Tuesday, October 23, 2012
Dilma Vana Rousseff
Dilma Vana Rousseff (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈd(ʒ)iwmɐ ˈvɐ̃nɐ ʁuˈsɛfⁱ]} born 14 December 1947) is the 36th and currentPresident of Brazil. She is the first woman to hold the office. Prior to that, in 2005, she was also the first woman to become Chief of Staff to the President of Brazil, appointed by then President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E Battery
The daughter of a Bulgarian entrepreneur, Rousseff was raised in an upper middle class household in Belo Horizonte.She became a socialist during her youth, and following the 1964 coup d'état joined various left-wing and Marxist urban guerrilla groups that fought against the military dictatorship. Rousseff was captured and jailed between 1970 and 1972 and reportedly tortured. Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B Battery
After her release, Rousseff rebuilt her life in Porto Alegre with Carlos Araújo, who would be her partner for 30 years. Both helped found the Democratic Labour Party (PDT) in Rio Grande do Sul, participating in several of the party's electoral campaigns. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E Battery
She became the Secretary of the Treasury of the city of Porto Alegre in the Alceu Collares administration, and later the Secretary of Energy of the State of Rio Grande do Sul under both Collares and Olívio Dutraadministrations. In 2000, after an internal dispute in the Dutra cabinet, she left PDT and joined the Workers' Party(PT). Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI Battery
In 2002, Rousseff joined the committee responsible for the energy policy of presidential candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who after winning the election invited her to become Minister of Energy. In 2005, a political crisis triggered by a corruption scandal led to the resignation of Chief of Staff José Dirceu.Sony VAIO VPCF11ZHJ Battery
Rousseff took over the post, remaining in office until 31 March 2010, when she left in order to run for President. She was elected in a run-off on 31 October 2010. She is the first female elected President of Brazil, in addition to being the first economist to hold the office.
Dilma Vana Rousseff was born in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on 14 December 1947, Sony VAIO VPCF127HGBI Battery
to Bulgarian lawyer and entrepreneur Pedro Rousseff (born Pétar Russév, Bulgarian: Петър Русев, 1900–1962) and schoolteacher Dilma Jane da Silva.Her father was born in Gabrovo, Principality of Bulgaria and was a friend of the Nobel Prize-nominated Bulgarian poet Elisaveta Bagriana. Sony VAIO VPCF137HG/BI Battery
An active member of the Bulgarian Communist Party in the 1920s, Petar Rusev fled political persecution in Bulgaria in 1929, settling in France. He arrived in Brazil in the 1930s, already widowed (he left behind his son Lyuben, who died in 2007), but soon moved to Buenos Aires. He returned to Brazil several years later, settling in São Paulo, where he succeeded in business. Sony VAIO VPCS111FM/S Battery
Pétar Rúsev adapted his first name to Portuguese and the last toFrench. During a trip to Uberaba, he met Dilma Jane da Silva, a young schoolteacher born in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, and raised in Minas Gerais, where her parents were ranchers. The two married and settled in Belo Horizonte, where they had three children: Sony VAIO VPCS115EC Battery
Igor, Dilma Vana, and Zana Lúcia (who died in 1977). Igor Rousseff, Dilma's elder brother, is a lawyer.
Pedro Rousseff was a contractor for Mannesmann steel, in addition to building and selling real estate. The family lived in a large house, had three servants, and maintained European habits. The children had a classical education, and both piano and French lessons. Sony VAIO VPCS115FG Battery
After Pedro defeated the initial resistance of the local community to accept foreigners, the family began to attend traditional clubs and schools.Rousseff was enrolled in preschool at the Colégio Izabela Hendrix and later received primary education at Colégio Nossa Senhora de Sion, a boarding school for girls run by nuns, where the students primarily spoke French with their teachers. Sony VAIO VPCS117GG Battery
Encouraged by her father, Rousseff acquired an early taste for reading. Pedro died in 1962, leaving behind around 15 properties.
In 1964 Rousseff left the conservative Colégio Sion and joined the Central State High School, a co-ed public school where the students would usually make a great stir against the dictatorship established after the military coup. Sony VAIO VPCS117GGB Battery
According to Rousseff, it was in this school that she became aware of the political situation of her country, getting "very subversive" and realizing that "the world was not a place for débutantes." In 1967 she joined the Worker's Politics (Portuguese: Política Operária—POLOP), an organization founded in 1961 as a faction of the Brazilian Socialist Party. Sony VAIO VPCS118EC Battery
Its members soon found themselves divided over the method to be used for the implementation of socialism; while some supported the struggle for the election of a constituent assembly, others preferred the armed struggle. Rousseff joined the second group, which originated the Command of National Liberation (Portuguese: Comando de Libertação Nacional—COLINA). Sony VAIO VPCS119FJ/B Battery
According to Apolo Heringer, who was the leader of Colina in 1968 and taught Marxism to Rousseff in high school, she chose the armed struggle after reading Revolution inside the Revolution by Régis Debray, a French intellectual who had moved to Cuba and became a friend of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Heringer says that "the book inflamed everybody, including Dilma." Sony VAIO VPCS119GC Battery
During that period, Rousseff met Cláudio Galeno Linhares, a brother in arms five years older than her. Galeno, who had joined POLOP 1n 1962, had served in theArmy, participating in the uprising of sailors against the military coup, for which he had been arrested in Ilha das Cobras. They married in 1968 in a civil ceremony, after dating for one year. Sony VAIO VPCS11AFJ Battery
Rousseff participated in the militant activities of the Comando de Libertação Nacional—COLINA (English: National Liberation Command) and advocated Marxist politics among labour union members and as editor of the newspaper The Piquet. Dilma's role in this organization is unclear. According to the magazine Piauí, she handled weapons. Sony VAIO VPCS11AGJ Battery
This is, however, contested by most of the Brazilian media. She probably was engaged only in "organization tasks".
In early 1969, the Minas Gerais branch of Colina was limited to a dozen militants, with little money and few weapons. Sony VAIO VPCS11AHJ Battery
Its activities had boiled down to four bank robberies, some stolen cars and two bombings, with no casualties. On 14 January, however, after the arrest of some militants during a bank robbery, the rest of them gathered to debate what they would do in order to release them from jail. At dawn, the police invaded the group's house and the militants responded by using a machine gun, which killed two policemen and wounded another.Sony VAIO VPCS11AVJ Battery
Rousseff and Galeno then began to sleep each night in a different location, since their apartment was visited by one of the leaders of the organization that had been arrested. They had to go back to their home secretly in order to destroy the organization's documents. On March 1969, the apartment was invaded by the police, but no documents were found. Sony VAIO VPCS11J7E/B Battery
They stayed in Belo Horizonte for a few more weeks trying to reorganize what was left of Colina, but had to avoid their parents' houses, aware that they were being watched by the military (Rousseff's family had no knowledge of her participation in underground activities). In addition to that, Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery
Galeno had to undergo facial plastic surgery or a similar procedure (although he denies this) after a sketch of him was released for participating in a bank robbery. Unable to remain in the city, the organization ordered them to move to Rio de Janeiro. Rousseff was 21 and had just finished her fourth semester at the Minas Gerais Federal University School of Economics. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery
There were a large number of people from Minas Gerais in the Rio de Janeiro faction of Colina (including former Belo Horizonte mayor Fernando Pimentel, 18 years old at the time), with the organization having no infrastructure to shelter all of them. Rousseff and Galeno stayed for a brief period in the home of one of Rousseff's aunts, who thought that they were in Rio on vacation. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery
Later they moved to a small hotel and then to an apartment, until Galeno was sent by the organization to Porto Alegre. Rousseff remained in Rio, where she helped the organization, attending meetings and transporting weapons and money, according to the magazine Piauí. At one of these meetings, she met the Rio Grande do Sul-born lawyer Carlos Franklin Paixão de Araújo, who was then 31 years old; Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E/B Battery
they developed a sudden attraction to one another. Araújo was head of a dissident group of the Brazilian Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Brasileiro—PCB) and sheltered Galeano in Porto Alegre. The breakup with Galeno was peaceful. As Galeno said, "in that difficult situation, we had no prospect of being a regular couple." Sony VAIO VPCS123FGB Battery
Araújo was the son of a prominent labor defense lawyer and had joined the PCB early. He had traveled through Latin America (having met Castro and Che Guevara) and had been imprisoned for several months in 1964. He joined the armed struggle after the issue of AI-5 by the dictatorship in 1968. Sony VAIO VPCS125EC Battery
On early 1969, he began to discuss the merger of his group with Colina and Popular Revolutionary Vanguard (Portuguese: Vanguarda Popular Revolucionária—VPR), led by Carlos Lamarca. Rousseff attended some meetings about the merger, which was formalized in two conferences in Mongaguá, leading to the creation of Revolutionary Armed Vanguard PalmaresSony VAIO VPCS128EC Battery
(Portuguese: Vanguarda Armada Revolucionária Palmares—VAR Palmares). Rousseff and Araújo attended these conferences, as well as Lamarca, who thought that Rousseff was a "stuck-up intellectual." His perception was based on her defense of a revolution through the political engagement of the working class, in opposition to VPR's military-based sense of revolution. Sony VAIO VPCS129GC Battery
Carlos Araújo was chosen as one of the six leaders of VAR Palmares, which claimed to be a "political-military organization of Marxist-Leninist partisan orientation which aims to fulfill the tasks of the revolutionary war and the establishment of the working class party, in order to seize power and build socialism." Sony VAIO VPCS12C7E/B Battery
According to Maurício Lopes Lima, a former member of the Operação Bandeirantes (OBAN) search force (a structure which included the intelligence and torture services of the Armed Forces), Rousseff was the main leader of VAR Palmares. According to him, he received reports defining her as "one of the brains" of the revolutionary schemes. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B Battery
Police commissioner Newton Fernandes, who investigated the clandestine organization in São Paulo and drew the profile of dozens of their members, said that Rousseff was one of the principal masterminds of the revolutionary schemes. The attorney which prosecuted the organization called her "Joan of Arc of subversion," saying that she led strikes and advised bank robberies. Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B Battery
She was also dubbed as "the she-pope of subversion," "political criminal," and "female figure of sadly notable aspect." Rousseff ridicules such comparison, stating that she does not even remember many of the actions attributed to her. According to her former comrade and current colleague, Environment Minister Carlos Minc, her role in the group was sensationalized. Sony VAIO VPCY115FGS Battery
"Because she is a very important person, they'll say anything about her."
Rousseff has sometimes been described as the mastermind of the theft of a safe belonging to former governor of São Paulo,Ademar de Barros. The action was carried out on 18 June 1969, in Rio de Janeiro, and netted 2.5 million U.S. dollars. Sony VAIO VPCY115FX/BI Battery
It became the most spectacular and profitable action of the armed struggle. Carlos Minc has denied the participation of Rousseff in the event, saying that the widespread version that she was the leader of the organization is rather exaggerated, since she was merely a member of no distinction. On at least three different occasions Rousseff herself also denied participating in the event. Sony VAIO VPCY115FXBI Battery
Testimonials and police reports indicated that Rousseff was responsible for managing the money from the robbery, paying the salaries of the militants, finding a shelter for the group, and buying aVolkswagen Beetle. Rousseff only remembers purchasing the car, and doubts that she was the one responsible for managing the money. Sony VAIO VPCY118EC Battery
In 1969, VAR Palmares allegedly planned the kidnapping of Antônio Delfim Netto, a symbol of the "Brazilian Miracle" and the most powerful civilian in the federal government at the time. This would have been carried out in December according to the book Os Carbonários, written by Alfredo Sirkis in 1981. Sony VAIO VPCY118GX/BI Battery
Antonio Roberto Espinosa, former head of both VPR and VAR Palmares, was reported to have said that Rousseff was one of the five members of the organization's leadership aware of it. The kidnapping did not take place because the members of the organization were captured just weeks before. Sony VAIO VPCY119FJ/S Battery
Rousseff emphatically denies that she was aware of the plan and doubts that anyone involved really remembers much about it. She also said that Espinosa fantasized about the event. After learning about the quotes that were being attributed to him, Espinosa denied stating that Rousseff knew about the plan, which was vague in any case. Sony VAIO VPCY11AFJ Battery
He said that Rousseff never participated or planned any paramilitary actions; her role was only political.
Even with large amounts of money, the organization failed to maintain its unity. At a conference held in Teresópolis between August and September 1969, there was a major dispute among those who supported the armed struggle and who advocated working with the masses. Sony VAIO VPCY11AGJ Battery
Rousseff was in the second group. While the first group split into the paramilitary VPR, led by Lamarca, the second (including Rousseff) continued as VAR Palmares. There was a dispute over the money and weapons.
After the split, Rousseff was sent to São Paulo, where she was in charge of keeping her group's weapons safe. Sony VAIO VPCY11AHJ Battery
She avoided the risk of keeping them in apartments by moving with a friend (Maria Celeste Martins, who would become her Chief of Staff assistant decades later) to a simple boarding house in the eastern zone of the city, where they hid the weapons under their beds.
José Olavo Leite Ribeiro, who met three times a week with Rousseff, was captured by the military. Sony VAIO VPCY11AVJ Battery
As Ribeiro reported, after a day of torture, he revealed the place where he would meet with another militant, in a bar on Rua Augusta in São Paulo. On 16 January 1970, he was forced to go to the bar accompanied by undercover policemen, where his colleague was captured and, when they were preparing to leave, Rousseff unexpectedly arrived. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E/S Battery
Realizing that something was wrong, Rousseff tried to leave the place without being noticed. The officers suspected Rousseff and searched her, discovering that she was armed. "If it was not for the gun, it is possible that she could have escaped," says Ribeiro. Rousseff was considered a big enough catch that a military prosecutor labeled her the "Joan of Arc" of the guerrilla movement. Sony VAIO VPCY11S1E Battery
Rousseff was taken to the OBAN headquarters, the same place where Vladimir Herzog would be tortured and killed five years later. She was allegedly tortured for 22 days by punching, ferule, and electric shock devices. As Maria Luisa Belloque, a cellmate, said "Dilma was shocked even with car wiring."Sony VAIO VPCY11V9E/S Battery
Some ex-military officers have dismissed Rousseff's account, saying that she could not have survived that extent of torture. Later, Rousseff denounced the torture she suffered in court proceedings, citing even the names of those who tortured her, such as Army Captain Benoni de Arruda Albernaz, mentioned by several other witnesses. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/BI Battery
Although she revealed the locations of some militants during torture interrogation, Rousseff managed to preserve the identities of Carlos Araújo (who would be arrested several months later) and Maria Celeste Martins. Rousseff's name was on a list found at Carlos Lamarca's home, on a list of the prisoners who would get priority in exchange for hostages, but she was never exchanged and served out her sentence.Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/G Battery
Carlos Araújo was arrested on 12 August 1970. After Rousseff was captured, he had an affair with actress and fellow militant Bete Mendes. After his arrest, he met Rousseff on some occasions, during displacements regarding the military lawsuits both being prosecuted for. They were even a few months in the same prison in São Paulo, where during conjugal visits they reconciled, Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/L Battery
planning to resume married life after being released from jail. Rousseff was convicted in the first instance to six years in prison. She had already served three years when the Supreme Military Court reduced her sentence to two years and a month. She also had her political rights suspended for eighteen years. Sony VAIO VPCY218EC/P Battery
In December 2006, the Special Commission for Reparation of the Human Rights Office for the State of Rio de Janeiro approved a request for indemnification by Rousseff and eighteen other prisoners in law enforcement agencies of the São Paulo state government in the 1970s. In her request, a pivotal witness was Vânia Abrantes, Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery
who was in the same police car that transferred her from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro (Vânia was Araújo's girlfriend when he and Rousseff began to date). Rousseff also requested compensation in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, since she was arrested in São Paulo but taken for interrogation in the cities of Juiz de Fora and Rio de Janeiro. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/P Battery
She also seeks indemnification from the federal government. The total compensation figure paid to victims of political persecution may be up to 72,000 reais. However, as her advisors have declared, the indemnification has a symbolic value to her, and Rousseff demanded the requests to be tried only after her departure from public office. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/SI Battery
On 5 April 2009, Folha de S. Paulo published, on its front page, an alleged criminal record of Rousseff containing notes about various crimes allegedly committed by her. The document would have been part of the file of the Department of Political and Social Order (Portuguese: Departamento de Ordem Política e Social—DOPS), the military regime's political police. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/L Battery
Rousseff questioned the veracity of the file, claiming that it was a forged document, which led the newspaper to declare that it had not obtained the document from DOPS' file, but rather via e-mail and, thus, could not guarantee its veracity. The record can be found on a far right-wing website which supports the regime. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/P Battery
Rousseff left jail at the end of 1972. She was twenty pounds thinner and had acquired a thyroid disease. She spent some time with her family in Minas Gerais in order to recover, visited an aunt in São Paulo, and then moved to Porto Alegre, where Carlos Araújo was finishing the last months of his sentence. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/R Battery
She stayed in her in-laws' house, from where they could see the prison where Araújo was. Rousseff frequently visited her partner, giving him newspapers and political books disguised as novels. The Presídio da Ilha das Pedras Brancas was deactivated, and Araújo fulfilled the remainder of his sentence in the Presídio Central. Sony VAIO VPCCW1S1E/W Battery
The prominent lawyer, Afrânio Araújo, Carlos' father, died in June 1974, prompting his friends to pressure the regime for the release of Carlos, which happened just a week later.
Punished for subversion in accordance with the decree number 477, considered the AI-5 of universities, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/B Battery
Rousseff was expelled from the Minas Gerais Federal University and barred from resuming her studies at that university in 1973. She decided to attend a preparatory course in order to take the vestibular test for Economics at the Rio Grande do Sul Federal University. She was admitted in the university and graduated in 1977, this time not participating actively in the students' movement. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/L Battery
The year before, in March, she gave birth to her only child, daughter Paula Rousseff Araújo. After graduation, she got her first paid job after serving her prison sentence as an intern at the Foundation of Economics and Statistics (Portuguese: Fundação de Economia e Estatística—FEE), an organization linked to the government of Rio Grande do Sul. Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/R Battery
Her political activism, this time within the law, was resumed at the Institute of Social and Political Studies (Portuguese:Instituto de Estudos Políticos e Sociais—IEPES) linked to the only legalized opposition party, the Democratic Movement. Even though she was not affiliated with the party, Rousseff organized debates at the institute, Sony VAIO VPCCW21FX/W Battery
which received lectures from scholars such as Francisco de Oliveira, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, and Francisco Weffort. In 1976, Rousseff and Araújo worked in the campaign of Glênio Peres, a MDB candidate for the city council. Although elected, Peres' term was revoked for denouncing the regime's torture in a speech. Sony VAIO VPCCW26EC Battery
In November 1977, Rousseff was reported by the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo as one of the 97 "subversives" infiltrated in the public administration. The list was made by resigned Army Minister, Silvio Frota, who had summarized the political background of those he listed. Sony VAIO VPCCW26FX/B Battery
Rousseff, characterized as a Colina and VAR Palmares militant "cohabitating with the subversive Carlos Araújo," was discharged from her job at the FEE, being pardoned later.
In 1978, Rousseff attended the Campinas State University, with the intention of receiving a master's degree in Economics. Sony VAIO VPCCW28EC Battery