Nabil Khlioui, an alleged Islamist from Deir al-Zour, who with at least 10 other Islamists "remained in incommunicado detention without charge or trial at the end of 2009.Nabil Khlioui and at least 12 other alleged Islamists, mostly from Deir al-Zour, were arrested. At least 10 of them remained in incommunicado detention without charge or trial at the end of the year. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11EN Battery Mesh’al al-Tammo, the killed spokesperson for the unauthorized Kurdish Future Current group, who was `held incommunicado for 12 days and charged with “aiming to provoke civil war or sectarian fighting”, “conspiracy” and three other charges commonly brought against Kurdish activists,` charges that could lead to the death penalty. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11MN Battery Twelve leaders of a prominent gathering of opposition groups, the Damascus Declaration, continue to serve 30-month prison terms. Among those detained is Riad Seif, 62, a former member of parliament who is in poor health. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11XN Battery
- Habib Saleh was sentenced to three years in jail for “spreading false information” and “weakening national sentiment” in the form of writing articles criticizing the government and defending opposition figure Riad al-Turk.
for his involvement in the so-called “Damascus Spring” before being released by a presidential pardon.In June 2010, Mohannad al-Hassani, head of the Syrian Organisation for Human Rights (Swasiya) and winner of the 2010 Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders, was convicted of "weakening national morale" and "conveying within Syria false news that could debilitate the morale of the nation". He was sentenced to three years in prison. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ12XN Battery Sednaya prison alone houses more than 600 political prisoners. The authorities have kept many for years behind bars, often well past their legal sentence. The estimated 17,000 prisoners who have disappeared over the years suggests that Syria may have hidden mass graves. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31VT Battery In a 2006 report, Human Rights Watch reported on the continued detention of "thousands" of political prisoners in Syria, "many of them members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood and the Communist Party." According to the Syrian Human Rights Committee that there were 4,000 political prisoners held in Syrian jails in 2006. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31XT Battery The Constitution provides for freedom of religion; however, the Government restricts this right. While there is no official state religion, the Constitution requires that the president be Muslim and stipulates that Islamic jurisprudence, an expansion of Sharia Islamic law, is a principal source of legislation. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560 Battery According to the U.S. Department of State's "International Religious Freedom Report 2007", the Constitution provides for freedom of faith and religious practice, provided that the religious rites do not disturb the public order. According to the report, the Syrian Government monitored the activities of all groups, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N24 Battery including religious groups, discouraged proselytism, which it deemed a threat to relations among religious groups. The report said that the Government discriminated against the Jehovah's Witnesses and that there were occasional reports of minor tensions between religious groups, some attributable to economic rivalries rather than religious affiliation. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N30 Battery Article 520 of the penal code of 1949, prohibits having homosexual relations, i.e. "carnal relations against the order of nature", and provides for at least three-years imprisonment. In 2010 the Syrian police began a crackdown that led to the arrest of over 25 men. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P Battery The men were charged with various crimes ranging from homosexual acts and illegal drug use, to encouraging homosexual behavior and organizing obscene parties. The United Nations, meanwhile, has documented that Syrian security services officers had gang raped boys as young as 11 years old during the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P20 Battery The report also documents over 250 children killed - some as young as two years old. The number of news media has increased in the past decade, but the Ba'ath Party continues to maintain control of the press. Journalists and bloggers have been arrested and tried. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P22 Battery In 2009, the Committee to Protect Journalists named Syria number three in a list of the ten worst countries in which to be a blogger, given the arrests, harassment, and restrictions which online writers in Syria faced. Internet censorship in Syria is extensive. Syria bans websites for political reasons and arrests people accessing them. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P28 Battery Internet cafes are required to record all the comments users post on chat forums. Websites such as Wikipedia Arabic, Youtube and Facebook were blocked from 2008 to 2011. Filtering and blocking was found to be pervasive in the political and Internet tools areas, and selective in the social and conflict/security areas by the OpenNet Initiativein August 2009. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P30 Battery Syria has been on Reporters Without Borders' Enemy of the Internet list since 2006 when the list was established. In addition to filtering a wide range of Web content, the Syrian government monitors Internet use very closely and has detained citizens "for expressing their opinions or reporting information online." Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P34 Battery Vague and broadly worded laws invite government abuse and have prompted Internet users to engage in self-censorshipto avoid the state's ambiguous grounds for arrest. The Syrian Centre for Media and Free Expression was closed by the government in September 2009. It was the country’s only NGO specializing in media issues, Internet access and media monitoring during election campaigns. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561 Battery It had operated without government approval, and had monitored violations of journalists’ rights and had taken up the cause of the ban on the dissemination of many newspapers and magazines. During the Syrian civil war, a UN report described actions by the security forces as being "gross violations of human rights". Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561N20 Battery The UN report documented shooting recruits that refused to fire into peaceful crowds without warning, brutal interrogations including elements of sexual abuse of men and gang rape of young boys, staking out hospitals when wounded sought assistance, and shooting of children as young as two. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561P20 Battery In 2011 Human Rights Watch stated that Syria's human rights situation is among the worst in the world. The majority of these violations been committed by the Syrian government's forces, though Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, has said that both sides appear to have committed war crimes. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ562P Battery In December 2010, mass anti-government protests began in Tunisia and later spread across the Arab world, including Syria. By February 2011, revolutions occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, while Libya began to experience a civil war. Numerous other Arab countries also faced protests, with some attempting to calm the masses by making concessions and governmental changes. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery The events were later commonly referred to as the Arab Spring. Before the uprising in Syria began in mid-March 2011, protests were relatively modest, considering the wave of unrest that was spreading across the Arab world. Syria remained what Al Jazeera described as a "kingdom of silence", Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery due to strict security measures, a relatively popular president, religious diversity, and concerns over the prospects of insurgency likethat seen in neighboring Iraq. The events began on 26 January 2011, when Hasan Ali Akleh from Al-Hasakah poured gasoline on himself and set himself on fire, in the same way Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi had in Tunis on 17 December 2010. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery According to eyewitnesses, the action was "a protest against the Syrian government". Two days later, on 28 January 2011, an evening demonstration was held in Ar-Raqqah to protest the killing of two soldiers of Kurdish descent. On 3 February, a "Day of Rage" was called for in Syria from 4–5 February on social media websites Facebook and Twitter; Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery however, protests failed to materialize within the country itself. Hundreds marched in Al-Hasakah, but Syrian security forces dispersed the protest and arrested dozens of demonstrators. A protest in late February at the Libyan Embassy inDamascus to demonstrate against the government of Muammar Gaddafi, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery facing his own major protests in Libya, was met with brutal beatings from Syrian police moving to disperse the demonstration against a friendly regime. On 6 March young boys were arrested in the city of Daraa for writing the slogan "the people want to overthrow the regime" on walls across the city. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery The following day 13 political prisoners went on a hunger strike protesting "political detentions and oppression" in their country demanding the implementation of civil and political rights. Three days later dozens of Syrian Kurds started their own hunger strike in solidarity with these other strikers. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery During this time, Ribal al-Assad, a government critic, said that it was almost time for Syria to be the next domino in the burgeoning Arab Spring.The protests, unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 15 March, when the protest movement began to escalate, as simultaneous demonstrations took place in major cities across Syria. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery In Damascus, a crowd of 150 was heard chanting "The revolution has started!" Protesters demanded the release of political prisoners, the abolition of Syria's 48-year emergency law, more freedoms, and an end to pervasive government corruption. On 16 March, some 200 people gathered in front of the Interior Ministry, calling for the release of political prisoners. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery