil demons. Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery In the lower left corner, the being with webbed feet and a distended belly seems to personify the disease caused by ergot poisoning, resulting in swelling and ulcerous growths. The altarpiece’s location in Alsace has meant that, in recent times, control of the work has alternated between France and Germany according to the fortunes of war.[3] Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery Following the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71 and the passing of control to Germany, German writers developed the concept that the altarpiece somehow represented the essential character of the German nation. The work subsequently became an object of extraordinary scenes of veneration in Munich during its temporary relocation there during the First World War, and again when Alsace passed back into French hands at the end of the War [4] Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery In the immediate postwar period the altarpiece, with its strong overtones of violent sensation and emotion, became a natural source of inspiration for many painters in the influential Expressionist school, such as George Grosz and Otto Dix;.[5][6] It also provided the basis for Hindemith's modernist opera Mathis der Maler. In the later 1930s, Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery it appears to have suffered a temporary decline in official esteem in Germany as a result of the National Socialists’ branding of both Expressionism and of Hindemith’s work as "degenerate".[7] Due to renovation work in the former convent and until April 2015, the Isenheim Altarpiece is on view in the local Dominican Church, located about 200 metres from the Unterlinden Museum. Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery This temporary transfer offers an exceptional and unprecedented opportunity to present, alongside Grünewald and Haguenau’s monumental masterwork, all three painted works by the Colmar native Martin Schongauer held in Colmar: the Orlier Altarpiece (1470–1475), the Altarpiece of the Dominicans (c. 1480) and the Virgin of the Rose Bush (1473). Sony VAIO PCG-31111V battery The altarpiece depicting Saint Catherine and Saint Lawrence (c. 1510) and sculptures from the Late Middle Ages round out the presentation. 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