PepsiCo Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York, United States, with interests in the manufacturing, marketing and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery
PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which include an acquisition ofTropicana in 1998 and a merger with Quaker Oats in 2001—which added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery
As of January 2012, 22 of PepsiCo's product lines generated retail sales of more than $1 billion each, and the company's products were distributed across more than 200 countries, resulting in annual net revenues of $43.3 billion. Based on net revenue, PepsiCo is the second largest food & beverage business in the world. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery
Within North America, PepsiCo is ranked (by net revenue) as the largest food and beverage business.
Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi has been the chief executive of PepsiCo since 2006, and the company employed approximately 297,000 people worldwide as of 2011. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery
The company's beverage distribution and bottling is conducted by PepsiCo as well as by licensed bottlers in certain regions. PepsiCo is a SIC 2080 (beverage) company.
The recipe for Pepsi, the soft drink, was first developed in the 1880s by a New Bern, North Carolina pharmacist and industrialist, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery
Caleb Bradham, who named it "Pepsi-Cola" in 1898. As the cola developed in popularity, he created thePepsi-Cola Company in 1902 and registered a patent for his recipe in 1903. The Pepsi-Cola Company was first incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1919. Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery
The company went bankrupt in 1931 and on June 8 of that year the trademark and syrup recipe was bought by Charles Guth who owned a syrup manufacturing business in Baltimore, Maryland. Guth was also the president of Loft, Incorporated, a leading candy manufacturer and used the company's labs and chemists to reformulate the syrup. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery
He further contracted to stock the soda in Loft's large chain of candy shops and restaurants, which were known for their soda fountains, used Loft resources to promote Pepsi, and moved the soda company to a location close by Loft's own facilities in New York City. In 1935 the shareholders of Loft sued Guth for his 91% stake of PepsiCo in the landmark Guth v. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery
Loft Inc.. Loft won the suit and on May 29, 1941 formally absorbed Pepsi into Loft, which was then rebranded as Pepsi Cola Company that same year. (Loft restaurants and candy stores were spun off at this time.) In the early 1960s the company product line expanded with the creation of Diet Pepsi and purchase of Mountain Dew. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery
Separately, the Frito Company and H.W. Lay & Company – two American potato and corn chip snack manufacturers – began working together in 1945 with a licensing agreement allowing H.W. Lay to distribute Fritos in the Southeastern United States. The companies merged to become Frito-Lay, Inc. in 1961. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery
In 1965, the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. to become PepsiCo, Inc., the company it is known as at present. At the time of its foundation, PepsiCo was incorporated in the state of Delaware and headquartered in Manhattan, New York. The company's headquarters were relocated to its still-current location of Purchase, Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery
New York in 1970, and in 1986 PepsiCo was reincorporated in the state of North Carolina.
PepsiCo was the first company to stamp expiration dates, starting in March 1994.
Between the late-1970s and the mid-1990s, PepsiCo expanded via acquisition of businesses outside of its core focus of packaged food and beverage brands; Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery
however it exited these non-core business lines largely in 1997, selling some, and spinning off others into a new company named Tricon Global Restaurants, which later became known as Yum! Brands, Inc.. PepsiCo also previously owned several other brands that it later sold so it could focus on its primary snack food and beverage lines, according to investment analysts reporting on the divestments in 1997. Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery
Brands formerly owned by PepsiCo include: Pizza Hut, Taco Bell,KFC, Hot 'n Now, East Side Mario's, D'Angelo Sandwich Shops, Chevys Fresh Mex, California Pizza Kitchen, Stolichnaya (via licensed agreement), Wilson Sporting Goods and North American Van Lines. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery
The divestments concluding in 2007 were followed by multiple large-scale acquisitions, as PepsiCo began to extend its operations beyond soft drinks and snack foods into other lines of foods and beverages. PepsiCo purchased the orange juice company Tropicana Products in 1998, Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery
and merged with Quaker Oats Company in 2001, adding with it the Gatorade sports drink line and other Quaker Oats brands such as Chewy Granola Bars and Aunt Jemima, among others.
In August 2009, PepsiCo made a $7 billion offer to acquire the two largest bottlers of its products in North America: Pepsi Bottling Group and PepsiAmericas. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery
In 2010 this acquisition was completed, resulting in the formation of a new wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo, Pepsi Beverages Company. In February 2011, the company made its largest international acquisition by purchasing a two-thirds (majority) stake in Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods, Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery
a Russian food company that produces milk, yogurt, fruit juices, and dairy products. When it acquired the remaining 23% stake of Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in October 2011, PepsiCo became the largest food and beverage company in Russia.
In February 2012 ahead, CEO of PepsiCo Inc. plans to cut 8,700 jobs or about 3 percent of the PepsiCo's global workforce and boost marketing spending for its brand by as much as $600 million. It may save about $1.5 billion by 2014. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery
The Coca-Cola Company has historically been considered PepsiCo's primary competitor in the beverage market, and in December 2005, PepsiCo surpassed The Coca-Cola Company in market value for the first time in 112 years since both companies began to compete. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery
In 2009, the Coca-Cola Company held a higher market share in carbonated soft drink sales within the U.S. In the same year, PepsiCo maintained a higher share of the U.S. refreshment beverage market, however, reflecting the differences in product lines between the two companies. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery
As a result of mergers, acquisitions and partnerships pursued by PepsiCo in the 1990s and 2000s, its business has shifted to include a broader product base, including foods, snacks and beverages. The majority of PepsiCo's revenues no longer come from the production and sale of carbonated soft drinks. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery
Beverages accounted for less than 50 percent of its total revenue in 2009. In the same year, slightly more than 60 percent of PepsiCo's beverage sales came from its primary non-carbonated brands, namely Gatorade and Tropicana.
PepsiCo's Frito-Lay and Quaker Oats brands hold a significant share of the U.S. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery
snack food market, accounting for approximately 39 percent of U.S. snack food sales in 2009. One of PepsiCo's primary competitors in the snack food market overall is Kraft Foods, which in the same year held 11 percent of the U.S. snack market share.
PepsiCo's product mix as of 2012 (based on worldwide net revenue) consists of 63 percent foods, and 37 percent beverages. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery
On a worldwide basis, the company's current products lines include several hundred brands that in 2009 were estimated to have generated approximately $108 billion in cumulative annualretail sales.
The primary identifier of a food and beverage industry main brand is annual sales over $1 billion. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery
As of 2009, 19 PepsiCo brands met that mark: Pepsi-Cola,Mountain Dew, Lay's, Gatorade, Tropicana, 7Up, Doritos, Lipton Teas, Quaker Foods, Cheetos, Mirinda, Ruffles, Aquafina, Pepsi Max, Tostitos, Sierra Mist,Fritos, and Walker's. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery
The structure of PepsiCo's global operations has shifted multiple times in its history as a result of international expansion, and as of 2010 it is separated into four main divisions: PepsiCo Americas Foods, PepsiCo Americas Beverages,PepsiCo Europe, and PepsiCo Asia, Middle East and Africa. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery
As of 2009, 71 percent of the company's net revenues came from North and South America, 16 percent from Europe and 13 percent from Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Approximately 285,000 people are employed by PepsiCo worldwide as of 2010.
PepsiCo Americas Foods consists of the company's food and snack operations in North and South America. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery
This operating division is further segmented into Frito-Lay North America, Quaker Foods & Snacks, Sabritas, Gamesa, and Latin America Foods. Food and snack sales in North and South America combined contributed 48 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue in 2009. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery
Frito-Lay North America, the result of a merger in 1961 between the Frito Company and the H.W. Lay Company, produces the top selling line of snack foods in the U.S. Its main brands in the U.S., Canada and Mexico and include Lay's andRuffles potato chips, Doritos tortilla chips, Tostitos tortilla chips and dips, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery
Cheetos cheese flavored snacks, Fritos corn chips, Rold Gold pretzels, Sun Chipsand Cracker Jack popcorn. Products made by this division are sold to independent distributors and retailers, and are transported from Frito-Lay's manufacturing plants to distribution centers, principally in vehicles owned and operated by the company. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery
Quaker Foods North America, created following PepsiCo's acquisition of the Quaker Oats Company in 2001, manufactures, markets and sells Quaker Oatmeal, Rice-A-Roni, Cap'n Crunch and Life cereals, as well as Near East side dishes within North America. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery
This division also owns and produces the Aunt Jemima brand, which as of 2009 was the top selling line of syrups and pancake mixes within this region.
Sabritas and Gamesa are two of PepsiCo's food and snack business lines headquartered in Mexico, and they were acquired by PepsiCo in 1966 and 1990, respectively. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery
Sabritas markets Frito-Lay products in Mexico, including local brands such as Poffets, Rancheritos, Crujitos and Sabritones. Gamesa is the largest manufacturer of cookies in Mexico, distributing brands such as Emperador, Arcoiris and Marías Gamesa.
PepsiCo's Latin America Foods (Spanish: Snacks América Latina) operations market and sell primarily Quaker- and Frito-Lay-branded snack foods within Central and South America, Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery
including Argentina, Brazil, Peru and other countries in this region. Snacks América Latina purchased Peruvian company Karinto S.A.C. including its production company Bocaditas Nacionales (with three production facilities in Peru) from the Hayashida family of Lima in 2009, adding the Karito brand to its product line, including Cuates, Fripapas, and Papi Frits. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery
This division contributed 23 percent of PepsiCo's net revenue as of 2009, and involves the manufacture (and in some cases licensing), marketing and sales of both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages in North, Central and South America. The main brands distributed under this division include Pepsi, Mountain Dew, Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery
Gatorade, 7 Up (outside the U.S.), Tropicana Pure Premium orange juice, Sierra Mist, SoBe Lifewater, Tropicana juice drinks, AMP Energy, Naked Juice andIzze. Aquafina, the company's bottled water brand, is also marketed and licensed through PepsiCo Americas Beverages. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery
PepsiCo also has formed partnerships with several beverage brands it does not own, in order to distribute or market them with its own brands. As of 2010, its partnerships include: Starbucks (Frappuccino, DoubleShot and Iced Coffee), Unilever's Lipton brand (Lipton Brisk and Lipton Iced Tea), and Dole (licensed juices and drinks). Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery
The company started a new market strategy to sell their Pepsi Cola product in Mexico, stating that about one third of the population has difficulty pronouncing "Pepsi". They started manufacturing and selling their product under the label 'Pécsi', the advertisement campaign features the Mexican soccer celebrityCuauhtémoc Blanco. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery
This is not the first time it has happened, back in 2009, PepsiCo used the same strategy successfully in Argentina.
PepsiCo began to expand its distribution in Europe in the 1980s, and in 2009 it made up 16 percent of the company's global net revenue. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery
Unlike PepsiCo's Americas business segments, both foods and beverages are manufactured and marketed under one umbrella division in this region, known as PepsiCo Europe. The primary brands sold by PepsiCo in Europe include Pepsi-Cola beverages, Frito-Lay snacks, Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery
Tropicana juices and Quaker food products, as well as regional brands unique to Europe such as Walkers crisps, Copella, Paw Ridge, Snack-a-Jack, Duyvis and others. PepsiCo also distributes the soft drink 7UP in Europe via license agreement.
PepsiCo's European presence expanded in Russia in 2009 as the company announced a $1B investment, Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery
and with its acquisition of Russian juice and dairy product brand Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods in December 2010 and Lebedyansky juice producer in March 2008.
The most recently created operating division of PepsiCo covers Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
In addition to the production and sales of several worldwide Pepsi-Cola, Quaker Foods and Frito-Lay beverage and food product lines (including Pepsi and Doritos), this segment of PepsiCo's business markets regional brands such as Mirinda, Kurkure and Red Rock Deli, among others. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
While PepsiCo owns its own manufacturing and distribution facilities in certain parts of these regions, more of this production is conducted via alternate means such as licensing (which it does with Aquafina), contract manufacturing, joint ventures andaffiliate operations. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery
PepsiCo's businesses in these regions, as of 2009, contributed 13 percent to the company's net revenue worldwide.
Headquartered in Purchase, New York, with research and development headquarters in Valhalla, New York, PepsiCo's Chairman and CEO is Indra Nooyi. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery
The board of directors is composed of eleven outside directors as of 2010, including Ray Lee Hunt, Shona L. Brown, Victor Dzau, Arthur C. Martinez, Sharon Percy Rockefeller, Daniel Vasella, Dina Dublon, Ian M. Cook, Alberto Ibargüen, James J. Schiro and Lloyd G. Trotter. Former top executives at PepsiCo include Steven Reinemund, Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery
Roger Enrico, D. Wayne Calloway, John Sculley, Michael H. Jordan, Donald M. Kendall, Christopher A. Sinclair and Alfred Steele.
On October 1, 2006, former Chief Financial Officer and President Indra Nooyi replaced Steve Reinemund as Chief Executive Officer. Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery
Nooyi remained as the corporation's president, and became Chairman of the Board in May 2007, later (in 2010) being named No.1 on Fortune's list of the "50 Most Powerful Women" and No.6 on Forbes' list of the "World's 100 Most Powerful Women".Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery
PepsiCo received a 100 percent rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the LGBT-advocate group Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report.
The PepsiCo headquarters are located in Purchase, New York. It was one of the last architectural works by Edward Durell Stone.Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery
It consists of seven three story buildings. Each building is connected to its neighbor through a corner. The property includes the Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens with 45 contemporary sculptures open to the public. Works include those ofAlexander Calder, Henry Moore, and Auguste Rodin. Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery
Westchester Magazine stated "The buildings’ square blocks rise from the ground into low, inverted ziggurats, with each of the three floors having strips of dark windows; patterned pre-cast concrete panels add texture to the exterior surfaces." In 2010 the magazine ranked the building as one of the ten most beautiful buildings in Westchester County. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery
At one time PepsiCo had its headquarters in 500 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. In 1956 Pepsico paid $2 million for the original building. PepsiCo built the new 500 Park Avenue in 1960. In 1966, Mayor of New York CityJohn Lindsay started a private campaign to convince PepsiCo to remain in New York City. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery
Six months later, the company announced that it was moving to 112 acres (45 ha) of the Blind Brook Polo Club in Westchester County. After PepsiCo left the Manhattan building, it became known as the Olivetti Building.
PepsiCo has maintained a philanthropic program since 1962 called the PepsiCo Foundation, Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery
in which it primarily funds "nutrition and activity, safe water and water usage efficiencies, and education," according to the foundation's website. In 2009, $27.9 million was contributed through this foundation, including grants to the United Way andYMCA, among others. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery
In 2009, PepsiCo launched an initiative they call the Pepsi Refresh Project, in which individuals submit and vote on charitable and nonprofit collaborations. The main recipients of grants as part of the refresh project are community organizations with a local focus and nonprofit organizations, Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery
such as a high school in Michigan that—as a result of being selected in 2010—received $250,000 towards construction of a fitness room. Following the Gulf of Mexico oil spill in the spring of 2010, PepsiCo donated $1.3 million to grant winners determined by popular vote. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery
As of October, 2010, the company had provided a cumulative total of $11.7 million in funding, spread across 287 ideas of participant projects from 203 cities in North America. In late 2010, the refresh project was reported to be expanding to include countries outside of North America in 2011. Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery
According to its 2009 annual report, PepsiCo states that it is "committed to delivering sustainable growth by investing in a healthier future for people and our planet," which it has defined in its mission statement since 2006 as "Performance with Purpose".Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery
According to news and magazine coverage on the subject in 2010, the objective of this initiative is to increase the number and variety of healthier food and beverage products made available to its customers, employ a reduction in the company's environmental impact, and to facilitate diversity and healthy lifestyles within its employee base.[ Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery
Its activities in regards to the pursuit of its goals – namely environmental impacts of production and the nutritional composition of its products – have been the subject of recognition from health and environmental advocates and organizations, and at times have raised concerns among its critics. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery
As the result of a more recent focus on such efforts, "critics consider (PepsiCo) to be perhaps the most proactive and progressive of the food companies", according to former New York Times food industry writer Melanie Warner in 2010.
PepsiCo has contributed $1,716,300 to oppose the passage of California Proposition 37, Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery
which would mandate the disclosure of genetically modified crops used in the production of California food products. PepsiCo believes "that genetically-modified products can play a role in generating positive economic, social and environmental contributions to societies around the world; particularly in times of food shortages." Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery
PepsiCo's usage of water was the subject of controversy in India in the early and mid 2000s in part because of the company's alleged impact on water usage in a country where water shortages are a perennial issue. In this setting, PepsiCo was perceived by India-based environmental organizations as a company that diverted water to manufacture a discretionary product, making it a target for critics at the time. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery
As a result, in 2003 PepsiCo launched a country-wide program to achieve a "positive water balance" in India by 2009. In 2007, PepsiCo's CEO Indra Nooyi made a trip to India to address water usage practices in the country, prompting prior critic Sunita Narain, director of the Centre for Science & Environment (CSE), Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery
to note that PepsiCo "seem(s) to be doing something serious about water now." According to the company's 2009 corporate citizenship report, as well as media reports at the time, the company (in 2009) replenished nearly six billion liters of water within India, exceeding the aggregate water intake of approximately five billion liters by PepsiCo's India manufacturing facilities. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery
Water usage concerns have arisen at times in other countries in which PepsiCo operates. In the U.S., water shortages in certain regions resulted in increased scrutiny on the company's production facilities, which were cited in media reports as being among the largest water users in cities facing drought – such asAtlanta, Georgia. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery
In response, the company formed partnerships with non-profit organizations such as the Earth Institute and Water.org, and in 2009 began cleaning new Gatorade bottles with purified air instead of rinsing with water, among other water conservation practices. In the United Kingdom, Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery
also in response to regional drought conditions, PepsiCo snacks brand Walkers' reduced water usage at its largest potato chip facility by 45 percent between the years 2001 and 2008. In doing so, the factory used machinery that captured water naturally contained in potatoes, and used it to offset the need for outside water. HP Compaq HSTNN-105C Battery
As a result of water reduction practices and efficiency improvements, PepsiCo in 2009 saved more than 12 billion liters of water worldwide, compared to its 2006 water usage. Environmental advocacy organizations including the Natural Resources Defense Council and individual critics such as Rocky Anderson (mayor ofSalt Lake City, Utah) HP Compaq HSTNN-C12C Battery
voiced concerns in 2009, noting that the company could conserve additional water by refraining from the production of discretionary products such as Aquafina. The company maintained its positioning of bottled water as "healthy and convenient", while also beginning to partially offset environmental impacts of such products through alternate means, including packaging weight reduction. HP Compaq HSTNN-C66C Battery
PepsiCo's India operations were met with substantial resistance in 2003 and again in 2006, when an environmental organization in New Delhi made the claim that, based on its research, it believed that the levels of pesticides in PepsiCo (along with those from rival Coca-Cola Company), exceeded a set of proposed safety standards on soft drink ingredients that had been developed by the Bureau of Indian Standards. HP Compaq HSTNN-C66C-4 Battery
PepsiCo denied the allegations, and India's health ministry has also dismissed the allegations – both questioning the accuracy of the data compiled by the CSE, as it was tested by its own internal laboratories without being verified by outside peer review. HP Compaq HSTNN-C66C-5 Battery
The ensuing dispute prompted a short-lived ban on the sale of PepsiCo and Coca-Cola Company soft drinks within India's southwestern state of Kerala in 2006; however this ban was reversed by the Kerala High Court one month later.
In November, 2010, the Supreme Court of India invalidated a criminal complaint filed against PepsiCo India by the Kerala government, HP Compaq HSTNN-C67C Battery
on the basis that the beverages did meet local standards at the time of the allegations. The court ruling stated that the "percentage of pesticides" found in the tested beverages was "within the tolerance limits subsequently prescribed in respect of such product," since at the time of testing "there was no provision governing pesticide adulteration in cold drinks." HP Compaq HSTNN-C67C-4 Battery
In 2010, PepsiCo was among the 12 multinational companies that displayed "the most impressive corporate social responsibility credentials in emerging markets", as determined by the U.S. Department of State. PepsiCo's India unit received recognition on the basis of its water conservation and safety practices and corresponding results. HP Compaq HSTNN-C67C-5 Battery
Environmental advocates have raised concern over the environmental impacts surrounding the disposal of PepsiCo's bottled beverage products in particular, as bottle recycling rates for the company's products in 2009 averaged 34 percent within the U.S. The company has employed efforts to minimize these environmental impacts via packaging developments combined with recycling initiatives. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB05 Battery
In 2010, PepsiCo announced a goal to create partnerships that prompt an increase the beverage container recycling rate in the U.S. to 50 percent by 2018.
One strategy enacted to reach this goal has been the placement of interactive recycling kiosks called "Dream Machines" in supermarkets, convenience stores andgas stations, with the intent of increasing access to recycling receptacles. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB06 Battery
The use of resin to manufacture its plastic bottles has resulted in reduced packaging weight, which in turn reduces the volume of fossil fuels required to transport certain PepsiCo products. The weight of Aquafina bottles was reduced nearly 40 percent, to 15 grams, with a packaging redesign in 2009. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB0E Battery
Also in that year, PepsiCo brand Naked Juice began production and distribution of the first 100 percent post-consumer recycled plastic bottle.
On March 15, 2011, PepsiCo unveiled the world's first plant-based PET bottle. The bottle is made from plant-based materials, such as switch grass, corn husks, and pine bark, and is 100% recyclable. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB11 Battery
PepsiCo plans to use more by-products (of their manufacturing processes) such as orange peels and oat hulls in the bottles. PepsiCo has identified methods to create a molecular structure that is the same as normal petroleum-based PET—which will make the new bottle technology, dubbed "Green Bottle", feel the same as normal PET. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB16 Battery
PepsiCo will pilot production in 2012, and upon successful completion of the pilot, intends moving to full-scale commercialization.
PepsiCo, along with other manufacturers in its industry, has drawn criticism from environmental advocacy groups for the production and distribution of plastic product packaging, HP Compaq HSTNN-DB28 Battery
which consumed an additional 1.5 billion US gallons (5,700,000 m3) of petrochemicals in 2008. These critics have also expressed apprehension over the production volume of plastic packaging, which results in the emission of carbon dioxide. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB29 Battery
Beginning largely in 2006, PepsiCo began development of more efficient means of producing and distributing its products using less energy, while also placing a focus on emissions reduction. In a comparison of 2009 energy usage with recorded usage in 2006, the company's per-unit use of energy was reduced by 16 percent in its beverage plants and 7 percent in snack plants. HP Compaq HSTNN-DB67 Battery
In 2009, Tropicana (owned by PepsiCo) was the first brand in the U.S. to determine the carbon footprint of its orange juice product, as certified by the Carbon Trust, an outside auditor of carbon emissions. Also in 2009, PepsiCo began the test deployment of so-called "green vending machines, HP Compaq HSTNN-FB05 Battery
" which reduce energy usage by 15 percent in comparison to average models in use. It developed these machines in coordination with Greenpeace, which described the initiative as "transforming the industry in a way that is going to be more climate-friendly to a great degree." HP Compaq HSTNN-FB18 Battery
From its founding in 1965 until the early 1990s, the majority of PepsiCo's product line consisted of carbonated soft drinks and convenience snacks. PepsiCo broadened its product line substantially throughout the 1990s and 2000s with the acquisition and development of what its CEO deemed as "good-for-you" products, including Quaker Oats, HP Compaq HSTNN-FB51 Battery
Naked Juice and Tropicana orange juice. Sales of such healthier-oriented PepsiCo brands totaled $10 billion in 2009, representing 18 percent of the company's total revenue in that year. This movement into a broader, healthier product range has been moderately well received by nutrition advocates; HP Compaq HSTNN-FB52 Battery
though commentators in this field have also suggested that PepsiCo market its healthier items as aggressively as less-healthy core products.
In response to shifting consumer preferences and in part due to increasing governmental regulation, PepsiCo in 2010 indicated its intention to grow this segment of its business, HP Compaq HSTNN-I04C Battery
forecasting that sales of fruit, vegetable, whole grain and fiber-based products will amount to $30 billion by 2020. To meet this intended target, the company has said that it plans to acquire additional health-oriented brands while also making changes to the composition of existing products that it sells. HP Compaq HSTNN-I12C Battery
Public health advocates have suggested that there may be a link between the ingredient makeup of PepsiCo's core snack and carbonated soft drink products and rising rates of health conditions such as obesity and diabetes. The company aligns with personal responsibility advocates, HP Compaq HSTNN-I39C Battery
who assert that food and beverages with higher proportions of sugar or salt content are fit for consumption in moderation by individuals who also exercise on a regular basis.
Changes to the composition of its products with nutrition in mind have involved reducing fat content, moving away from trans-fats, HP Compaq HSTNN-I40C Battery
and producing products incalorie-specific serving sizes to discourage overconsumption, among other changes. One of the earlier ingredient changes involved sugar and caloric reduction, with the introduction of Diet Pepsi in 1964 and Pepsi Max in 1993 – both of which are variants of their full-calorie counterpart, Pepsi. HP Compaq HSTNN-I44C Battery
More recent changes have consisted of saturated fat reduction, which Frito-Lay reduced by 50% in Lay's and Ruffles potato chips in the U.S. between 2006 and 2009. Also in 2009, PepsiCo's Tropicana brand introduced a new variation of orange juice (Trop50) sweetened in part by the plant Stevia, which reduced calories by half. HP Compaq HSTNN-I44C-A Battery
Since 2007, the company also made available lower-calorie variants of Gatorade, which it calls "G2".
As public perception placed additional scrutiny on the marketing and distribution of carbonated soft drinks to children, PepsiCo announced in 2010 that by 2012, it will remove beverages with higher sugar content from primary and secondary schools worldwide. HP Compaq HSTNN-I44C-B Battery
It also, under voluntary guidelines adopted in 2006, replaced "full-calorie" beverages in U.S. schools with "lower-calorie" alternatives, leading to a 95 percent reduction in the 2009 sales of full-calorie variants in these schools in comparison to the sales recorded in 2004. HP Compaq HSTNN-I45C Battery
In 2008, in accordance with guidelines adopted by the International Council of Beverages Associations, PepsiCo eliminated the advertising and marketing of products that do not meet its nutrition standards, to children under the age of 12.
In 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama initiated a campaign to end childhood obesity (titled Let's Move!), HP Compaq HSTNN-I45C-A Battery
in which she sought to encourage healthier food options in public schools, improved food nutrition labeling and increased physical activity for children. In response to this initiative, PepsiCo, along with food manufacturers Campbell Soup, Coca-Cola, General Mills and others in an alliance referred to as the "Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation", HP Compaq HSTNN-I45C-B Battery
announced in 2010 that the companies will collectively cut one trillion calories from their products sold by the end of 2012 and 1.5 trillion calories by the end of 2015.
Pepsi Stuff was a major loyalty program launched by PepsiCo, first in North America on March 28, 1996 and then around the world, featuringpremiums — such as T-shirts, HP Compaq HSTNN-I48C-A Battery
hats, denim and leather jackets, bags and mountain bikes — that could be purchased with Pepsi Points through the Pepsi Stuff Catalog or online. Customers could acquire points from specially marked Pepsi packages and fountain cups. Additional points were sold both by Pepsi and by consumers, the latter mainly enabled by eBay. The Pepsi Stuff promotion ended December 31, 2008. HP Compaq HSTNN-I48C-B Battery
The premium-based loyalty program of Pepsico called Pepsi Stuff was launched in the United States on March 28, 1996. Points were distributed on 4 billion packages and billions of cups and millions of consumers participated. According to some sources, the first Pepsi Stuff campaign significantly outperformed HP Compaq HSTNN-I49C Battery
The Coca-Cola Company's much-anticipated Atlanta Olympics Summer with growth 3 times larger than Coca-Cola's and 2 points of share gained by Pepsi.Pepsi Stuff continued to run throughout North America due to consumer and bottler demand, and was eventually expanded to include Mountain Dew and other drinks, HP Compaq HSTNN-I50C-B Battery
and into many international markets. In response to the campaign, The Coca-Cola Company accelerated and extended its discount pricing programs.
A five month promotion was launched August 1, 2000 by PepsiCo and Yahoo! Yahoo! powered the web presence of the Pepsi Points premium program, HP Compaq HSTNN-I54C Battery
and a new logo was placed on Pepsi products with the line "Pepsi Stuff.com, Powered by Yahoo!" Pepsi Stuff was one of the first major consumer promotions to feature a dedicated interactive Web site. Celebrities like Andre Agassi, David Beckham, Beyoncé, Cindy Crawford, Jimmy Fallon, Jeff Gordon, Derek Jeter, John Lee Hooker, Shaquille O'Neal, HP Compaq HSTNN-I64C-5 Battery
Deion Sanders, Shakira, Britney Spears, and the Spice Girls appeared in TV, print, and Internet advertising promoting Pepsi Stuff. PepsiCo produced over 200 million catalogs each year, billions of Pepsi points, and an extensive line of free merchandise.
A lawsuit was filed in an attempt by a party to obtain a fighter jet for 7,000,000 purchased points. It was dismissed and is reported at Leonard v. Pepsico, Inc., 88 F. Supp 2d 116 (S.D.N.Y. 1996). HP Compaq HSTNN-I65C-5 Battery
In the years after the initial Pepsi Stuff promotion, both Pepsi and Coca-Cola have introduced other promotions in a similar vein to the original campaign. Some promotions involved a variety of merchandise, while others involved specific products, such as Cash or MP3s. Pepsi's 2002–2003 iTunes campaign fizzled when only 500 cap codes were redeemed. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB05 Battery
Also in 2006, Pepsi introduced Pepsi Access in Canada to compete with iCoke, although that campaign ended in 2007.
In 2005, The Coca-Cola Company launched iCoke, a very similar program to Pepsi Stuff in which consumers collect points printed on packages in Canada.
HP Compaq HSTNN-IB08 Battery
HP Compaq HSTNN-IB08 Battery
On February 28, 2006 — nearly ten years after the first Pepsi Stuff promotion began — The Coca-Cola Company responded with the launch of its first U.S. loyalty program and biggest promotion ever, My Coke Rewards, a premium program that is managed through four-billion unique codes that consumers can enter online to redeem over $50 million worth of premiums. HP Compaq HSTNNIB12 Battery
In 2008, Pepsi relaunched the program, this time in partnership with Amazon MP3 and with a dedicated website that provides a "shopping" experience modeled on the Amazon website. Amazon's partnership follows to Amazon's actual website, where the option to pay for certain designated items with Pepsi Points instead of traditional payment methods, is available. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB16 Battery
Pepsi once again relied on celebrities to advertise the promotion, including a Super Bowl spot starring Justin Timberlake and featuring Andy Samberg from Saturday Night Live. This promotion ended on December 31, 2008.
Different products had codes worth different point values; single bottles generally had one point while can 12-packs had two and 24-packs had four. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB18 Battery
Codes from Pepsi NFL Kickoff 12-packs were worth four points. Items available for redemption through the promotion ranged in value from 5 points (MP3 song download) to 175 points (Vintage Pepsi logo hoodie sweatshirt). Customers could also redeem points for entry in various sweepstakes. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB28 Battery
In February 2010, Pepsi Launched a similar rewards system in New Zealand on 1.5 litre bottles. Codes on the inside of the labels allowed consumers to purchase MP3s on Bandit.fm.
The Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens is a collection of 45 pieces of outdoor sculpture at thePepsiCo world headquarters in Purchase, New York. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB51 Battery
The collection includes work from major modern sculptors including Auguste Rodin, Henry Moore, Alexander Calder and Alberto Giacometti.
The collection, which also features works by Henri Laurens, Arnaldo Pomodoro, Richard Erdman, Jean Dubuffet, and Claes Oldenburg, focuses on major 20th century art. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB52 Battery
The sculpture "gardens" mostly consist of park-like landscaping, including lawns, trees, ponds, and fountains, as well as landscaped gardens with a topiary, tended hedges, flower beds and water-lily ponds.
The sculpture collection is meant to "exist in harmony on approximately 168 acres (0.68 km2) of carefully tended landscape", HP Compaq HSTNN-IB55 Battery
according to a PepsiCo pamphlet about the gardens, and expansion of the collection occurred after the headquarters had been built and the gardens had begun to take shape. The gardens themselves were, in turn, designed with regard to the sculpture in the collection, and all were meant by the former PepsiCo chairman and founder of the gardens, HP Compaq HSTNN-IB62 Battery
Donald M. Kendall, to help create an atmosphere of "stabiity, creativity and experimentation that would reflect his vision of the company", according to the pamphlet. Kendall continued to be involved with the collection and the gardens after he stepped down as leader of the company. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB05 Battery
The site, built partly on a former polo field, with the enormous, three-story headquarters building in the center, surrounded by bushes, vast lawns, streams on the east and west, gardens and bushes dispersed around the site, and a pond in the back. Parking (with separate lots for employees and visitors) is hidden behind trees, mostly on the east side. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB08 Battery
From above, the headquarters building is shaped like seven squares, connected by their corners and forming a cross with an inner cross-shaped courtyard, open at the north side (the front of the building, facing Anderson Hill Road).
The building's square blocks rise from the ground "into low inverted ziggurats", according to the pamphlet, HP Compaq HSTNN-LB0E Battery
with each of the three floors having strips of dark windows topped by strips of tan-white concrete or stone. At the entrance, a long, straight drive leads up to the building. Where the courtyard meets the driveway, the PepsiCo corporate flag flies together with the flag of the United States. HP Compaq HSTNN-LB11 Battery
A strip of lawn and rows of trees extend down the open, north arm of the cross-like courtyard, ending in the center, where a large fountain with David Wynne's "Girl with a Dolphin" is surrounded by a wide paved area. The three closed arms each have sunken gardens with trees, HP Compaq HSTNN-LB51 Battery
bushes and, in the middle arm, a small pond, together with sculptures, none of which are monumental. Surrounding the building, and seen in distant vistas, are monumental sculptures and nearby gardens with small ponds.
The vast south lawn allows the viewer to take in the full size of the structure, HP Compaq HSTNN-LB52 Battery
and the lower ground enhances the height of the building, an effect lessened on the north (entrance) side by trees and a more level approach.
The sculpture garden is open to the public, and a visitor's booth is in operation during the spring and summer, according to the PepsiCo Web site, HP Compaq HSTNN-MB05 Battery
although aThe New York Times article reported that it was open from March to November. When the center is closed, visitors may get a map of the gardens from a security guard at the headquarters entrance. No admission is charged for entrance, and parking is free. According to The New York Times, as of September 2006, HP Compaq HSTNN-OB06 Battery
the sculpture garden is open daily from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., April to October, and from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m., November to March. Visitors can take Metro-North commuter trains to White Plains or Rye, and then take a taxi to the headquarters. The No. 12 bus from the White Plains railroad station stops at the headquarters. HP Compaq HSTNN-OB52 Battery
"PepsiCo World Headquarters" is a seven-building complex designed by Edward Durrell Stone. Across the street (Anderson Hill Road) from the headquarters, more modern art can be seen at the Neuberger Museum of Art on the campus of Purchase College of the State University of New York. HP Compaq HSTNN-OB62 Battery
The PepsiCo Web site gives out very little information on the gardens.
The sculpture garden was created at the direction of Donald M. Kendall, who was chief executive officer of PepsiCo when the company moved in 1970 from Manhattan to the 168-acre (0.68 km2) site in suburban Purchase. HP Compaq HSTNN-UB05 Battery
Kendall "sought to create an atmosphere of stability, creativity and experimentation. He envisioned as essential to that ambience a museum without walls, where works of art could be enjoyed by the employees, the community and the public," according to an article in The New York Times. Kendall himself selected the sculptures. HP Compaq HSTNN-UB11 Battery
When the new site was officially dedicated on October 2, 1970, Kendall said he wanted to create "one of the greatest modern sculpture exhibits in the world". At the time, Kendall said he wanted the gardens to have works by "all of the major sculptors of the modern period." HP Compaq HSTNN-UB18 Battery
The original landscape design was created in the late 1960s just before PepsiCo moved to the property, by E. D. Stone Jr., son of Edward Durell Stone, the architect of the headquarters. The younger Stone had about 6,000 trees from 38 species plus thousands of flowering bulbs planted. HP Compaq HSTNN-UB68 Battery
Originally, only eight pieces of artwork were in the sculpture garden. Employees liked the idea so much that Kendall decided to enlarge the collection. As late as 1991, after Kendall had stepped down as CEO, he was still overseeing the collection.
From 1981 to 1985, landscape designer Russell Page redesigned the gardens to harmonize them with the sculptures. HP Compaq HSTNN-UB69 Battery
He added intimate gardens and walks. Since 1985, a third landscape designer, Francois Goffinet, has been in charge of garden development.
In 1991, The New York Times published a feature article on maintenance of the garden. HP Compaq HSTNN-W42C Battery
An employee monitors the sculptures with weekly inspections, driving around in a golf cart "outfitted with brooms, brushes, a ladder, calipers, thermometers and a can of Pepsi." Nature and pollution can threaten the artwork. In the spring, birds like to nest in a work by Nevelson, HP Compaq HSTNN-W42C-A Battery
chipmunks prefer the mysterious inner spaces of Judith Brown's "Caryatid", a welded steel sculpture made of automobile parts. At one point, carpenter bees started chewing into Robert Davidson's "Totems," a 45-foot (14 m) Western red cedar sculpture. Removing bird guano is a constant task. The huge model statue of a bear was a favorite target for some. HP Compaq HSTNN-W42C-B Battery
The piece "Grizzly Bear" by David Wynne faces harm even from the temperature. "When the sun hits that black rock during the day the temperature can go up to 120 degrees on the surface, and drop to 40 degrees at night," according to Douglass Kwart, a freelance objects conservator who was overseeing the conservation program at PepsiCo as of 1991. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB0E Battery
"That change puts the stones through tremendous stress, because of contraction. Water is absorbed into the stone and driven out, absorbed and driven out again."
As of 1991, maintenance staff at the garden wrote up a weekly report on each piece of sculpture after observing each for damage.HP Compaq HSTNN-XB11 Battery
The Cola Wars are a campaign of mutually-targeted television advertisements and marketing campaigns since the 1980s between soft drink manufacturers Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Incorporated.
any of the brands available from the three largest soda producers, HP Compaq HSTNN-XB18 Battery
The Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo and the Dr Pepper Snapple Group, are intended as direct, equivalent competitors. The following chart lists these competitors by type or flavor of drink.
Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola focused particularly on pop stars; notable soft drink promoters included Mariah Carey, KISS, Tina Turner, Britney Spears, HP Compaq HSTNN-XB21 Battery
David Bowie,Rod Stewart, Jim Varney, Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, Madonna, and Ray Charles (for Pepsi) and Whitney Houston, Paula Abdul, Weird Al Yankovic, George Michael, Christina Aguilera, Max Headroom, and Elton John (for Coca-Cola).
Coca-Cola advertising has historically focused on wholesomeness and nostalgia for childhood. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB24 Battery
Coca-Cola advertising is often characterized as "family-friendly", and often relies on "cute" characters (e.g. the Coca-Cola polar bear mascot and Santa Claus around Christmas).
One example of a heated exchange that occurred during the Cola Wars was Coca-Cola making a strategic retreat on July 11, 1985, by announcing its plans to bring back the original 'Classic' Coke after recently introducing New Coke. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB28 Battery
Pepsi ads often focused on celebrities choosing Pepsi over Coke, supporting Pepsi's positioning as "The Choice of a New Generation." Pepsi generation was created focusing on the user of the drink, never the drink. Coke always focused on the drink. Pepsi focused on the person using it. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB51 Battery
They showed people riding dirt bikes, waterskiing, or kite flying, hang gliding — doing different things. And at the end of it there would always be a Pepsi as a reward. This all happened when color television was first coming in. They were the first company to do lifestyle marketing. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB52 Battery
The first and the longest-running lifestyle campaign was and still is Pepsi. In 1975, Pepsi began showing people doing blind taste tests called Pepsi Challenge in which they preferred one product over the other, and then they began hiring more and more popular spokespersons to promote their products. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB59 Battery
In their hope to win the Cola Wars a Concorde was painted blue with PEPSI written across it in white lettering. In the late 1990s, Pepsi launched its most successful long-term strategy of the Cola Wars, Pepsi Stuff. Consumers were invited to "Drink Pepsi, Get Stuff" and collect Pepsi Points on billions of packages and cups. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB61 Battery
They could redeem the points for free Pepsi lifestyle merchandise. After researching and testing the program for over two years to ensure that it resonated with consumers, Pepsi launched Pepsi Stuff, which was an instant success. Tens of millions of consumers participated. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB62 Battery
Pepsi outperformed Coke during the summer of the Atlanta Olympics - held in Coke's hometown - where Coke was a lead sponsor of the Games. Due to its success, the program was expanded to include Mountain Dew, and into Pepsi's international markets worldwide. The company continued to run the program for many years, continually innovating with new features each year.HP Compaq HSTNN-XB68 Battery
The Pepsi Stuff promotion became the subject of a lawsuit. In one of the many commercials, Pepsi showed a young man in the cockpit of a Harrier Jump Jet. Below ran the caption "Harrier Jet: 7 million Pepsi Points." There was a mechanism for buying additional Pepsi Points to complete a Pepsi Stuff order. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB69 Battery
John Leonard, of Seattle, Washington, sent in a Pepsi Stuff request with the maximum amount of points and a check for over $700,000US to make up for the extra points he needed. Pepsi did not accept the request and Leonard filed suit. The judgment was that a reasonable person viewing the commercial would realize that Pepsi was not, in fact, offering a Harrier Jet. HP Compaq HSTNN-XB85 Battery
In response to the suit, Pepsi added the words "Just Kidding" under the portion of the commercial featuring the jet as well as changing the "price" to 700 million Pepsi points (see Leonard v. Pepsico, Inc.).
Coca-Cola and Pepsi engaged in a "cyber-war" with the re-introduction of Pepsi Stuff in 2005 & Coca-Cola retaliated with Coke Rewards. HP Compaq Mini 700 Series Battery
This cola war has now concluded, with Pepsi Stuff ending its services and Coke Rewards still offering prizes on their website. Both were loyalty programs that give away prizes and product to consumers after collecting bottle caps and 12 or 24 pack box tops, then submitting codes online for a certain number of points. HP Compaq Mini 700EA Battery
However, Pepsi's online partnership with Amazon allowed consumers to buy various products with their "Pepsi Points", such as mp3 downloads. Both Coca-Cola and Pepsi previously had a partnership with the iTunes Store.
In 1985, Coca-Cola and Pepsi were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Challengeron STS-51-F. HP Compaq Mini 700ED Battery
The companies had designed special cans (officially the Carbonated Beverage Dispenser Evaluation payload or CBDE) to test packaging and dispensing techniques for use in zero G conditions. The experiment was classified a failure by the shuttle crew, primarily due to the lack of both refrigeration and gravity. HP Compaq Mini 700EE Battery
The "Coca-Cola Space Dispenser" (Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-1, or FGBA-1) was designed to provide astronauts the opportunity to enjoy Coca-Cola and Diet Coke in the weightless environment of space, and to "provide baseline data on changes in astronauts' taste perception of beverages consumed in microgravity." HP Compaq Mini 700EF Battery
It held 1.65 liters each of Coca-Cola and Diet Coke. An astronaut would dispense the carbonated drink of choice into a "Fluids Transfer Unit" or sealed drinking cup through a quick connect on the dispenser. To save power, the dispenser would chill the liquid on demand via cooling coils between the storage container and the quick connect fitting. HP Compaq Mini 701ED Battery
The FGBA-1 and 18 of the "Fluid Transfer Units" flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1995. (STS-63)
Further development led to a Coca-Cola fountain dispenser (Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-2 or FGBA-2) intended as "a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, HP Compaq Mini 701EG Battery
water and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation". This unit dispensed Powerade sports drink in addition to Coca-Cola and Diet Coke. This unit flew on STS-77 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1996. Unfortunately, the FGBA-2 did not work as expected. HP Compaq Mini 702EA Battery
An energy drink is a type of beverage which is purported to boost mental or physical energy. There are a myriad of brands and varieties of energy drinks. They generally contain large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants. Many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts and amino acids and may or may not be carbonated. HP Compaq Mini 702EG Battery
Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Soft drinks such as cola, may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Four Loko, contain caffeine and other stimulants and are marketed as energy drinks, although such drinks are banned in some American states. HP Compaq Mini 703EA Battery
Energy drinks were an active subset of the early soft drink industry, which was originally dominated by pharmacists. Coca-Cola, for instance, was originally marketed as an energy booster; its name was derived from its two active ingredients: Coca leaves and kola nuts (a source of caffeine). Fresh coca leaves were replaced by "spent" ones in 1904. HP Compaq Mini 705EI Battery
In the UK, Lucozade Energy was originally introduced in 1929 as a hospital drink for "aiding the recovery;" in the early 1980s, it was promoted as an energy drink for "replenishing lost energy."
One of the first energy drinks introduced in America was Dr. Enuf. HP Compaq Mini 705EL Battery
Its origins date back to 1949, when a Chicago businessman named William Mark Swartz was urged by coworkers to formulate a soft drink fortified with vitamins as an alternative to sugar sodas full of empty calories. He developed an "energy booster" drink containing B vitamins, caffeine and cane sugar. HP Compaq PB991A Battery
After placing a notice in a trade magazine seeking a bottler, he formed a partnership with Charles Gordon of Tri-Cities Beverage to produce and distribute the soda. Dr. Enuf is still being manufactured in Johnson City, TN and sold sparsely throughout the nation.
In Japan, the energy drink dates at least as far back as the early 1960s, with the release of the Lipovitan. HP Compaq PB992A Battery
However, most such products in Japan bear little resemblance to soft drinks, and are sold instead in small brown glass medicine bottles or cans styled to resemble such containers. These "eiyō dorinku" (literally, "nutritional drinks") are marketed primarily to salaryman. HP Compaq PB992UT Battery
Bacchus-F, a South Korean drink closely modeled after Lipovitan, also appeared in the early 1960s, and targets a similar demographic.
In 1985, Jolt Cola was introduced in the United States. Its marketing strategy centered on the drink's caffeine content, billing it as a means to promote wakefulness. The initial slogan was, "All the sugar and twice the caffeine." HP Compaq PB994 Battery
In 1995, PepsiCo launched Josta, the first energy drink introduced by a major US beverage company (one that had interests outside energy drinks), but Pepsi discontinued the product in 1999. Pepsi would later return to the energy drink market with the AMP brand. HP Compaq PB994A Battery
In Europe, energy drinks were pioneered by the S. Spitz Company and a product named Power Horse, before the business savvy of Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur, ensured his Red Bull product became far better known, and a worldwide best seller. HP Compaq PB994ET Battery
Mateschitz developed Red Bull based on the Thai drink Krating Daeng, itself based on Lipovitan. Red Bull is the dominant brand in the US after its introduction in 1997, with a market share of approximately 47%.
In New Zealand and Australia, the current leading energy drinks product in those markets V was introduced byFrucor Beverages.HP Compaq PQ457AV Battery
By 2001, the US energy drink market had grown to nearly 8 million per year in retail sales. Over the next 5 years, it grew an average of over 50% per year, totaling over $3 billion in 2005. Diet energy drinks are growing at nearly twice that rate within the category, as are 16-ounce (470 ml) sized energy drinks.
HP Compaq TD09 Battery
HP Compaq TD09 Battery
The energy drink market became a $5.4 billion dollar market in 2007, and both Goldman Sachs and Mintel predicted that it would hit $10 billion by 2010. Major companies such as Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Molson, and Labatt have tried to match smaller companies' innovative and different approach, with marginal success. HP Compaq TD09093 Battery
Energy drinks are typically attractive to young people. Approximately 66% percent of its drinkers are between the ages of 13 and 35 years old, with males being approximately 65% of the market. A 2008 statewide Patient Poll conducted by the Pennsylvania Medical Society's Institute for Good Medicine found that: HP Compaq TD09093-CL Battery
20% of respondents ages 21–30 had used energy drinks in high school or college to stay awake longer to study or write a paper; 70% of respondents knew someone who had used an energy drink to stay awake longer to study or work. Energy drinks are also popular as drink mixers. HP Compaq RW556AA Battery
UK supermarkets have launched their own brands of energy drinks at lower prices than the major soft drink manufacturers. These are mostly produced by Canadian beverage maker Cott. Tesco supermarkets sell 'Kx"'(used to be known as 'Kick') in 250 mL cans and 1 L bottles, HP Compaq NBP8A97 Battery
Sainsbury's sell 'Blue Bolt' in similar packaging, Asda sell 'Blue Charge' in similar packaging and Morrison's sell 'Source' in 250 mL cans. Cott sells a variety of other branded energy drinks to independent retailers in various containers.
Since 2002 there has been a growing trend for packaging energy drink in bigger cans . HP Compaq KU531AA Battery
Since in many countries, including the US and Canada, there is a limitation on the maximum caffeine per serving in energy drinks, this allows manufacturers to include a greater amount of caffeine by including multiple servings per container. Popular brands such as Red Bull, Hype Energy Drinks and Monster have increased the amount of ounces per can. HP Compaq KU532AA Battery
Conversely, the emergence of energy shots has gone the opposite way with much smaller packaging.
In 2007, energy drink powders and effervescent tablets were introduced, in the form of a tablet or powder that can be added to water to create an energy drink. These can offer a more portable option to cans and shots. HP Compaq 500764-001 Battery
As of 2009, the industry has moved towards the use of natural stimulants and reduced sugar.
On August 14, 2012, the word "energy drink" will be listed for the first time in the mainstream Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary.
Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine), B vitamins, and herbs. HP Compaq 500765-001 Battery
Other commonly used ingredients arecarbonated water, guarana, yerba mate, açaí, and taurine, plus various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine,creatine, glucuronolactone, and ginkgo biloba. Some contain high levels of sugar, and many brands offer artificially sweetened 'diet' versions. HP Compaq 501870-001 Battery
A common ingredient in most energy drinks is caffeine (often in the form of guarana or yerba mate). Caffeine is the stimulant that is found in coffee and tea. Energy drinks contain about three times the amount of caffeine as cola. Twelve ounces of Coca-Cola Classic contains 35 mg of caffeine, whereas a Monster Energy Drink contains 120 mg of caffeine. HP Compaq 513129-121 Battery
A variety of physiological and psychological effects have been attributed to energy drinks and their ingredients. Two studies reported significant improvements in mental and cognitive performances as well as increased subjective alertness. Excess consumption of energy drinks may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia. HP Compaq 513129-141 Battery
During repeated cycling tests in young healthy adults an energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance. It has been suggested that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance. HP Compaq 513129-421 Battery
Restorative properties were shown by a combination of caffeine and the sugar glucose in an energy drink, and some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine was also suggested. In one experiment, a glucose-based energy drink (containing caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone) HP Compaq 532497-221 Battery
was given to eleven tired participants being tested in a driving simulator. Lane drifting and reaction times were measured for two hours post-treatment and showed significant improvement.
Two articles concluded that the improved information processing and other effects could not be explained in terms of the restoration of plasma caffeine levels to normal following caffeine withdrawal. HP Compaq 532497-241 Battery
Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake, but consumption of two or more drinks in a single day can. Other stimulants such asginseng are often added to energy drinks and may enhance the effects of caffeine, and ingredients such asguarana themselves contain caffeine. HP Compaq 532497-421 Battery
Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs. HP Compaq 572186-001 Battery
Most mainstream energy drinks do not provide electrolytes, and have a higher likelihood of an energy "crash-and-burn" effect. Caffeine in energy drinks can excrete water from the body to dilute high concentrations of sugar entering the blood stream, leading to dehydration. If the body is dehydrated by 1%, performance is decreased by up to 10%.HP Compaq 572187-001 Battery
In the US, energy drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits. The drinks may cause seizures due to the "crash" following the energy high that occurs after consumption. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, HP Compaq 572188-001 Battery
unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.
Dr. Marcie Schneider, an adolescent medicine specialist in Greenwich, Connecticut, has said that the drinks have no benefit and "no place in the diet of kids".HP Compaq 572189-001 Battery
In November 2010, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston reported that energy drinks contain more caffeine than a strong cup of coffee, and that the caffeine combined with other ingredients (sometimes not reported correctly on labels) such as guarana, taurine, other herbs, vitamins and minerals may interact. HP Compaq 572190-001 Battery
Energy drinks consumed with alcohol may affect heart rates, blood pressure and even mental states. The caffeine content of energy drinks range from 80–300 mg per 16-oz serving whereas a 16-oz cup of coffee can contain 70–200 mg.
Water or lower-octane sports drinks which contain electrolytes, some minerals and carbohydrate are better choice to reduce the possibility of dehydration and increase in blood pressure. HP Compaq 572191-001 Battery
Health experts say caffeine prevents sleepiness and delays the feeling of drunkenness normally experienced when drinking alcohol, causing some people to continue drinking after they normally would have stopped.Both caffeine and alcohol are diuretics, so mixing energy drinks with alcohol can cause severedehydration, HP Compaq 583256-001 Battery
possibly leading to vomiting, nausea, and other health problems in the long term.
In 2008, Anheuser-Busch agreed to take caffeine out of energy drinks that contain alcohol, after 11 state attorneys general charged the brewer was marketing them to underage drinkers. This action was also followed by MillerCoors in the same year.HP Compaq 586031-001 Battery
A study published in May 2012 stated that citric acid in energy drinks can be as harmful to teeth as sugar. They are worried about teens, of which 30 to 50 percent of whom are estimated to consume energy drinks, will lose enamel from their teeth. Of the 9 energy drinks and 13 sport drinks tested, all have caused enamel loss, HP Compaq 451085-141 Battery
but energy drinks took off much more enamel from teeth than sport drinks. There are no regulations to declare the precise amount of citric acid and the American Beverage Association says drinks can't be blamed for damage to teeth.
The popular energy drink Red Bull did not get market approval in France after the death of an 18-year-old Irish athlete, HP Compaq 451085-661 Battery
Ross Cooney, who died within hours after playing a basketball game and consuming four cans of the product. This market approval was challenged in the European Court of Justice in 2004, and consequently lifted. Norway did not allow Red Bull for a while, although this has recently been revoked. HP Compaq 451086-001 Battery
The United Kingdom investigated the drink, but only issued a warning against its consumption by children and pregnant women.
In 2009, a school in Hove, England requested that local shops refrain from selling energy drinks to students. HP Compaq 451086-121 Battery
Headteacher Malvina Sanders added that "This was a preventative measure, as all research shows that consuming high-energy drinks can have a detrimental impact on the ability of young people to concentrate in class." The school negotiated for their local branch of the HP Compaq 451086-161 Battery
Tesco supermarket to display posters asking students not to purchase the products. Similar measures were taken by a school in Oxted, England, which banned students from consuming drinks and sent letters to parents.
New Mexico Military Institute, a military high school and junior college located in Roswell, HP Compaq 451086-621 Battery
New Mexico, does not allow sales of energy drinks at the campus "Cadet Store" after an incident of a young Cadet being hospitalized for overconsumption.
On June 7th, 2012, the parliament of Latvia approved changes in the legislation of sale of consumable goods, to prohibit sale of energy drinks to persons under the age of 18. HP Compaq 451086-661 Battery
Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink. Whereas most energy drinks are sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in smaller 50ml bottles. Energy shots can contain the same total amount of caffeine, vitamins or other functional ingredients as their larger versions, and may be considered concentrated forms of energy drinks. HP Compaq 451568-001 Battery
The marketing of energy shots generally focuses on their convenience and availability as a low-calorie "instant" energy drink that can be taken in one swallow (or "shot"), as opposed to energy drinks that encourage users to drink an entire can, which may contain 250 calories or more. HP Compaq 456864-001 Battery
Energy drinks such as Red Bull are often used as mixers with alcoholic beverages, producing mixed drinks such as Vodka Red Bull which are similar to but stronger than rum and coke with respect to the amount of caffeine that they contain. They are also sold in a wide variety of formulations such as Four Lokoand Joose which combine caffeine and alcohol. HP Compaq 456865-001 Battery
Four Loko, a product of Phusion Projects, was originally promoted through young employees who were hired to introduce the product to their peer group.
Through separate mechanisms, energy drinks act as stimulants, and alcohol as depressants. HP Compaq 458640-542 Battery
Mixing a depressant with a stimulant sends mixed signals to the nervous system and can cause cardiac problems such as heart arrhythmia. In addition, energy drinks can lessen some of the subjective effects of alcohol while making the drinker feel more stimulated and less fatigued. HP Compaq 464119-142 Battery
However, they may be unable to counteract some of the psychomotor impairments of alcohol intoxication. Consequently, the mix can be particularly hazardous as energy drinks can mask the influence of alcohol and a person may misinterpret their actual level of intoxication. HP Compaq 464119-143 Battery
In fact, people who drink mixers are more likely than non-mixers to drink more alcohol, and are also more likely to suffer alcohol-related consequences such as injury or being an intoxicated driver, even after adjusting for the number of drinks. Although people decide to drink energy drinks with alcohol with the intent of counteracting alcohol intoxication, another large majority do so to hide the taste of alcohol. HP Compaq 464119-162 Battery
Researchers at the Human Performance Laboratory have suggested people refrain from mixing such powerful stimulants with alcohol, they believe it might cause cardiopulmonary or cardiovascular failures. As of November 10, 2010 caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks had been banned in Washington and Michigan in the United States.[ HP Compaq 464119-361 Battery
he bans followed a widely publicized incident which resulted in hospitalization in the Fall of 2010 of college students who had consumed several cans of Four Loko caffeinated alcoholic beverage. Utah, which has state controlled liquor retail outlets, after studying them, never permitted the sale of caffeinated alcoholic energy drinks. HP Compaq 464119-362 Battery
The products will no longer be delivered to Oklahoma after December 3, 2010 and delivery to retailers has been suspended in New York.
On November 17, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration warned four companies, Charge Beverages Corp., New Century Brewing Co., HP Compaq 464119-363 Battery
Phusion Projects, and United Brands Company Inc, that the caffeine added to their malt alcoholic beverages is an "unsafe food additive" and said that further action, including seizure of their products, may occur under federal law. In a press release, the FDA states "there is evidence that the combinations of caffeine and alcohol in these products pose a public health concern. HP Compaq 482962-001 Battery
" They also state that concerns have been raised that caffeine can mask some of the sensory cues individuals might normally rely on to determine their level of intoxication. Warning letters were issued to each of the four companies requiring them to provide to the FDA in writing within 15 days of the specific steps the firms will be taking. HP Compaq 484786-001 Battery
Manufacturers have argued that drinking a caffeinated alcoholic energy drink is indistinguishable from drinking a couple of glasses of wine followed by a couple of cups of coffee.
Several beverages have been marketed in the 2000s as "anti-energy", "chill out",HP Compaq 484787-001 Battery
or "relaxation" drinks, including Lava Cola, Slow Cow, Drank, iChill, Marley's Mellow Mood, Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda, Chill, Calm, Malava Kava, V.i.B., and Jones Gaba.They are growing in popularity, with sales doubling from 2008 to 2010, and expected to more than double again by 2014.HP Compaq 490306-001 Battery