Summa Theologica was a key intellectual achievement in its synthesis of Aristotelian thought and Christianity.
In the 11th century, already strained relations between the primarily Greek church and the Latin church separated them into the Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity respectively, Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery
partially due to conflicts over Papal authority. The fourth crusade and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. In the 16th century, in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Church engaged in a process of substantial reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery
In subsequent centuries, Catholicism spread widely across the world despite experiencing a reduction in its hold on European populations due to the growth of religious scepticism during and after the Enlightenment.
In 1854 Pope Pius IX with the support of the overwhelming majority of Roman Catholic bishops, Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery
whom he had consulted from 1851 to 1853, proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In 1870, the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements. Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a breakaway movement called the Old Catholic Church. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery
The Second Vatican Council in the 1960s introduced the most significant changes to Catholic practices since the Council of Trent four centuries before. Initiated by Pope John XXIII, this ecumenical council modernised the practices of the Catholic Church, allowing the Mass to be said in the vernacular (local language) and encouraging "fully conscious, Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery
and active participation in liturgical celebrations." It intended to engage the Church more closely with the present world (aggiornamento), which was described by its advocates as an "opening of the windows". In addition to changes in the liturgy, it led to changes to the Church's approach to ecumenism, Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery
and a call to improved relations with non-Christian religions, especially Judaism, in its document Nostra Aetate.
The Council, however, generated significant controversy in implementing its reforms; proponents of the "Spirit of Vatican II" such as Swiss theologian Hans Küngclaimed Vatican II had "not gone far enough" to change church policies. Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery
Traditionalist Catholics, such as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, however, strongly criticised the council, arguing that the council's liturgical reforms led "to the destruction of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and the sacraments," among other issues. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery
Pope John Paul II recognised the need to evangelise an increasingly secular world and used new means to reach the faithful. He instituted World Youth Day, a "worldwide encounter with the Pope", for young people from all over the world which is celebrated every two to three years. Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery
He travelled more than any other pope, visiting 129 countries and preaching the Gospel in nearly every part of the world. He also used television and radio as means of spreading the Gospel.
In 1978, Pope John Paul II, formerly archbishop of Kraków in then-Communist Poland, became the first non-Italian Pope in 455 years. Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery
His 27-year pontificate was one of the longest in history. Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, credited the Polish pope with hastening the fall of Communism in Europe.
The Catholic nun Mother Teresa of Calcutta was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work among India's poor. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery
Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo won the same award in 1996 for "work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".
Soon after the close of the Second Vatican Council, Church teachings about sexuality became an issue of increasing controversy due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world (see the Sexual Revolution). Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery
The Church teaches that sexual intercourse should only take place between a married man and woman, and should be without the use artificial birth control or contraception. In his encyclical Humanae Vitae (1968), Pope Paul VI firmly rejected all artificial contraception, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery
thus contradicting dissenters in the Church that saw the birth control pill as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation of births by means of natural family planning. This teaching was continued especially by John Paul II in his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery
where he clarified the Church's position on contraception, abortion andeuthanasia by condemning them as part of a "culture of death" and calling instead for a "culture of life".
The Church teaches that homosexual inclinations are "objectively disordered"  and so homosexual behavior is "contrary to the natural law". Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery
The Church teaches that people who have homosexual tendencies are called to live chastely, and as such, it offers help to those who wish to overcome their tendency towards their own sex. Because of these teachings, as well as its teaching that marriage is between one man and one woman, Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery
the Catholic Church firmly opposes same-sex marriage. However this position, as well as its position on homosexuality in general, has generated criticism from non-Catholics as well as a number of Catholics.
In religious vocations, Catholic women and men are ascribed different roles—Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery
men serve as deacons, priests, friars, monks, brothers, abbotts or in episcopalpositions while women serve as nuns, religious sisters or abbesses. Monks and brothers often house together in monasteries while nuns and sisters may house themselves in convents - though an abbey may host a religious community of men or women. Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery
In other roles, the Church does not distinguish between men and women, who may be equally recognised as saints, doctors of the church, catechists in schools, altar servers, Extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion at Mass, or as readers during the liturgy.
While Holy Orders are reserved for men, Catholic women have played diverse roles in the life of the church, Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/P Battery
with religious institutes providing a formal space for their participation and convents providing spaces for their self-government, prayer and influence through many centuries. Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the Church's worldwide health and education service networks. Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/R Battery
Efforts in support of the ordination of women led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or Popes against the proposal, as in Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (1976), Mulieris Dignitatem (1988) and Ordinatio Sacerdotalis (1994). Sony VAIO VPCCW28FJ/W Battery
According to the latest ruling, found inOrdinatio Sacerdotalis, Pope John Paul II concluded, "I declare that the Church has no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women and that this judgment is to be definitively held by all the Church's faithful." Sony VAIO VPCCW29FJ/W Battery
In defiance of these rulings, opposition groups such as Roman Catholic Womenpriests have performed alleged ordination ceremonies (with, reputedly, an ordaining male Catholic bishop in the first few instances) which, according to canon law, are both illicit and invalid and considered mere simulations of the sacrament of Ordination.Sony VAIO VPCCW2AFJ Battery
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of excommunication (latae sententiae, literally "sentence passed", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of canon lawand other church laws. Sony VAIO VPCCW2AHJ Battery
In the 1990s and 2000s, the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy became the subject of media coverage and public debate in countries around the world. The Church was criticised for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E Battery
transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences. In response to the scandal, the Church has established formal procedures to prevent abuse, encourage reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/B Battery
In September 2011, a submission was lodged with the International Criminal Court alleging that the Pope, Cardinal Angelo Sodano dean of theCollege of Cardinals, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone Vatican Secretary of State and Cardinal William Levada head of the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/L Battery
had committed a crime against humanity by failing to prevent or punish perpetrators of rape and sexual violence in a "systematic and widespread" concealment which included failure to co-operate with relevant law enforcement agencies. In a statement to the Associated Press, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/P Battery
the Vatican described this as a "ludicrous publicity stunt and a misuse of international judicial processes." Lawyers and law professors emphasised that the case is likely to fall outside the court's jurisdiction.
The term Roman Catholic appeared in the English language at the beginning of the 17th century, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/R Battery
to differentiate specific groups ofChristians in communion with the Pope from others; comparable terms in other languages already existed. It has continued to be widely used in the English language ever since, although its usage has changed over the centuries. Sony VAIO VPCCW2S1E/W Battery
The church widely known as the Catholic Church consists of 23 autonomous churches (all of which are subject to the Pope)— one "Western" and 22 "Eastern" — governed by two sets of Codes of Canon Law. To refer to all 23 autonomous Churches together, official Church documents often use the term "Catholic Church" or, Sony VAIO VPCCW2S5C CN1 Battery
less frequently, the term "Roman Catholic Church". The usage that makes the term "Roman Catholic" mean members of the Latin Rite or Western Church to the exclusion of those who belong to the Eastern Catholic Churches does not appear in any recent document of the Holy See, Sony VAIO VPCF112FX/B Battery
and popes have used the term "Roman Catholic Church" on various occasions throughout the 20th century to mean instead the whole Church without exclusion of any part.
In popular usage, "Catholic Church" is usually understood to mean the same as "Roman Catholic Church". Sony VAIO VPCF115FG/B Battery
In compound forms such as "Roman Catholic worship" the term is sometimes used to differentiate Western (Latin Rite) practices from Eastern. However, in itself the word "catholic" translates into English as "universal" or "pertaining to the whole", as opposed to "particular" or "related to a part".Sony VAIO VPCF116FGBI Battery
Being "catholic" is one of the Four Marks of the Church set out in the Nicene Creed, a statement of belief accepted by many churches, even if not in communion with the Pope.
The word "church" represents the Greek word ecclesia, originally meaning "meeting, assembly", the usual Septuagint translation of Hebrew qahal, Sony VAIO VPCF117FJ/W Battery
"congregation [of Israel]", as in Deuteronomy 31:30 and elsewhere. The word "Catholic", meaning "universal", was first applied the Church by St. Ignatius of Antioch in his letter to the Smyrnaeans in 110. It was repeatedly used to describe the "universal" congregation of the believers of the pure Word of Christ in theological works such as St. Sony VAIO VPCF117HG/BI Battery
Augustine of Hippo in his books Confessions in 394 and City of God in 410. After the 5th-century splits that followed the First Council of Ephesus and the Council of Chalcedon, the Church split again in the 11th century, with the Western Church loyal to the Pope and the Eastern Orthodox Churchloyal to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Sony VAIO VPCF118FJ/W Battery
St. Thomas Aquinas repeatedly used the word "Catholic" to describe the Church loyal to the Pope, the bishop of Rome, as opposed to those loyal to the bishop of Constantinople, called the Ecumenical Patriarch.
The terms "Romish Catholic" and "Roman Catholic", along with "Popish Catholic", Sony VAIO VPCF119FC Battery
were brought into use in the English language chiefly by adherents of the Church of England, which saw itself as the Catholic Church in England, so that they were not willing to concede the term Catholic to their opponents without qualification.
The reign of Elizabeth I of England at the end of the 16th century was marked by conflicts in Ireland. Sony VAIO VPCF119FC/BI Battery
Those opposed to English rule forged alliances with those against the Protestant reformation, making the term Roman Catholic almost synonymous with being Irish during that period, although that usage changed significantly over time.
Like the term Anglican, the term Roman Catholic came into widespread use in the English language only in the 17th century. Sony VAIO VPCF119FJ/BI Battery
The terms "Romish Catholic" and "Roman Catholic" were both in use in the 17th century and "Roman Catholic" was used in some official documents, such as those relating to the Spanish Match in the 1620s. There was, however, significant tension between Anglicans and Roman Catholics at the time (as reflected in the Test Act for public office). Sony VAIO VPCF11AFJ Battery
Even today, the Act of Settlement 1701 still prohibits Roman Catholics from becoming English monarchs.
The official and popular uses of the term Roman Catholic in the English language grew in the 18th century. Sony VAIO VPCF11AGJ Battery
Up to the reign of George III, Catholics in Britain who recognized the Pope as head of the Church had generally been designated in official documents as "Papists". In 1792, however, this phraseology was changed and in the Speech from the Throne, the term "Roman Catholic" was used. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92S Battery
By early 19th century, the term Roman Catholic had become well established in the English-speaking world. As the movement that led to Catholic Emancipation through the Catholic Relief Act of 1829 grew, many — though not all — Anglicans and Protestants generally began to accept that being a Roman Catholic was not synonymous with being disloyal to the British government. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92US Battery
While believing that in the past the term Roman Catholic may have been synonymous with rebel, they held that it was by then as indicative of loyalty as membership in any other Christian denomination. The situation had been very different two centuries before, Sony VAIO VGN-SR93DS Battery
when Pope Paul V forbade English members of his Church from taking an oath of allegiance toKing James I, a prohibition that not all of them observed.
Also in the 19th century, prominent Anglican theologians such as Palmer and Keble supported the Branch Theory, which viewed the universal Church as having three principal branches: Sony VAIO VGN-SR93JS Battery
Anglican, Roman and Eastern. The 1824 issue of The Christian Observer defined the term Roman Catholic as a member of the Roman Branch of the Church. By 1828, speeches in the English parliament routinely used the term Roman Catholic and referred to the "Holy Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church". Sony VAIO VGN-SR93PS Battery
In the United States, the use of the term Roman Catholic and indeed the number of Roman Catholics began to grow only in the early 19th century, given that in 1790 there were only 100 Roman Catholics in New York and some 30,000 in the whole United States, with 29 priests. Sony VAIO VGN-SR93YS Battery
As the number of Roman Catholics in the United States grew rapidly from 150,000 to 1.7 million between 1815 and 1850 — mostly by way of immigration from Ireland and Germany — the clergy followed the people to serve them, and Roman Catholic parishes were established. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94FS Battery
The terms "Roman Catholic" and "Holy Roman Catholic" thus gained widespread use in the United States in the 19th century, both in popular usage and within official documents.In 1866 President Andrew Johnson attended a meeting of the Council of the Roman Catholic Church. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94GS Battery
American Catholics, who by the year 1900 were 12 million people and had a predominantly Irish clergy, objected to what they considered the reproachful terms Popish and Romish and preferred the term Roman Catholic.
In the early 20th century, the use of the term Roman Catholic continued to spread within the United States and Canada, to refer to individuals, parishes and their schools. Sony VAIO VGN-SR94HS Battery
For instance, the 1915 Report of the Commissioner of Education of the United States had a specific section for "Roman Catholic Parish Schools". By 1918, legal proceedings in state supreme courts (from Delaware to Minnesota) and laws passed in the State of New York used the term "Roman Catholic parish".Sony VAIO VGN-SR94VS Battery
The term Roman Catholic is generally used on its own to refer to individuals, and in compound forms to refer to worship, parishes, festivals, etc. Its usage has varied, depending on circumstances. It is sometimes also identified with one or other of the terms "Catholic", "Western Catholic" (equivalent to "Latin Catholic"), and "Roman-Rite Catholic".Sony VAIO VPC CW2MFX/PU Battery
In popular usage, "Catholic" usually means "Roman Catholic", a usage decried by some, including some Protestants."Catholic" usually refers to members of any of the 23 constituent Churches, the one Western and the 22 Eastern. The same meaning is attributed also to "Roman Catholic" in documents of the Holy See, talks by Popes and in newspapers.Sony VAIO VPC S11V9E/B Battery
Although "Roman Catholic" has been used in this sense in documents such as Divini Illius Magistri, Humani generis, adeclaration of 23 November 2006 and another of http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/b16bart1decl.htm 30 November 2006,] K.D.Sony VAIO VPCB119GJ/B Battery
Whitehead has claimed that "the term Roman Catholic is not used by the Church herself" and that "the proper name of the Church, then, is 'the Catholic Church', never 'the Christian Church'".
When used in a broader sense, the term Catholic is distinguished from "Roman Catholic" which has connotations of allegiance to the Bishop of Rome, i.e. the Pope. Sony VAIO VPCB11AGJ Battery
In this broader sense, "Catholic" also refers to many other Christians, especiallyEastern Orthodox and Anglicans, but also to others, including Old Catholics and various independent Catholic Churches, who consider themselves to be living within the "catholic" tradition. Sony VAIO VPCB11AVJ Battery
They describe themselves as "Catholic", but not "Roman Catholic" and not under the authority of the Pope.
The Holy See uses the term "Roman Catholic" to refer to the entirety of the Church that is in full communion with it, encompassing both its Eastern and Western elements. Sony VAIO VPCB11V9E Battery
For examples of statements by Popes that employ the term "Roman Catholic" in this way, see Papal references below. This is the only meaning given to the term "Roman Catholic" at that official level. However, some do use the term "Roman Catholic" to refer to Western (i.e. Latin) Catholics, excluding Eastern Catholics. Sony VAIO VPCB11X9E Battery
The same distinction is made by some writers belonging to Eastern Catholic Churches.That this view is not the only one, not alone at the level of the Holy See and in reference books such as John Hardon's Modern Catholic Dictionary, but also at a popular level, is shown by the use of terms such as Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/P Battery
"Byzantine Roman Catholic" and "Maronite Roman Catholic" as self-identification by individuals or as the name of a church building. Additionally, in other languages, the usage varies significantly.
Many, even Catholics, are unaware or only dimly aware that the Catholic Church has Western and Eastern branches. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/R Battery
This is partly because, outside the Middle East, Eastern Catholics are a small fraction of the total number of Catholics.
When referring to worship, the term Roman Catholic is at times used to refer to the "Roman Rite", which is not a church but a form of liturgy. Sony VAIO VPCCW18FJ/W Battery
The Roman Rite is distinct from the liturgies of the Eastern Catholic Churches and also from otherWestern liturgical rites such as the Ambrosian Rite, which have a much smaller following than the Roman Rite.
Compared to the Roman Rite, the other Western liturgical rites have little following. Sony VAIO VPCCW19FJ/W Battery
Hence, the Vatican department that deals with forms of worship (including music) in theWestern Church often issues documents that deal only with the Roman Rite. Any involvement by the Holy See in questions of Eastern liturgies is handled by a different department. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AFJ Battery
Some of the writers who draw a contrast between "Roman Catholics" and "Eastern Catholics" may perhaps be distinguishing Eastern Catholics not from Latin or Western Catholics in general, but only from those (the majority of Latin Catholics) who use the Roman liturgical rite. Sony VAIO VPCCW1AHJ Battery
Adrian Fortescue explicitly made this distinction, saying that, just as "Armenian Catholic" is used to mean a Catholic who uses the Armenian rite, "Roman Catholic" could be used to mean a Catholic who uses the Roman Rite. In this sense, he said, an Ambrosian Catholic, though a member of the Latin or Western Church, is not a "Roman" Catholic. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E Battery
He admitted, however, that this usage is uncommon.
When the term "Roman Catholic" is used as part of the name of a parish it usually indicates that it is a Western parish that follows the Roman Rite in its liturgy, rather than, for instance, the less common Ambrosian Rite, e.g. St. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/B Battery
Dominic Roman Catholic Church, Oyster Bay, New York. The shorter term "Catholic" may also appear in parish names and "Roman Catholic" sometimes even appears in the compound name of Eastern Catholic parishes, e.g. St. Mary's Byzantine Roman Catholic Church. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery
All Catholic parishes are part of an ecclesiastical jurisdiction, usually a diocese (called an eparchy in the canon law of the Eastern Catholic Churches).These jurisdictions are usually grouped in ecclesiastical provinces, headed by a metropolitan archdiocese. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery
All dioceses and similar jurisdictions — Eastern and Western — come under the authority of the Pope. The term "Roman Catholic archdiocese" is formally used to refer to both Western and Eastern Churches. As of January 2009, there were 630 Roman Catholic archdioceses, Western and Eastern. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery
The terms "Catholic Church" and "Roman Catholic Church" are names for the entire church that describes itself as "governed by the successor of Saint Peter and by the bishops in communion with him". In its formal documents and pronouncements the church most often refers to itself as the Catholic Church or simply the Church. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/P Battery
In its relations with other churches, it frequently uses the name "Roman Catholic Church", which it uses internally also, though less frequently. Some writers such as Kenneth Whitehead and Patrick Madrid argue that the only proper name for the Church is "the Catholic Church"..Sony VAIO VGN-SR51B/S Battery
The name "Roman Catholic Church" is occasionally used by popes, bishops, other clergy and laity, who do not see it as opprobrious or having the suggested overtone. The use of "Roman", "Holy" and "Apostolic" are accepted by the Church as descriptive names.[ Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF Battery
Some American states and the country of England require the Church to use the legal name "Roman Catholic Church". At the time of the 16th-century Reformation, the Church itself "claimed the word catholic as its title over Protestant or Reformed churches". It believes that it is the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
Throughout the years, in various instances, official Church documents have used both the terms "Catholic Church" and "Roman Catholic Church" to refer to the worldwide Church as a whole, including Eastern Catholics, as when Pope Pius XII taught inHumani Generis that "the Mystical Body of Christ and the Roman Catholic Church are one and the same thing". Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/S Battery
However, some Easterners, though in communion with the Bishop of Rome, apply the adjective "Roman" to the Latin or Western Church alone. Representatives of the Catholic Church are at times required to use the term "Roman Catholic Church" in certain dialogues, especially in ecumenical milieu, since some Protestants consider themselves authentic instances of Catholic faith.Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery
In the 21st century, the three terms Catholic Church, Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Catholic Church continue to appear in various books and publications, and scholarly debates on the proper form of reference to the Catholic Church within specific contexts continue. Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR Battery
For instance, the Catechism of the Catholic Church does not contain the term "Roman Catholic Church", referring to the Church only by names such as "Catholic Church" (as in its title), while the Advanced Catechism Of Catholic Faith And Practice states that the term Roman is used within the name of the Church to emphasize that the center of unity of the Church is the Roman See.Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG Battery
There is controversy about the name "Roman Catholic Church" because of its use by members of other churches to suggest that the Church in full communion with Rome is only one part of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. This argument is linked especially with the Branch Theory upheld by a minority ofAnglicans, Sony VAIO VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
(i.e., that the Church in communion with the Pope is only one branch of a divided Catholic Church, of which the Eastern Orthodox Church andAnglicanism are the other two principal branches).
In 1864, the Holy Office rejected the Branch Theory, Sony VAIO VGN-SR70B/S Battery
affirming in a letter written to the English bishops that the Roman Church is not just a part of the Catholic Church and stating that "there is no other Catholic Church except that which is built on the one man, Peter ...." In 1870, English bishops attending the First Vatican Council raised objections to the expression Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/P Battery
"Holy Roman Catholic Church" which appeared in the schema (the draft) of the Council's Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith. These bishops proposed that the word "Roman" be omitted out of concern that use of the term "Roman Catholic" would lend support to proponents of the Branch Theory. Sony VAIO VGN-SR72B/S Battery
While the Council overwhelmingly rejected this proposal, the text was finally modified to read "The Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church".[note 1]
From 1937 to 1972, the Constitution of Ireland recognised the "special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church". Sony VAIO VGN-SR73JB/S Battery
The Anglican Archbishop of Dublin had objected to "Catholic Church" and quoted the Council of Trent for the longer title, which was approved by Eugenio Pacelli and Pope Pius XI.The same name is used in a 2009 Irish law.
The Second Vatican Council did not use the term "Roman Catholic Church",[52Sony VAIO VGN-SR74FB/S Battery
] and in one important passage of the dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium replaced it with an equivalent phrase, "the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in union with that successor", while also giving in a footnote a reference to two earlier documents in which the word "Roman" was used explicitly. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90FS Battery
The two earlier documents that the Council stated had applied the phrase "Roman Church" to the Church itself, the Church "governed by the successor of Saint Peter and by the bishops in communion with him", was the Tridentine Profession of Faith and the First Vatican Council's dogmatic constitution on faith. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90NS Battery
Even as far back as 1208 the adjective "Roman" was applied to the Church "outside which we believe that no one is saved".
Popes have on several occasions in different contexts during the 20th and 21st centuries used the term "Roman Catholic Church" to refer to the whole Church in communion with the Holy See. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90S Battery
Example encyclicals include Divini Illius Magistri of Pope Pius XI in 1929 and, Humani generis of Pope Pius XII in 1950.
Pope Paul VI used the term "Roman Catholic Church" in the joint declarations he signed with Patriarch Athenagoras of Constantinople in 1965 and 1967. Sony VAIO VGN-SR90US Battery
He also used that term in the declarations he signed with Patriarch Mar Ignatius Yacoub III of the Syrian Orthodox Church on 27 October 1971 and with Archbishop of Canterbury Donald Coggan on 29 April 1977.
Pope John Paul II referred to himself as "the Head of the Roman Catholic Church" (29 September 1979). Sony VAIO VGN-SR91NS Battery
He called the Church "Roman Catholic" when speaking to the Jewish community in Mainz on 17 November 1980, in a message to those celebrating the 450th anniversary of the Confessio Augustana on 25 June 1980, when speaking to the people of Mechelen, Belgium on 18 May 1985, when talking to representatives of Christian confessions in Copenhagen, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91PS Battery
Denmark on 7 June 1989, when addressing a delegation from the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 29 June 1989, at a meeting of the Ukrainian Synod in Rome on 24 March 1980, at a prayer meeting in the Orthodox cathedral of Bialystok, Poland on 5 June 1991, when speaking to the Polish Ecumenical Council in Holy Trinity Church, Sony VAIO VGN-SR91S Battery
Warsaw 9 June 1991, at an ecumenical meeting in the Aula Magna of the Colégio Catarinense, in Florianópolis, Brazil on 18 October 1991, and at the Angelus in São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil on 20 October 1991.
Pope Benedict XVI called the Church "the Roman Catholic Church" at a meeting in Warsaw on 25 May 2006 Sony VAIO VGN-SR91US Battery
and in joint declarations that he signed with Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams on 23 November 2006 and with Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople on 30 November 2006.
While the phrase "Roman Catholic Church" does not appear in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the Advanced Catechism of Catholic Faith and Practice states that the term "Roman" Sony VAIO VGN-SR92NS Battery
is used within the name of the Church to emphasize that the centre of unity of the Church is the Roman See. The Baltimore Catechism, an official catechism authorized by the Catholic bishops of the United States, states: "That is why we are called Roman Catholics; to show that we are united to the real successor of St. Sony VAIO VGN-SR92PS Battery
Peter" (Question 118), and refers to the Church as the "Roman Catholic Church" under Questions 114 and 131 (Baltimore Catechism).The Catechism of Pope Pius X calls the Church Roman.
Some Eastern-rite Catholics reject the description of themselves as "Roman", Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
even though they are a part of the Catholic Church. Others are proud to call themselves Roman Catholics, and "Roman Catholic" sometimes even appears in the compound name of Eastern Catholic parish churches, e.g. St. Mary's Byzantine Roman Catholic Church. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/S Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/B Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-SR220J/H Battery