Saab AB is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937. From 1947 to 1990 it was the parent company of automobile manufacturer Saab Automobile, and between 1968 and 1995 the company was in a merger with commercial vehiclemanufacturer Scania, known as Saab-Scania.Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery
"Svenska Aeroplan AB (aktiebolag)" (Swedish for "Swedish Aeroplane Company Limited") (SAAB) was founded in 1937 inTrollhättan, with the merger of SAAB and Linköping based ASJA the headquarters moved to Linköping. The style "Saab" replaced "SAAB" around 1950. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery
Originally manufacturing aeroplanes, the company sought ways in which to diversify its business and in the late 1940s began manufacturing cars. The Saab Automobile division was based in Trollhättan. The first car was the Saab 92; full-scale production started December 12, 1949, based on the prototype Ursaab. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery
The company soon developed a reputation for safe and reliable cars, with a notable competition history.In the late 1950s Saab ventured into the computer market with Datasaab. The company was a result partly of the need to make a computer that would be small enough to mount in an aeroplane as navigational equipment. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery
During the 1960s several computers were developed and sold to European countries, for uses such as banking. The aircraft computer (CK 37) was used in 1971 in the Viggen. The company was sold in 1975 to Sperry UNIVAC, while Saab retained its flight computer development.
In May 1965, the company name was changed to Saab AB to reflect its broad range of activities. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery
In 1968 Saab AB merged with the Swedish lorry, bus and heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturer Scania-Vabis, and became Saab-Scania AB. The merger meant that Saab no longer had to import the British Triumph Slant-4 engine, and could instead use the engine production facilities of Scania. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery
In 1972 they started manufacturing the Saab B engine, and in 1977 Saab took advantage of Scania's experience with turbochargers and added one to the engine, thus creating one of the earliest turbocharged "family cars" with the Saab 99 Turbo, which has been listed by Popular Mechanics as the second best turbocharged car ever made. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery
In 1990 General Motors bought 51 percent of the car division Saab Automobile, and acquired the rest a decade later.
In 1991 Investor AB completed leveraged buyout of Saab-Scania AB. Investor AB acquired all the outstanding shares in Saab-Scania for approximately SEK 21 billionSony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery
. Saab-Scania became a wholly owned subsidiary of Investor AB and the company was de-listed.
In 1995 Saab-Scania was divided by Investor AB into two independent companies, de-merging into Scania AB and Saab AB. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery
The intention by Investor AB was to broaden ownership in the two companies later. Following the sale of 50% of the car division Saab Automobile AB to General Motors, the main reason behind the merger with lorry manufacturer Scania-Vabis in 1968 had disappeared. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery
Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace (now BAE Systems) formed in 1995 the joint venture company Saab-BAe Gripen AB, to manufacture, market and support Gripen internationally. This co-operation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International for the same purpose. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery
From 1998 until 2005 the largest shareholder in Saab was the British aerospace company BAE Systems, following its acquisition of a 35% stake from Investor AB by its predecessor, British Aerospace. In January 2005, BAE Systems reduced its shareholding to 20%. Investor AB maintained a 20% share. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery
In December 2005 Saab joined the Dassault nEUROn project as a major partner.
In October 2008 the company announced its intention to merge its operations with that of Simrad Optronics. The new unit will develop high-tech optronicsproducts and will be headquartered in Norway, although other details of the new arrangement have not been finalized. Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery
In 2010 the company restructured from fifteen business units into five business areas; Aeronautics, Dynamics, Electronic Defence Systems, Security and Defence Solutions, and Support and Services. According to Saab the restructuring was undertaken to become more market and customer oriented. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery
In March 2010, BAE Systems sold half of its 20% stake in the company to Investor AB, which then became the major shareholder. In June 2011, the British company eventually sold its remaining stake bringing its 16 year involvement in Saab to an end.
On the morning of 19 December 2011, Saab Automobile AB officially declared bankruptcy while Saab AB remains in operation. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery
As of June 2012, Investor AB owns a 30% stake in the company (39.5% of the voting rights) and is the majority owner.
The main focus of aircraft production is fighter aircraft. Saab has been making aeroplanes since the 1930s, and the jet predecessors of the Gripen were theTunnan, the Lansen, the Draken and the Viggen. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery
The last civilian models made by Saab were the Saab 340 and Saab 2000. Both were mid-range turboprop-powered passenger planes. The development and the manufacturing of these aeroplanes takes place in Linköping.
Aeronautics offers; airborne systems, related subsystems, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and aerostructures . Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery
The business area Aeronautics is responsible for airframe structures for JAS 39 Gripen, and whole sections for Airbus, Boeing and NH90.
System development of the JAS 39 Gripen and the Skeldar VTOL UAV. Aeronautics is also partner in the European joint UAV-project Dassault nEUROn, where Saab develop Avionics and is responsible for the overall architecture and design. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery
Marketing and support of the JAS 39 Gripen fighter jet is also included in the Aeronautics business area.
Dynamics offers ground combat weapons, missile systems, torpedoes, sensor systems, unmanned underwater vehicles and signature management systems, remotely operated vehicles for armed forces as well as civil security applications. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery
Short range weapons offered include Carl-Gustaf, AT4/AT4 CS, STRIX and MBT LAW. Missile systems offered are RBS 70, RBS 23and RBS 15.
Saab Electronic Defence Systems offers airborne, ground based and naval radars, including Erieye, ARTHUR and GIRAFFE. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery
Various self protection systems are also offered within the business area, such as counter measure dispenser systems, sensorsand jammers. The business area also offer display systems, head up displays, monitoring systems and various other avionics related solutions. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery
The security and defence solutions area develop systems within the civil security sector as well as training and simulation solutions. The offer include Airborne early warning systems and C4ISTAR systems.
The training and simulation operations of the area offer tactical training and live-firing solutions for military and civil security use. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery
Support and Services offer maintenance, integrated support solutions, field facilities, logistics and regional aircraft maintenance.
Saab Aircraft Leasing leases and resells Saab aircraft to airlines. It completed 30 transactions in 2010. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery
The Saab Barracuda LLC facility in Lillington, North Carolina, manufactures signature management products and provides customized services. Foremost among thecamouflage, concealment and deception products is the Ultra Lightweight Camouflage Net System – ULCANS – which provides multi-spectral protection against visual, Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery
near infrared, thermal infrared and broadband radar detection. ULCANS is fielded with the U.S. Army and other Department of Defense organizations and is available in both woodland and desert versions. Saab Barracuda is one of only two qualified suppliers of ULCANS in North America, and currently holds a competed $1.76 B contract, along with GMA Cover Corp. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: Griffin) is a lightweight single-engine multirole fighter manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. It was designed to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force (Flygvapnet). Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery
The Gripen features delta wings and canards, as well as relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire technology.
In 1979, the Swedish government began development studies for an aircraft capable of fighter, attack andreconnaissance missions to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery
A new design from Saab was selected and developed as the JAS 39. Comparatively small relative to similar fighters, the Gripen has eight hardpoints allow it to carry various armaments and equipment, it is also fitted with a single 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon. It is powered by the Volvo-Flygmotor RM12 engine, a derivative of General Electric F404, capable of a top speed ofMach 2. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery
Beset by early problems with its avionics during flight testing, during which a prototype was lost, the aircraft entered service in 1997. Saab has since cooperated with other aerospace companies in marketing the aircraft internationally, and has achieved moderate success in Central Europe, South Africa and Southeast Asia. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery
More than 240 Gripens have been delivered or ordered as of 2012.
By the late 1970s, a replacement for Sweden's ageing Saab 35 Draken and Saab 37 Viggen was needed. Sweden needed an aircraft with good short field performance for its dispersed basing plan if the nation was invaded. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery
Mach 2 speed was also desired and it had to be affordable. The aircraft also had to be smaller than the Viggen, but with at least the same payload-range characteristics. A number of foreign designs were studied, namely the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery
the Northrop F-20 Tigershark and the Dassault Mirage 2000. In the end, the Swedish government opted to build its own fighter, with the task handed to Saab (Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolag). In late 1979, the government commenced a study calling for a versatile platform capable of "JAS",Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery
which stands for Jakt (air-to-air), Attack (air-to-surface), and Spaning (reconnaissance), indicating a multirole, or swingrole, fighter aircraft that can fulfill multiple roles during the same missions.
A number of Saab designs were accordingly reviewed, Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery
with the most promising being "Project 2105" (redesignated "Project 2108" and later, "Project 2110"), which was recommended to the government by the Defence Materiel Administration (Försvarets Materielverk, or FMV). The aircraft studied would be a single-engine, lightweight single-seater, Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery
which embraced fly-by-wire technology, coupled with an unstable design and canards. The powerplant would be the Volvo-Flygmotor RM12, a licensed-built derivative of the General Electric F404-400; engine development priorities were weight reduction and lowering component-count. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery
On 30 June 1982, with approval from Swedish Parliament, the FMV issued contracts to prime contractor Saab covering five prototypes and an initial batch of 30 production aircraft. To test several avionics intended for the JAS 39, such as the fly-by-wire controls, a Viggen was rapidly converted to operate as a test aircraft, flying by January 1983. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery
The JAS 39 received the name "Gripen"[Nb 1] through a public competition, which was announced in 1982; the griffin is the heraldry on Saab's logo.[Nb 2]
Sweden first ordered the JAS 39 in 1982; this first order was named Batch One and consisted of 30 JAS 39A single-seaters. Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery
The first Gripen was rolled out on 26 April 1987, marking Saab's 50th anniversary. Originally planned to fly in 1987,the first prototype (serial number 39-1) took its maiden flight on 9 December 1988 with pilot Stig Holmström at the controls. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery
During the test programme, concern surfaced about the aircraft's avionics, specifically the fly-by-wire flight control system (FCS), and the relaxed stability design configuration. On 2 February 1989, the problem was highlighted with the crash of the prototype while landing at Linköping; Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery
Test pilot Lars Rådeström was able to walk away with only a broken arm. The cause of the crash was identified as pilot-induced oscillation (PIO), caused by problems to the FCS's pitch-control routine.
To rectify the problem, Saab undertook major software improvements in conjunction with Calspan from the United States. Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery
A modified Lockheed NT-33A was used to test out these changes, and, within 15 months after the accident, flight testing resumed. The programme was again hindered when, on 8 August 1993, production aircraft 39102 was destroyed in an accident during an aerial display in Stockholm. Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery
Test pilot Rådeström lost control of the aircraft during a roll at low altitude, and the aircraft stalled within six seconds, forcing him to eject. The jet crashed on a small island near thousands of onlookers. Only one person was injured; a woman was hospitalized for three weeks for burns. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
Saab later found the problem to be high amplification of the pilot's quick and significant stick command inputs. The ensuing investigations and rectification of the flaws delayed test flying by several months, resuming in December 1993.
The first aircraft order also included an option for another 110, which became a firm order in June 1992. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
This was named Batch Two and was made up of 96 one-seat JAS 39As and 14 two-seat JAS 39Bs. The JAS 39Bs were 66 cm (26 in) longer than the A version; the second seat necessitated the deletion of the built-in cannon and a smaller internal fuel load. By April 1994, five prototype Gripens and two series-produced aircraft has been completed; the only major decision left was the selection of a beyond-visual-range missile (BVR) for integration.
A third batch of Gripens was ordered in June 1997. This batch called for 50 upgraded single-seat JAS 39Cs and 14 JAS 39D two-seaters. Batch Three aircraft possess more powerful and updated avionics, in-flight refuelling capability with the provisions of retractable probes on the aircraft's starboard side, and an on-board oxygen-generating system for longer missions. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery
To test the viability of in-flight refuelling, Flight Refuelling Ltd outfitted a prototype (39–4), which was successfully tested with a Royal Air Force VC10 in 1988. Deliveries of this batch ran from 2003 to 2008.
During the 1995 Paris Air Show, Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace (BAe, now BAE Systems) formed the joint-venture company, Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery
Saab-BAe Gripen AB with the goal of adapting, manufacturing, marketing and supporting Gripen worldwide.The deal involved the conversion of the A and B series aircraft to the "export" C and D series, which developed the Gripen for compatibility with NATO standards. Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery
This cooperation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International to promote export sales. In December 2004, Saab and BAE Systems announced that BAE was to sell a large portion of its stake in Saab, and that Saab would take full responsibility for marketing and export orders of the Gripen. Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery
BAE Systems sold the remaining 10 per cent of their stake in Saab in June 2011.
On 26 April 2007, Norway signed an agreement on a joint-development programme of the aircraft regarding cooperation in advanced development work on future versions of the aircraft. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery
The value of the deal, which will allow Norwegian companies to take part, is about NOK 150 million over two years. In June of the same year, Saab also entered an agreement with Thales Norway A/S concerning the development of communications systems for the Gripen fighter. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery
This order for the Norwegian company is the first to be awarded under the provisions of the Letter of Agreement signed by the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and Gripen International in April 2007.
In December 2007, as part of Gripen International's marketing efforts in Denmark, Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery
a deal was signed with Danish technology supplier Terma A/S which allows them to participate in an industrial cooperation programme over the next 10–15 years. The total value of the programme is estimated at over 10 billion Danish krone, and is partly dependent on whether Denmark would choose the Gripen. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery
In 2007, a two-seat "New Technology Demonstrator" or "Gripen Demo" was ordered; it was presented on 23 April 2008. It has increased fuel capacity, a more powerful powerplant, increased payload capacity, upgraded avionics and other improvements. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery
The demonstrator serves as the testbed for numerous upgrades for the new Gripen NG (Next Generation), also referred to as Gripen E/F, and MS 21. This version is powered by the General Electric F414G, a development of the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet's engine. The engine produces 20 per cent more thrust at 98 kN (22,000 lbf), enabling a supercruise speed of Mach 1.1 with air-to-air missiles (AAM). Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery
Compared to the Gripen D, the Gripen NG's maximum take off weight has increased from 14,000 to 16,000 kg (30,900–35,300 lb) with an increase in empty weight of 200 kg (440 lb). Due to relocated main undercarriage, the internal fuel capacity has increased by 40 per cent, with a significant increase in range. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery
Combat radius will be 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) with six AAMs plus drop tanks, and 30 minutes on station. Ferry range will be 4,070 km (2,200 nmi) with drop tanks. The new undercarriage configuration also allows for the addition of two heavy stores pylons to the fuselage. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery
Its PS-05/A radar adds a new Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) antenna for flight testing beginning in mid-2009. Gripen Demo's maiden flight was conducted on 27 May 2008. The test flight lasted about 30 minutes and reached a maximum altitude of about 6,400 meters (21,000 ft). Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery
On 21 January 2009, the Gripen Demo flew at Mach 1.2 without reheat to test its supercruise capability.
Saab performed study work on an aircraft carrier based version in the 1990s. In 2009, Saab launched the Sea Gripen project in response to India's request for information on a carrier-borne aircraft. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery
Brazil also has a potential carrier aircraft need. Sweden awarded Saab a four-year contract in 2010 to improve the Gripen's radar and other equipment, and lower its operating costs. In June 2010, Saab stated that Sweden plans to order the Gripen NG under the JAS 39E/F designation. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery
The new variant is to enter Swedish service in 2017 or possibly earlier if export orders are received. However in 2011 it was revealed that any Swedish purchase of the "Super Gripen" would depend on a foreign order being finalized.
By mid-2010 Swedish Air Force's JAS 39C/Ds had received the MS19 upgrade, Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery
which provided capability for the long-range MBDA Meteor missile, the short-rangeIRIS-T missile and the GBU-49 500-lb laser guided bomb. The subsequent MS20 upgrade project includes full Meteor missile capability, and is to span from 2011 to 2013. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery
Next the MS21 (Gripen E/F) project is to begin circa 2015, depending on the needs of a possible foreign partner. Sweden has offered to lend Switzerland 10 current generation (C/D) Gripen fighters, until the NG (E/F) is available in 2020, so that Switzerland can train its fighter pilots while avoiding expensive upkeep of the current F-5s. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery
In 2012, Jane's Information Group released a report estimating an operational cost per flight hour of $4,700, compared to $7,000 for the F-16 and generally lower than other western fighters. (I.e., roughly the same per metric ton of loaded mass.)
In designing the aircraft, several layouts were studied. Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery
Saab ultimately selected a delta wing-canard design with relaxed stability. The configuration provides for a high manoeuvrability along with better takeoff and landing performance. The Gripen also has a low drag, enabling it to fly faster, have increased range, and carry a larger payload. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery
The totally integrated avionics make it a "programmable" aircraft, changing the software can provide for additional mission profiles.
The Gripen was designed to provide for a fast sink rate and hard, short landings.While lacking thrust reversers that would allow the engine to aid braking, the aircraft's canards can be angled downwards to act as air brakes. Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery
The main wing is also fitted with flaps and elevons to change the flow of air around the wing. In addition to being able to take off with up to 14,330 lb of rockets, bombs, or missiles, the Gripen is also equipped with a single 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery
Of the aircraft's content, 67% is sourced from Swedish or European suppliers, and 33% from the United States.
The Gripen uses the modern PS-05/A pulse-doppler X-band radar, developed by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, which is based on the latter's advanced Blue Vixen radar for the Sea Harrier (which inspired the Eurofighter's CAPTOR radar as well). Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery
The radar is capable of detecting, locating and identifying targets 120 km (74 mi) away, and automatically tracking multiple targets in the upper and lower spheres, on the ground and sea or in the air, in all weather conditions. It can guide several air to air missiles at beyond visual range to multiple targets simultaneously. Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery
On 27 March 2009, Saab and Selex Galileo signed an agreement for joint development of the Raven AESA radar based on Selex Galileo's AESA Vixen and PS-05/A.This radar will be able to scan 200° from slightly behind to the left to slightly behind to the right. On 9 September 2009, Voodoo Envy 133
Gripen International offered the source code of their AESA radar as part of their bid for India's fighter competition. Gripens supplied to South Africa had a large amount of South African avionics components, such as the communications and electronic warfare systems, manufactured domestically instead of using standard components. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4010NA Battery
Starting in 2003, Saab and BAE developed the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS) for both the Gripen and other aircraft, based on the Striker HMDS used on the Eurofighter. By 2008, the Cobra HMDS was fully integrated into the aircraft, available as an option in the export versions and since retrofitted into both Swedish and South African Gripens. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4015NA Battery
Particular attention was paid to the need for rapid and safe detachment of the HMDS in the event of the pilot needing to eject.
The flight controls of the Gripen have been upgraded to use the ADA programming language, which was used on final prototypes and production aircraft from 1996 onwards. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4020NA Battery
The Gripen's software is continuously being improved and changed to add new capabilities, in comparison the Viggen was updated only as per an 18 month schedule. The Gripen was designed to form part of a "networked defence system", large quantities of data are exchanged automatically in real-timebetween one aircraft and shared with both other Gripen aircraft and command centres on the ground. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4040NA Battery
During the Cold War, the Swedish Armed Forces were preparing to defend against a possible invasion from the Soviet Union. Sweden elected to disperse military aircraft over the country to maintain an air defence capacity during an invasion.The JAS 39 was thus, with excellent performance, HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4042NA Battery
able to take-off from snow-covered runways of only 800-metre (2,600 ft).Another requirement is a short-turnaround time of just 10 minutes by a technician and five conscripts; meaning re-arming, refuelling, necessary inspection and servicing must be carried out in under 10 minutes between flights. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4045NA Battery
The principle of many parts of the airframe do not require maintenance or are low cost to maintain, as well as the physical structuring of the aircraft, means that Gripen will have a notably longer life than the preceding Viggen, expected to be around 50 years.
The Swedish Air Force placed a total order for 204 Gripens in three batches. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4050NA Battery
The first delivery occurred on 8 June 1993, when 39102 was handed over to theFlygvapnet during a ceremony at Linköping; the last was handed over on 13 December 1996.The air force received its first Batch two example on 19 December 1996.HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4065NA Battery
Instead of the fixed-price agreement of Batch One, Batch Two aircraft were paid as a "target price" concept, any cost under/overruns would be split between FMV and Saab.
The JAS 39 entered service with the F7 Wing (F7 Skaraborgs Flygflottilj) on 1 November 1997. The final Batch three aircraft was delivered to FMV on 26 November 2008. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4070NA Battery
This was accomplished at 10% less than the agreed-upon price for the batch, putting the JAS 39C flyaway cost at under US$30 million. This batch of Gripens was equipped for in-flight refuelling by specially-equipped TP84s (known internationally as the C-130 Hercules) already in service. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4075NA Battery
In 2007, a programme was started to upgrade 31 of the air force's JAS 39A/B fighters to JAS 39C/Ds. The SAF has a combined 134 JAS 39s in service in January 2012.
On 29 March 2011, it was announced that eight Gripens would be deployed to support the UN-mandated no-fly zone over Libya. HP Voodoo Envy 133 NV4080NA Battery
Sweden's role to the no-fly zone did not involve conducting ground-attack sorties. Journalist Tim Hepher speculated that sales of several modern aircraft, such as the Gripen, may be stimulated by operations over Libya. On 8 June 2011, the Swedish government announced an agreement to extend the deployment of the five Gripens. HP Envy 17 Notebook PC Battery
As of 24 October 2011, Gripens have flown more than 650 combat missions, almost 2,000 flight hours and delivered approximately 2000 reconnaissance reports to NATO.
On 25 August 2012 the Swedish gouvernment announched that 40-60 new planes of the modified E/F variant would be orderd by Saab. The new variant is planned to be in service by 2023. HP Envy 17-1000 Battery
The Czech Air Force and the Hungarian Air Force operate the Gripen; each currently leases 14 ex-Swedish Air Force aircraft, with the option of eventually acquiring them. In December 2001, the Czech Government announced that the Gripen had been selected; HP Envy 17-1001TX Battery
and stated that a major factor in this decision was the provision of a generous financing and offset programme by Gripen International.Hungary also received an offset arrangement, valued at 110 per cent of the cost of the 14 fighters.Hungary's decision to lease the Gripen came as a surprise, earlier the government had announced the intention to procure the F-16 instead. HP Envy 17-1001XX Battery
Initially, Hungary had planned to lease aircraft from Batch II, however the inability to conduct aerial refuelling and employ US guided weapons led to an upgraded variant being developed to meet NATO requirements.The export Gripen underwent refuelling tests in 1998 at Boscombe Down, UK, in response to Hungary's needs. HP Envy 17-1002TX Battery
In 1999, South Africa signed a contract with BAE/Saab for the procurement of 26 Gripens (C/D standard) with minor modification to meet their requirements.Deliveries to the South African Air Force commenced in April 2008.By April 2011, 18 aircraft, nine two-seater aircraft and nine single-seaters, had been delivered. HP Envy 17-1003XX Battery
In May 2011, as allegations of bribery to prevent a possible cancellation of the Gripen procurement continued, Saab issued strong denials over any payments being made. In the following month, Saab announced that payments of around $3.5 million had been made by partner BAE Systems. HP Envy 17-1006TX Battery
The Royal Thai Air Force ordered six Gripens (two single-seat C-models and four two-seat D-models) in February 2008 to replace some F-5s, with deliveries beginning in 2011. Six more Gripen Cs were ordered in November 2010 with deliveries from 2013. The Gripens are to be based at Surat Thani Airbase. HP Envy 17T Battery
The first of the six aircraft were delivered on 22 February 2011. It is believed that Thailand may eventually order as many as 40 Gripens.
The Empire Test Pilots' School (ETPS) in the United Kingdom has used the Gripen for advanced fast jet training of test pilots since 1999. HP Envy 17T-1000 Battery
In October 2008, it was reported that the Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists in their F-X2 programme. They are Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and Gripen NG. The aircraft involved is to total 36 and possibly up to 120 later. The decision was expected on 2 October 2009. HP Mini 1000 Battery
On 2 February 2009, Saab submitted a tender for 36 Gripen NGs to the Brazilian Air Force Command. On 5 January 2010, it was reported in the media that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. HP Mini 1001 Battery
The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs. Some of the media reported that in early 2010 the Rafale had been chosen by the Defense Ministry, However in February 2011, the president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, reportedly selected the F/A-18. HP Mini 1001TU Battery
The decision has since been delayed to 2012 due to financial constraints. On 19 January 2012, the Brazilian minister of defence said he believes the decision for the FX-2 will be taken in the first half of 2012.
The Croatian Air Force had announced plans to replace their MiG-21 bis aircraft, HP Mini 1001XX Battery
possibly with either the JAS 39 Gripen or the F-16 Falcon. The final projection calls for 12–18 aircraft. On 27 March 2008, the Swedish Defence Material Administration and Saab responded to Croatia's request for information regarding the procurement of 12 aircraft. HP Mini 1002TU Battery
Due to economic and political reasons, the Croatian Air Force postponed the decision and is now looking at a possible joint purchase with Slovenia of 12 aircraft. Croatia has been formerly offered 12 Gripen A/B fighters as interim solution for its air force. HP Mini 1002XX Battery
Sweden has offered the fighters for free until Croatia is able to purchase new Gripen NG fighters around 2019. Croatia has until June 2012 to take the offer. The nation has stated requirement for 24 fighters, but can only afford 12 new fighters now.
In 2007, Denmark signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the Defence Ministers of Sweden and Denmark to evaluate the Gripen, HP Mini 1003TU Battery
pending Denmark's future replacement of their fleet of 48 F-16s. Denmark has also requested new variants of Gripens to be developed that will include new avionics, a larger and more powerful engine, larger payload and, most importantly, longer range. This request was the basis for the Gripen NG, HP Mini 1004TU Battery
which satisfies all Denmark's requirements, such as the more powerful F414G engine. Denmark has since delayed the decision over the purchase several times by 2009.On 7 July 2008, Dagens Industri reported that the Netherlands announced they will evaluate Gripen NG together with four other competitors and announce the result in the end of 2008. HP Mini 1005TU Battery
Saab responded on 25 August 2008 to a 'Replacement Questionnaire' issued by the Dutch Ministry of Defence, offering 85 aircraft to the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The Netherlands evaluated the Gripen NG against the F-35. On 18 December 2008, media reported that the Netherlands evaluated the F-35 ahead of the Gripen NG, HP Mini 1006TU Battery
citing better performance and lower price. On 13 January 2009, NRC Handelsblad claimed that, according to Swedish sources, Saab has made an offer to the Dutch to deliver 85 Gripens for 4.8 billion euro, about 1 billion euro cheaper than budgeted for the F-35.This price includes training of pilots and maintenance for the next 30 years. HP Mini 1007TU Battery
In January 2008, the Swiss Defence Material Administration invited Gripen International to submit initial bids for supplying the Gripen NG as a replacement for their ageing F-5s. Saab responded with an initial proposal on 2 July 2008. Some 22 aircraft were expected to be procured. HP Mini 1008TU Battery
Other contenders were the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon fighters. On 30 November 2011, the Swiss government announced its decision to buy 22 Gripen NG fighters. In early 2012, a confidential evaluation report of the Swiss Air Force's tests of the three contenders in 2009, was leaked to the press. HP Mini 1009TU Battery
It rated the Gripen as performing substantially worse than the Rafale and the Eurofighter. The Gripen was assessed as satisfactory for reconnaissance missions, but unsatisfactory forair policing or air-to-air and strike missions.The evaluation was of the JAS 39C/D, while the more advanced Gripen NG was bid. HP Mini 1010LA Battery
The parliamentary security commission found that the Gripen offered the most risks, but voted to go ahead with the fighter because it was the cheapest option.
Following a meeting with Ministry of Defence (MoD) officials in May 2011, Saab agreed to establish a development centre in the UK to expand on the Sea Gripen concept. HP Mini 1010NR Battery
Saab chief executive Håkan Buskhe stated: "The MoD is looking for competition". The decision to proceed to a flight demonstrator will be made in late 2012.
In September 2006, Bulgaria announced they were considering the replacement of ageing MiG-21s, either with 16 JAS 39C/D Gripens, or 16 used F-16s. HP Mini 1010TU Battery
Other nations that have shown interest in the Gripen include Slovakiaand Oman.
Around 1994, Austria sought around 25 aircraft to replace its existing J-35 Drakens. The Gripen competed with the F-16, F/A-18, Mirage 2000, and the MiG-29. After years of delay, Austria announced it was to purchase ex-German Eurofighters to meet its requirements in July 2002. HP Mini 1011TU Battery
In 1989 the Finnish Air Force began to look for a new fighter to replace its fleet of MiG-21s and Saab 35 Drakens. During 1991 and 1992, the Dassault Mirage 2000, Gripen, General Dynamics F-16, MiG-29 and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet were evaluated; this was the first formal competition the Gripen had participated in. HP Mini 1012TU Battery
On 6 May 1992, the Hornet was announced as the winner of the fighter competition and a total of 64 aircraft were ordered. In the early 1990s Germany considered the costs of the in-development Eurofighter to be excessive, and considered the Gripen as a substitute due to its significantly lower cost to procure and operate. HP Mini 1013TU Battery
However, Germany chose to pursue a stripped down version of the Eurofighter by 1993.
The Gripen was a contender for the Indian MRCA competition for 126 multirole combat aircraft.In April 2008, Gripen International offered the Next Generation Gripen for India's tenderand opened an office in New Delhi in order to support its efforts in the Indian market. HP Mini 1014 Battery
On 4 February 2009, Saab announced that it had partnered with India's Tata Group to develop the new Gripen variant to fit India's needs.
The Indian Air Force (IAF) conducted extensive field trials and evaluated Gripen's flight performance, logistics capability, weapons systems, advanced sensors and weapons firing. HP Mini 1014TU Battery
In April 2011, the IAF rejected Gripen's bid in favour of Eurofighter Typhoon and Dassault Rafale. Senior Indian Air Force officials while happy with the improved capabilities of Gripen NG, identified its high reliance on US-supplied hardware, including electronics, weaponry, and GE F414 engine as a factor that may hamper its export potential. HP Mini 1015TU Battery
The Gripen was one of contenders in competition for 48 new multirole fighters for the Polish Air Force. On 27 December 2002, the Polish Defence Minister announced the selection of the F-16C/D Block 50/52+. The third candidate was Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Mk 2. HP Mini 1016TU Battery
According to Stephen Larrabee, the choice to go with the F-16 was heavily influenced by a lucrative offset agreement by Lockheed Martin, and the political emphasis placed on the strategic relationship between Poland, the US, and NATO.
According to a former Polish military defence vice-minister, the JAS 39 offer was better. HP Mini 1017TU Battery
Saab's offer also included participation in fighter research and technologies.
On 18 January 2008. the Norwegian Ministry of Defence issued a Request for Binding Information (RBI) to the Swedish Defence Material Administration, who responded on 28 April 2008 with a proposal offering 48 aircraft. HP Mini 1018TU Battery
The rival Lockheed Martin proposal amassed US diplomatic and political support. On 20 November 2008, the Norwegian government released a statement that they have selected the F-35 Lightning II for the Royal Norwegian Air Force. Norway stated the F-35 is the only fighter candidate to meet all of its operational requirements. HP Mini 1019TU Battery
Saab has criticised the selection, stating that there were flaws in Norway's cost calculations for the Gripen NG.
On 10 February 2009, Swedish defence minister Sten Tolgfors stated that Norway had miscalculated the deal. HP Mini 1020LA Battery
The offer was for 48 aircraft over 20 years, but Norway had extrapolated it to operating 57 aircraft over 30 years, thus doubling the cost. The Swedish Ministry of Defence has several other objections to Norway's calculations. Among other things, Norway projected the operational costs for their F-16s on both candidates, HP Mini 1020TU Battery
and did not consider the operational costs of Sweden's Gripens. Norway also calculated with more aircraft losses in accidents than what Sweden considers reasonable based on their operational experience of the type. According to Tolgfors, Norway's decision will make it more difficult to sell the Gripen to other countries. HP Mini 1021TU Battery
Tolgfors said that the Gripen does not meet the requirements set by the Norwegian government,though some media reports claim those requirements are tilted in favour of the F-35.
In December 2010 leaked United States diplomatic cables revealed that the USA decided to delay a request by HP Mini 1022TU Battery
Sweden for an AESA radar for the Gripen until after Norway had announced their decision to buy the F-35. The same cables indicated that Norwegian consideration of the Gripen was "was just a show" and that Norway had decided to purchase the F-35 as a result of "high-level political pressure" from the US. HP Mini 1023TU Battery
Following the successful sale of the F-35 to Norway US officials compiled a “lessons learned” memo that included a list of tactics for future sales to other countries. These included using the active involvement of local US embassy and its ambassador to market the aircraft, HP Mini 1024TU Battery
coordinating sales strategies with Lockheed Martin and using diplomatic events to specifically talk about the F-35. These events could include ambassadorial luncheons with national people of influence as invited guests. The documents indicate that US officials were attempting to make the sale "without appearing to bully or attempt to force a decision." HP Mini 1025TU Battery
The Romanian Air Force announced they would replace their MiG-21 LanceR aircraft beginning in 2008, possibly with JAS 39 Gripen, F-16 Fighting Falcon or Eurofighter Typhoon.On 23 March 2010, the Romanian Ministry of Defence decided to purchase 24 ex-USAF F-16s. HP Mini 1030NR Battery
The bids of both the Gripen and the Eurofighter were re-submitted in May 2010, both parties matched the price of the F-16 proposal in the revision.
The AT4 (also variously AT-4, AT4 CS, AT4-CS, or AT-4CS) is an 84-mm unguided, portable, single-shot recoilless smoothbore weapon built in Sweden by Saab Bofors Dynamics (previously Bofors Anti-Armour Systems). HP Mini 1033CL Battery
Saabhas had considerable sales success with the AT4, making it one of the most common light anti-tank weapons in the world.
The designation "CS" represents "confined space" referring to the propellant charge being designed to operate effectively within buildings in an urban environment. HP Mini 1035NR Battery
It is intended to give infantry units a means to destroy or disable armored vehicles and fortifications, although it is not generally sufficient to defeat a modern main battle tank (MBT). The launcher and projectile are manufactured prepacked and issued as a single unit of ammunition with the launcher discarded after a single use. HP Mini 1050 Battery
The AT4 is a development of the 84-mm Pansarskott m/68  (Miniman), adopted by the Swedish Army in the late 1960s. Like the m/68, the AT4 was designed by Försvarets Fabriksverk (FFV) and manufactured at their facility at Zakrisdal, Karlstad, Sweden. HP Mini 1050LA Battery
FFV began research in a replacement for the m/68 in 1976, deliberately designing an individual anti-armor weapon that would not be able to defeat the heavy armor protection of MBTs (main battle tanks) in frontal engagements, believing that to be counterproductive. HP Mini 1090LA Battery
The AT4 was designed as a weapon to engage medium to light armored vehicles from any direction, MBTs from the sides or rear, and as an assault weapon against buildings and fortifications. FFV also had the design goal of a weapon that was simple to use, rugged, and far more accurate than previous individual antiarmor weapons against moving targets. HP Mini 1097EI Battery
Another key requirement was that the AT4 not only be able to penetrate armor, but also have a devastating beyond-armour effect after penetration. FFV and the Swedish Army began the first evaluation firings of the prototype AT4s in the spring of 1981 with 100 tested by early 1982. HP Mini 1098EI Battery
Even before the AT4 had been adopted by Sweden, it was entered into a U.S. Army competition for a new anti-tank weapon mandated by Congress in 1982 when the FGR-17 Viper failed as a replacement for the M72 LAW. Six weapons were tested in 1983 by the U.S. Army: HP Mini 1099EA Battery
the British LAW 80, the German Armbrust, the French APILAS, the Norwegian M72E4 (an upgraded M72 LAW), the U.S. Viper (for baseline comparison purposes) and the Swedish AT4. The U.S. Army reported to Congress in November 1983 that the FFV AT4 came the closest to meeting all the major requirements established to replace the M72 LAW, HP Mini 1099ED Battery
with the Armbrust coming in second.
Though very impressed with the simplicity and durability of the tested version of the AT4, the U.S. Army saw some room for improvement, specifically the addition of rear and front bumpers on the launch tube and changes to the sights and slings. HP Mini 1099EE Battery
After these changes, the AT4 was adopted by the U.S. Army as the Lightweight Multipurpose Weapon M136. The Swedish Army also recognized these improvements and subsequently adopted the Americanized version of the AT4 as the Pansarskott m/86 (Pskott m/86), with the addition of a forward folding hand grip to help steady the AT4 when being aimed and fired. HP Mini 1099EF Battery
The forward folding grip is the only difference between the AT4 adopted by Sweden and the U.S. Army version.
Due to the urban combat conditions that U.S. military forces in the last several years have been facing regularly, HP Mini 1099EG Battery
the U.S. Army Close Combat Systems manager in charge of purchases of the AT4, suspended orders for the standard version of the AT4, and are now ordering only the AT4 CS version.
The AT4 may be considered a disposable, low-cost alternative to a Carl Gustav recoilless rifle. The AT4 took many of its design features from the Carl Gustav, HP Mini 1099EI Battery
which operates on the principle of a recoilless weapon, where the forward inertia of the projectile is balanced by the mass of propellant gases ejecting from the rear of the barrel. But unlike the Carl Gustav, which uses a heavier and more expensive steel tube with rifling, HP Mini 1099EK Battery
the disposable AT4 design greatly reduces manufacturing costs by using a reinforced smoothbore fiberglass outer tube. In a recoilless weapon, the barrel does not need to contend with the extreme pressures found in traditional guns and can thus be made very lightweight. HP Mini 1099EL Battery
This fact, combined with the almost complete lack of recoil, means that relatively large projectiles (comparable to those found in mortars and artillerysystems) can be utilized, which would otherwise be impossible in a man-portable weapon.
In the system originally developed by FFV for the Carl Gustav, HP Mini 1099EM Battery
a plastic blowout plug is placed at the center rear of the shell casing containing the projectile and propellant, which itself is enclosed in the AT4 outer tube. When the gases build up to the correct pressure level, the blowout plug disintegrates allowing the proper amount of gases to be vented to the rear, balancing the propellant gases pushing the projectile forward. HP Mini 1099EN Battery
The AT4 uses a unique method developed earlier by FFV and adopted for the AT4: the spring-loaded firing rod is located down the side of the outer tube, with thefiring pin at the rear side of the tube. When released, the firing pin strikes a primer located in the side of the casing's rim. HP Mini 1099EP Battery
Additionally, as the shell casing absorbs the majority of the firing stresses, the launch tube can be designed to be very lightweight as it does not have to contend with the extreme pressures found in traditional cannons. HP Mini 1099ER Battery
The disadvantage of the recoilless design is that it creates a large back blast area behind the weapon which can cause severe burns and overpressure injuries both to friendly personnel in the vicinity of the user and sometimes to the users themselves, especially in confined spaces. The back blast may also reveal the user's position to the enemy. HP Mini 1099ES Battery
The problem of back blast has been recently solved with the AT4-CS (Confined Space) version, specially designed for urban warfare. This version uses a saltwater countermass in the rear of the launcher to absorb the back blast; the resulting spray captures and dramatically slows down the pressure wave, allowing troops to fire from enclosed areas. HP Mini 1099ET Battery
It should be noted that the AT4-CS version also reduced its muzzle velocity from the original 290 mps to 220 mps as part of its effort to be user safe in a confined space, making the AT4-CS version less effective.
To fire, the gunner first removes the safety pin located at the rear of the tube, which unblocks the firing rod. HP Mini 1099EW Battery
He then takes a firing position ensuring that no one is present in the back blast area. If firing from the prone position, he must also place his legs well to the side to avoid burning himself. Then the gunner moves back the front and rear sight covers, allowing the sights to pop up into their firing positions. HP Mini 1100 Battery
The AT4 sights are iron sights and were originally developed for the cancelled Viper, and are similar in concept and use to those on assault rifles. He then removes the first of two safeties by moving the firing rod cocking lever (located on the left side) forward and then over the top to the right side. HP Mini 1100CM Battery
The gunner takes aim, while at the same time holding down the red safety lever located in front of the cocking lever, and then fires by pressing forward the red firing button with his right thumb. Both the red safety lever and firing button must be pressed down at the same time to fire the AT4. HP Mini 1101TU Battery
The red firing button has resistance similar to the trigger pull of an assault rifle, so the gunner does not have to jab at the firing button which could throw his aim off.
After firing, the AT4 is discarded. Unlike the heavier Carl Gustav, the AT4 outer tube is built only to take the stress of one firing; HP Mini 1102TU Battery
it is not reusable and cannot be reloaded like the Carl Gustav.
The AT4 can mount an optical night sight on a removable fixture. In U.S. military use, the launcher can be fitted with the AN/PAQ-4C, AN/PEQ-2, or the AN/PAS-13 night sights.
The AT4 requires little training and is quite simple to use, making it suitable for general issue. HP Mini 1103TU Battery
However, as the cost of each launcher makes regular live-fire training very expensive, practice versions exist which are identical in operation but fire reloadable 9mm or 20mm tracer ammunition. Both practice cartridges are unique to their respective weapons, with their trajectory matched to that of the live round. HP Mini 1104TU Battery
The 20mm version also has a recoilless weapon effect with the same high noise and back blast as the AT4 firing and is favored by the Swedish army because of the added realism of the back blast as compared to the "plonk" sound of the 9mm round (similar to the sound of a finger tapping on an empty can). HP Mini 1105TU Battery
The Erieye radar system, is an Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) developed by Saab Electronic Defence Systems (formerly Ericsson Microwave Systems) of Sweden. It is based on the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). The Erieye is used on a variety of aircraft platforms, such as the Brazilian Embraer E-99 or EMB-145. HP Mini 1106TU Battery
It has recently been implemented on the Saab 2000 aircraft.
The Erieye Ground Interface Segment (EGIS; not to be confused with the Aegis combat system) is a major component of the software used by the Erieye system.
The radar provides 300 degree coverage and has an instrumental range of 450km HP Mini 1107TU Battery
and detection range of 350 km in a dense hostile electronic warfare environment—in heavy radar clutter and at low target altitudes. In addition to this, the radar is also capable of identifying friends or foes, and has a sea surveillance mode.
The Erieye system has full interoperability with NATO air defence command and control systems. HP Mini 1108TU Battery
In 1985 Ericsson Microwave Systems were contracted by the Swedish Defence Material Administration to develop what would become the PS-890 Erieye AEW radar. In the same year a dummy dual-sided phased array antenna was tested on a twin-engined Fairchild Metro aircraft. HP Mini 1109TU Battery
In 1987 the Metro aircraft was fitted with the radar system for flight trials. Production of the radar started in 1993 following an order for six radars for the Swedish Air Force for fitment in Saab 340 aircraft. The first two production radars were delivered in 1996.
The Erieye AEW&C mission system radar is an active, phased-array, HP Mini 1110LA Battery
pulse-doppler sensor that can feed an onboard operator architecture or downlink data (via an associated datalink subsystem) to a ground-based air defence network. The system employs a large aperture, dual-sided antenna array housed in a dorsal 'plank' fairing. The antenna is fixed, HP Mini 1110NR Battery
and the beam is electronically scanned, which provides for improved detection and significantly enhanced tracking performance compared withradar-dome antenna systems. Erieye detects and tracks air and sea targets out to the horizon, and sometimes beyond this due to anomalous propagation —HP Mini 1110TU Battery
instrumented range has been measured at 450 kilometres (280 mi). Typical detection range against fighter-sized targets is approximately 425 kilometres (264 mi), in a 150° broadside sector, both sides of the aircraft. Outside these sectors, performance is reduced in forward and aft directions. HP Mini 1111TU Battery
Other system features include: Adaptive waveform generation (including digital, phase-coded pulse compression); Signal processing and target tracking; track while scan (TWS); low side lobe values (throughout the system's angular coverage); low- and medium-pulse repetition frequency operating modes; HP Mini 1112TU Battery
frequency agility; Air-to-air and sea surveillance modes; and targetradar cross-section display.
The radar operates as a medium- to high-PRF pulse-Doppler, solid-state radar, in E/F-band (3 GHz), incorporating 192 two-way transmit/receive modules that combine to produce a pencil beam, HP Mini 1113TU Battery
steered as required within the operating 150° sector each side of the aircraft (one side at a time). It is understood that Erieye has some ability to detect aircraft in the 30° sectors fore and aft of the aircraft heading, but has no track capability in this sector.
The Saab 2000 is a turboprop airplane able to cruise at a speed of 665 km/h. HP Mini 1114TU Battery
Saab decided to build the 2000 in December 1988 due to perceived demand for a high speed turboprop which could approach the speeds of jet aircraft while retaining the efficiency provided by turboprop engines. The Saab 2000 first flew on 26 March 1992 and entered into scheduled airline service in 1994, HP Mini 1115NR Battery
a few months after its certification by the Joint Aviation Authorities in March and the Federal Aviation Administration in April.
The Saab 2000 had a 15% greater wingspan than the Saab 340, and being over 24 ft. 9 in. (7.55m) longer could fit up to 58 passengers. HP Mini 1115TU Battery
The 2000 was the first commercial aircraft to use the 4,591shp Rolls-Royce AE 2100 turbopropengines (then built by Allison), driving slow turning six-bladed Dowty Rotol propellers. One engine was mounted on each wing, as in the 340, with the engines placed farther from the fuselage than those of the 340. HP Mini 1116NR Battery
Sales of the Saab 2000 were fairly limited. The major initial customer was Crossair, a regional airline which had Swissair as a 56% shareholder. Crossair took delivery of 34 aircraft and was still operating the type in 2005. Due to limited demand, Saab ceased production of the Saab 2000 in 1999. HP Mini 1116TU Battery
By the year 2000, 58 Saab 2000 aircraft remained in service. The primary reason for the low sales was the success of the newly introduced regional jets such as the Bombardier CRJ and Embraer ERJ 145 family which provided better performance and passenger comfort for the same initial price. HP Mini 1117TU Battery
Some smaller airlines, including Eastern Airways in the UK, have subsequently acquired 2000s at low cost and operated them on regional routes which experience lower passenger numbers.In June 2006, Pakistan finalized the purchase of six Saab 2000 turboprop aircraft to be equipped with the Saab-EricssonERIEYE Airborne Early Warning system. HP Mini 1118TU Battery
Revised in May 2007 due to renegotiation with the Government of Pakistan, only five aircraft will be delivered, four of which will be equipped with the Erieye system. On April 3, 2008, the first Saab 2000 Erieye AEW&C was rolled out and presented to Pakistan Air Force officials during a ceremony in Sweden. HP Mini 1119TU Battery
Saab Automobile AB, better known as Saab /ˈsɑːb/ (or SAAB, an acronym for Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget), is a Swedish car manufacturer. It was formed in 1945 out of Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan AB (aktiebolaget)" (English: Swedish Aeroplane Limited), HP Mini 1120BR Battery
a Swedish aerospace and defence company, when Saab AB started a project to design a small automobile. The Saab 92, Saab's first production model, was launched in 1949. The parent company merged with Scania-Vabis in 1968, and ten years later, in 1978, launched the Saab 900, Saab's best-selling model. In the mid 1980s, HP Mini 1120LA Battery
the newSaab 9000 was launched and in 1989, the Saab car division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB; General Motors (GM), with an investment of US$600 million, owned 50%. GM exercised its option to acquire the remaining Saab shares in 2000, HP Mini 1120NR Battery
spending US$125 million to turn the company into a wholly owned subsidiary. GM sold it to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N.V. (now Swedish Automobile) in 2010.After struggling to avoid insolvency throughout 2011, the company petitioned the Swedish court for bankruptcy following the failure of a Chinese consortium to complete a purchase of the company; HP Mini 1120TU Battery
the purchase had been blocked by former owner GM, which opposed the transfer of licenses for patents and technology to Chinese companies. On March 6, 2012, an Indian newspaper reported that at least two companies had placed bids for a complete SAAB Automobile buy out. HP Mini 1121TU Battery
These were India’s Mahindra and Mahindra and China’s Youngman. It was reported that these bids were in the range of $300 million to $400 million.
On June 13, 2012 it was announced that the National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobile's bankruptcyestate. HP Mini 1122TU Battery
Saab is the exclusive automobile Royal Warrant holder as appointed by the King of Sweden.
Saab AB, "Svenska Aeroplan AB (aktiebolaget)" (Swedish for "Swedish Aeroplane Limited"), a Swedish aerospace and defence company, had been created in 1937 in Linköping. HP Mini 1123TU Battery
The company had been established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the country's neutrality as Europe moved closer to war. As the war drew towards a close and the market for fighter planes evaporated, the company began looking for new markets in which to diversify. HP Mini 1124TU Battery
An automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name X9248. The design project became formally known as Project 92; the 92 being next in production sequence after the Saab 91, a single engine trainer aircraft. In 1948, a company site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, HP Mini 1125NR Battery
along with the car manufacturing headquarters, which has remained there since. The company made four prototypes named Ursaab or "original Saab", numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92, in 1949.
The Saab 92 went into production in December 1949, selling 20,000 cars through the mid-1950s. HP Mini 1125TU Battery
The 92 was thoroughly redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, and accordingly was renamed the Saab 93. The car's engine gained a cylinder, going fromtwo to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saab's trademark trapezoidal radiator grill. A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959. HP Mini 1126NR Battery
The decade also saw Saab's first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts.
1960 saw the third major revision to the 92's platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab: it was the first Saab to be widely exported out of Sweden. It proved very popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples. HP Mini 1126TU Battery
Even more important to the company's fortunes was 1968's Saab 99. The 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years, and unlike its predecessors, severed all ties with the 92. The 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades: wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams. HP Mini 1127TU Battery
The design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, and elements like the Saab "hockey stick" profile graphic continue to influence Saab design.
In 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under theWallenberg family umbrella. HP Mini 1128TU Battery
The 99 range was expanded in 1973 with the addition of a combi coupe model, a body style which became synonymous with Saab. The millionth Saab was produced in 1976.
Saab entered into an agreement with Fiat in 1978 to sell a rebadged Lancia Delta as the Saab 600 and jointly develop a new platform. HP Mini 1129TU Battery
The agreement yielded 1985's Saab 9000, sister to the Alfa Romeo 164, Fiat Croma and Lancia Thema; all rode atop a common Type Four chassis. The 9000 was Saab's first proper luxury car but failed to achieve the planned sales volume.
1978 also was the first year for the 99's replacement: the Saab 900. HP Mini 1130CM Battery
Nearly one million 900s would be produced, making it Saab's best-selling and most iconic model. A popular convertible version followed in 1986, all of which were made at theSaab-Valmet factory in Finland, making up nearly 20% of 900 sales. Even today, the "classic 900" retains a cult following among enthusiasts.'HP Mini 1131TU Battery
In 1989, the Saab car division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB, headquartered in Sweden; General Motors and Investor AB controlled 50% each. GM's investment of US $600 million gave them the option to acquire the remaining shares within a decade. HP Mini 1133CA Battery
General Motor's involvement spurred the launch of a new 900 in 1994. The new car shared a platform with the Opel Vectra. Due in large part to its success, Saab earned a profit in 1995 for the first time in seven years. However, the model never achieved the cult following of the "classic 900" and did not achieve the same reputation for quality. HP Mini 1135CA Battery
1997 marked Saab's 50th anniversary as an automaker. The company used their jubilee owner's convention to launch a replacement for the aging 9000: the Saab 9-5. The 900 received a facelift and renaming complimentary to its new larger sibling: it would now be called the Saab 9-3. HP Mini 1137NR Battery
The 9-5 was the first Saab without a combi coupe bodystyle option in twenty years. Filling that space was a wagon variant, introduced in 1999.
GM exercised their option to acquire the remaining Saab shares in 2000, spending US$125 million to turn the company into a wholly owned subsidiary. HP Mini 1139NR Battery
The newly close relationship yielded its first product in 2003's all-new 9-3. The new model, marketed as a sport sedan, dropped Saab's iconic hatchback in favor of a more conventional four-door approach. The model shared a platform and components with the Vectra again, but the relationship was much closer than had been in the past. HP Mini 1140NR Battery
Under GM's direction, the badge-engineered Saab 9-2X (based on the Subaru Impreza) and Saab 9-7X (based on the Chevrolet Trailblazer) were introduced in the American market in 2005 with the hope of increase sales. Both models were a critical and commercial failure and were scrapped a few years after production. HP Mini 1141NR Battery
GM also delayed the 9-3 wagon by three years, canceled a 9–5 replacement in 2005 and announced a planned shift of production away from Saab's historic home in Trollhättan to Opel's factory in Rüsselsheim.
Owing to fading fortunes across their entire business, HP Mini 1150BR Battery
GM announced that the Saab brand was "under review" in December 2008, a process which included the possibility of selling or shuttering the carmaker. Reportedly, 27 potential buyers emerged, including BMW, Fiat, Geely, Hyundai, Magna, Renault and Tata Motors; serious talks progressed with three bidders: HP Mini 1150CM Battery
the Swedishsupercar maker Koenigsegg, Merbanco and Renco Group.
As the talks progressed, GM's support receded, and the company went into administration, the Swedish equivalent of America'sChapter 11 bankruptcy. Saab's managing director Jan-Åke Jonsson said that this was HP Mini 1150LA Battery
"the best way to create a truly independent entity that is ready for investment". For its part, the Swedish government was reluctant to become involved, with Maud Olofsson, industry minister, stating: "The Swedish state and taxpayers in Sweden will not own car factories. HP Mini 1150NR Battery
Sometimes you get the impression that this is a small, small company but it is the world's biggest automaker so we have a right to make demands.
On 16 June 2009, Koenigsegg, announced their intentions to purchase the brand from GM. HP Mini 1151NR Battery
The bid was backed by a group ofNorwegian investors and the Chinese car maker Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co Ltd (BAIC). The following month, both parties announced that GM had consented to the deal. There were outstanding financial details, but a loan from the European Investment Bank was expected to cover them. HP Mini 1152NR Battery
The loan was approved in October, but on November 24, Koenigsegg announced that it had "come to the painful and difficult conclusion that it could no longer carry out the acquisition."much because of the constant delays and the difficulties coordinating the involved parties; GM, the European Investment Bank, the Swedish National Debt Office and BAIC. HP Mini 1153NR Battery
It was announced on 14 December that the Chinese automaker would acquire the intellectual property rights and production equipment for the previous generation Saab 9-3 and Saab 9-5 in a deal worth about US$197 million, which was enough for the company to run for three months. HP Mini 1160CM Battery
BAIC expressed their intent to create a new brand around the purchased technology and admitted to the purchase of "three overall vehicle platforms, two engine technologies and two transmission systems."
Following the collapse of talks with Koenigsegg, HP Mini 1170CM Battery
GM announced that the brand would be eliminated in 2010 if it failed to secure a buyer before the close of 2009. As talks with several firms failed, including the Netherlands-based boutique supercar maker Spyker, GM formally announced their intention to wind down the Saab brand.[ HP Mini 1180CM Battery
Undeterred, a new offer round materialized. Earlier bidders Spyker and Merbanco revised their offers and were joined by a submission from Luxembourg-based Genii Capital, who boasted the support of F1 chief Bernie Ecclestone. GM continued accepting bids until a self-imposed deadline of January 7, 2010. HP Mini 1190BR Battery
Acknowledging that the chances for reaching a deal with any party were very slim, they pledged to evaluate each offer with due diligence.
On 26 January, General Motors(GM) confirmed that Spyker and GM had come to an agreement allowing Spyker to purchase Saab, subject to regulatory and government approval; HP Mini 1198EO Battery
the sale was completed on February 23, 2010. General Motors will continue to supply Saab with engines, transmissions and also completed vehicles in the shape of the new Saab 9-4x from GM's Mexican factory. The deal includes a loan from the European Investment Bank, guaranteed by the Swedish government. HP Mini 1199EA Battery
It comprises $74m in cash up front, payable to GM by July 2010, and shares in Spyker to the tune of $320m (US).Saab announced that it was going to build its US headquarters in Royal Oak, Michigan. A new Saab 9-3 was confirmed for 2012, while production restarted at the Saab plant in Sweden in March 2010. HP Mini 1199EB Battery
Victor Muller, CEO and founder of Spyker Cars stated in an interview that the take-over was financed solely byVladimir Antonov with the knowledge of General Motors.
In July, the Company expected to sell between 50,000 to 55,000 vehicles in 2010. HP Mini 1199EC Battery
As part of its expansion program Saab announced plans to return to China after General Motors withdrew the brand from the Chinese market in 2008 due to the global financial meltdown, Saab planned to sell between 2,000 and 5,000 cars initially and should the reception of the vehicle go well, HP Mini 1199EE Battery
they planned to move production to China as well, as the deal would have seen 10 dealerships open. The deal was to be signed with China Automobile Trading Co. Ltd.
In October, the Company revised its production target for the year to 30,000 to 35,000 vehicles from 45,000 vehicles as a result of longer time was needed to recover from HP Mini 1199EH Battery
plant shutdown for two months at the beginning of the year and reverse liquidation proceeding. It was reported that it was the second time forecast was cut in less than three months. Eventually Saab sold 31,696 cars in 2010.
On February 25, Spyker Cars N.V. announced they had agreed to sell the sports car arm to focus on Saab. HP Mini 1199EJ Battery
They intended to change their name, in May, to include the Saab name.
At the beginning of April several suppliers halted shipment of components to the Trollhättan assembly plant because of unpaid invoices. As a result Saab had to stop production on April 5.HP Mini 1199EO Battery
On 3 May, Spyker Cars reached an agreement with Chinese automaker Hawtai Motor to obtain emergency funding for Saab, aiming to restart production within a week.
On May 12, the deal with Hawtai collapsed when it failed to get the necessary approvals. HP Mini 1199EP Battery
Spyker was still hopeful that a deal could be made with Hawtai.Great Wall Motor, another Chinese carmaker, was also rumoured to be in talks with Spyker about investing; however, this was denied by Great Wall on May 13.
On May 16, Spyker announced that they have signed a Memorandum of Understanding with China's Pang Da Automobile Trade Co. HP Mini 1199EQ Battery
(Pang Da) that would give Saab the financing needed to restart production, and give Pang Da an equity stake in Spyker.
On June 8, Saab said it had stopped production due to an insufficient supply of parts. This occurring only two weeks after resuming production following a seven-week hiatus. HP Mini 1199ER Battery
A claim was made for production again starting August 9.
On June 23, Saab announced that they were unable to pay June salaries to the entire workforce of 3800 employees due to lack of funding.The trade unionIF Metall gave Saab seven days to pay the salaries to their employees; HP Mini 1199ET Battery
otherwise, IF Metall threatened to force a liquidation of the company.
In June, China Youngman Automobile Group (Youngman) and Pang Da announced their intention to buy 54% of Saab for €245 million. They also announced that they would finance three new models, Saab 9-1, Saab 9-6 and Saab 9-7. HP Mini 1199EV Battery
On July 26, Saab announced that they were unable to pay July salaries to 1,600 white-collar workers. The company was also unable to verify when the salaries would be paid. However, the entire workforce of blue-collar workers were paid on July 25.
On July 27, it was reported that Bahama-based Gemini Fund would ensure employee salaries did not pay out to Saab, HP Mini 1199EZ Battery
because of the uncertainty arising in securities that would protect the payment. On the same day it was also confirmed by Russian businessman Vladimir Antonov's Swedish representative Lars Carlström that Antonov has close ties to the fund.
On July 28, the trade union Unionen announced that if Saab did not pay the white-collar workers within two weeks, HP Pavilion DV6-1225ER Battery
Unionen will force the company into bankruptcy.[ On the same day, European Investment Bank (EIB) announced they rejected the request from Vladimir Antonov to become part-owner of Saab. In response to that decision, the director general of Swedish National Debt Office, Bo Lundgren, severely criticized the EIB for their handling of Antonov in recent months. HP Pavilion DV6-1225ET Battery
On August 5, Saab paid the salaries to the white-collar workers through equity issuance where the Gemini Fund bought five million shares in Saab.
On August 17, the Swedish Enforcement Administration started a distraint process of Saab as a result of the company not settling its debts. HP Pavilion DV6-1225EW Battery
On August 19, it was confirmed that the Enforcement Administration had more than 90 cases with claims amounting to 169 million SEK ($25.5 million/€18.4 million) against Saab, of which 22 are currently in the distraint phase. On the same day, the Enforcement Administration found an account at Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken, HP Pavilion DV6-1225SF Battery
which they hoped contained at least SEK5.1 million ($0.8 million/€0.555 million) which would be used to pay off Saab's debt to Kongsberg Automotive.
On August 23, Saab spokesperson, Gunilla Gustav, announced there was a chance the August salaries may not be paid because of lack of funding. HP Pavilion DV6-1225SO Battery
One reason is that Saab has not received the money they were promised. The President of Unionen, Cecilia Fahlberg, is highly critical of unpaid salaries becoming an issue for the third time during the summer, and would restart bankruptcy proceedings unless the salaries were paid. HP Pavilion DV6-1225SS Battery
As a result of the announcement, shares of Saab's parent company, Swedish Automobiles, plummeted by 20%.
On August 25, it was confirmed that the August salaries had not been paid to the blue-collar employees, and most likely its white-collar workers also, whose salaries were rumoured to be paid on August 26. HP Pavilion DV6-1225SV Battery
On the same day, Enforcement Administration announced that it has foreclosed on about SEK50 million (US$7.9 million/€5.45 million) and they are entitled to the money from the company's payroll account if they do not find the remainder earlier. Saab must have approximately SEK100 million (US$15.8 million/€10.9 million) each month in the payroll account in order to remunerate their entire workforce. HP Pavilion DV6-1225TX Battery
On August 26, Swedish Automobile announced that they have pushed forward the interim report until next week (week 35). On the same day it was reported that Saab was preparing an application for reconstruction of the company. Saab was lacking the appropriate funds to start production, pay salaries to their employees, and debts to their subcontractors. HP Pavilion DV6-1227SF Battery
On August 31, after a 5-day delay, Saab released its interim report which announced a loss of €201.5 million with revenues of €359 million after the first six months. It was also reported that Saab was preparing an application for reconstruction of the company. Again this is as a result of insufficient funds preventing the start of production, HP Pavilion DV6-1228EZ Battery
payment of employee salaries, and payment of subcontractor debts. In 2011 Saab's Trollhättan plant ended production.
On September 7, Saab Automobile petitioned Swedish court for a voluntary reconstruction. HP Pavilion DV6-1228SF Battery
The aim was to protect the company from creditor's claims until Chinese government approval could be completed for a €245 million deal agreed in June 2011 with Pang Da and Zhejiang Youngman Lotus Automobile(Zhejiang Youngman).
On September 8, Swedish courts rejected Saab's reconstruction petition, expressing doubt that the automaker could secure the funding necessary to continue. HP Pavilion DV6-1228TX Battery
On September 12, Saab announced that it had signed a technology license agreement worth €70 million with Zhejiang Youngman. On the same day, it became known that the trade unions Unionen and Swedish Organization for Managers (Ledarna) submitted the application requesting that Saab be put into liquidation. HP Pavilion DV6-1229ER Battery
Saab Automobile confirmed through a press release that the trade unions had petitioned for bankruptcy supervision of the company.
On September 22, Saab Automobile AB and its subsidiaries Saab Automobile Powertrain AB and Saab Automobile Tools AB (collectively Saab Automobile) HP Pavilion DV6-1229ET Battery
received approval for their proposal for voluntary reorganization from the Court of Appeal in Gothenburg, Sweden.
On 28 October, media reports stated that the Chinese carmaker Youngman and the Chinese automotive retailer Pang Da had agreed to a joint US$140 million takeover of Saab HP Pavilion DV6-1229SF Battery
Automobile and its UK dealer network unit from Swedish Automobile, with Youngman and Pang Da taking 60 and 40 percent stakes respectively.
On 6 December, GM announced that it would not continue its licenses to GM patents and technology to SAAB if the company had been sold to Pang Da and Zhejiang Youngman, HP Pavilion DV6-1229TX Battery
stating that the new owner's use of the technology is not in the best interest of GM investors. Because of this, Saab started working on a new proposal which would not change the original ownership structure and would not include a Chinese partner as an owner of the company, but instead as a 50% owner of a new daughter company. HP Pavilion DV6-1230CA Battery
On 19 December 2011 with no alternatives left after GM continued to block any form of involvement with a Chinese partner, SAAB officially filed for bankruptcy after a three-year fight for survival. Due to Sweden's bankruptcy laws, a party that files for bankruptcy can be bought out of bankruptcy. Therefore this may not yet be the end of SAAB. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EC Battery
In the aftermath, both Saab’s CEO Victor Muller and Saab’s Manager of Government Relations, Anna Petre, have stated that the original deal with Pang Da and Youngman that would have given the two Chinese companies 54% of Saab’s parent company, Swedish Automobile (SWAN), was cleared with GM. HP Pavilion DV6-1230ED Battery
The turbulence created by Saab’s administrator, Guy Lofalk, leading the Chinese to believe they could take a 100% ownership, and the subsequent bid for 100% of SWAN, supposedly severely hurt the relationship with GM. There is some doubt as to the validity of both Muller and Petre's opinions. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EJ Battery
Since 26 January 2010 Saab was managed by the board, Victor Muller presiding. The board was in control for more than 20 months. During that period the board was confronted with declining sales and eroding confidence of suppliers (Saab did not pay them). The result was a complete stop of production. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EK Battery
The overall management, and not the action of one person (Guy Lofalk) was responsible for the ever worsening state of Saab.
Victor Muller, as CEO of Spyker cars, is now sueing General Motors and claims they are accountable for the bankruptcy of Saab. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EO Battery
Victor Muller: “Ever since we were forced to file for Saab Automobile’s bankruptcy in December of last year, we have worked relentlessly on the preparation for this lawsuit which seeks to compensate Spyker and Saab for the massive damages we have incurred as a result of GM’s unlawful actions”. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EQ Battery
Obviously Victor Muller changed his opinion and now blames General Motors instead of Guy Lofalk.On 29 January 2012 the receivers handling Saab’s bankruptcy stated that discussions were being held with 4–5 interested parties that had the intention of buying Saab out of bankruptcy. HP Pavilion DV6-1230ER Battery
Parties that publicly have shown interest are China's Youngman, Indian Mahindra and Mahindra and the Turkish private equity firm Brightwell Holdings. On 14 February 2012 the receivers of the bankruptcy let the press know that there were now six or seven interested parties to buy Saab as a whole and restart production of Saab HP Pavilion DV6-1230ET Battery
vehicles and that they aimed to have a final candidate before the end of February. On March 6, 2012, three companies placed bids for complete SAAB Automobile buy out; Mahindra and Mahindra and Youngman with bids in the region of $300m to $400m, and Tata Motors with a bid of $350m, which was later denied. HP Pavilion DV6-1230EW Battery
On April 10, 2012, many documents regarding the bankruptcy became official and the deadline for final bids of Saab Automobile was reached. Since the first reconstruction in 2009, Saab has gathered a debt of approximately €1.3 billion. The total value of all assets has been found to be approximately €360m. HP Pavilion DV6-1230SB Battery
The potential sale of Saab will therefore mean that many with claims on Saab Automobile will be without money. GM’s claim of approximately €220m will be prioritized because it consists of preference shares. The handful of previous interested parties in buying Saab Automobile HP Pavilion DV6-1230SF Battery
out of bankruptcy have all been confirmed to have handed in final bids and are all intending to produce Saab cars in Trollhättan in one form or another. The receivers hope to have a deal done before summer. The receivers have also found that the sale of the Saab Automobile property in summer of 2011 may not have been legitimate and the property may have to be returned to Saab.HP Pavilion DV6-1230SL Battery
On 16 April 2012, a meeting on Saab’s bankruptcy was held at the District Court of Vänersborg. The official receivers in charge of the Saab liquidation valued the assets at $500m and the debt at $2,000m. After subtracting the value of the assets, Saab leaves a debt of $1,500m. HP Pavilion DV6-1230SS Battery
On 29 May 2012, Saab AB (aerospace and defence company) CEO Håkan Buskhe spoke to the media for the first time in an interview regarding the bankruptcy of Saab Automobile. Saab AB has the rights to the name Saab Automobile and has the possibility to block the use of the name for any potential buyer of Saab Automobile. HP Pavilion DV6-1230US Battery
He stated that as long as any potential buyer will continue production and development in Trollhättan they will grant the use of the name but that they will block any deal with a buyer who has the intent of taking production and development outside the country. HP Pavilion DV6-1231EO Battery
It is also mentioned that Saab AB has strategical partnerships with one of the interested parties in buying Saab Automobile, Indian Mahindra, regarding aerospace and defence and that Saab AB is trying to sell its Jas 39 Gripen fighter jet to India. However, he did not want to comment on Mahindras offer on Saab Automobile. HP Pavilion DV6-1232EO Battery
On 6 August 2012, Spyker, represented by the law firm Patton Boggs filed a lawsuit against General Motors in the United States District Court of the Eastern District of Michigan claiming $3 billion in damages for the actions GM took in the fall of 2011 to stop the various proposed deals between HP Pavilion DV6-1232ET Battery
Spyker and Youngmanconcerning Saab Automobile where Youngman claimed to be ready to invest several billion dollars in Saab Automobile to guarantee its future. More precisely, under the Automotive Technology License Agreement (ATLA) between GM Global Technology Operations Inc (GTO) and Saab, HP Pavilion DV6-1232SS Battery
GM refused licensing of the platforms and technology in Saab cars if any Chinese part would be involved in Saabs ownership structure. To solve this issue, Spyker and Youngman came up with a deal where Youngman would provide Saab with a loan of €200 million which would be converted into an equity interest in HP Pavilion DV6-1233EO Battery
Saab only after Saab ceased using GM technology in its vehicles. Despite this, GM maintained that they would still refuse licensing of platforms and technology needed for production of Saab cars in Trollhättan and also threatened to cease 9-4X production at GM's plant in Mexico, should the deal go through. HP Pavilion DV6-1233ET Battery
Consequently, the deal finally collapsed and Saab was forced to file for bankruptcy. According to Spyker, the actions taken by GM were not legal. Since Saab has been in receivership since the bankruptcy, and will be until the deal with NEVS has been closed, HP Pavilion DV6-1234EO Battery