Monday, January 14, 2013

Drinking their own horses' blood

Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.[204] The drug Premarin is a mixture of estrogens extracted from the urine of pregnant mares (pregnant mares' urine), and was previously a widely used drug for hormone replacement therapy.[205] HP 593554-001 Battery The tail hair of horses can be used for making bows for string instruments such as the violin, viola, cello, and double bass.[206] Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures,[207] and a subject of political controversy in others. HP 403808-001 Battery Horsehide leather has been used for boots, gloves, jackets,[209] baseballs,[210] and baseball gloves. Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue.[211] Horse bones can be used to make implements.[212] Specifically, in Italian cuisine, the horse tibia is sharpened into a probe called a spinto, which is used to test the readiness of a (pig) ham as it cures.[213] HP 411462-141 Battery In Asia, the saba is a horsehide vessel used in the production of kumis. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.[215] They can consume approximately 2% to 2.5% of their body weight in dry feed each day. HP 411462-251 Battery Therefore, a 450-kilogram (990 lb) adult horse could eat up to 11 kilograms (24 lb) of food.[216] Sometimes, concentrated feed such as grain is fed in addition to pasture or hay, especially when the animal is very active.[217] When grain is fed, equine nutritionists recommend that 50% or more of the animal's diet by weight should still be forage. HP 411462-261 Battery Horses require a plentiful supply of clean water, a minimum of 10 US gallons (38 L) to 12 US gallons (45 L) per day.[219]Although horses are adapted to live outside, they require shelter from the wind and precipitation, which can range from a simple shed or shelter to an elaborate stable.[220] HP 411462-321 Battery Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier, as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dentalexaminations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.[221] If horses are kept inside in a barn, they require regular daily exercise for their physical health and mental well-being.[222] HP 411462-361 Battery When turned outside, they require well-maintained, sturdy fences to be safely contained.[223] Regular grooming is also helpful to help the horse maintain good health of the hair coat and underlying skin. There are many aspects to horse care. Horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other domesticated equids require attention from humans for optimal health and long life. HP 411462-421 Battery Worldwide, horses and other equids usually live outside with access to shelter from the elements. In some cases, animals are kept in a barn or stable, or may have access to a shed or shelter. Horses require both shelter from wind and precipitation, as well as room to exercise and run. HP 411462-442 Battery They must have access to clean fresh water at all times, and access to adequate forage such as grass or hay. In the winter, horses grow a heavy hair coat to keep warm and usually stay warm if well-fed and allowed access to shelter. But if kept artificially clipped for show, or if under stress from age, sickness or injury, a horse blanket may need to be added to protect the horse from cold weather. HP 416996-131 Battery In the summer, access to shade is well-advised. For horse owners who do not own their own land, fields and barns can be rented from a private land owner or space for an individual horse may be rented from a boarding farm. Unless an animal can be fully maintained onpasture with a natural open water source, horses must be fed daily. HP 417066-001 Battery As horses evolved as continuous grazers, it is better to feed small amounts of grain throughout the day than to feed a large amount of grain at one time. If a horse cannot be fed by its owner every day, it is usually kept at a boarding stable, where the staff will care for the horse for a fee. HP 431132-002 Battery As equines are herd animals, most have better mental behavior when in proximity to other equine company. However, this is not always possible, and it has been known for companionship bonds to develop between horses and cats, goats and other species. There are exceptions. Some horses, particularly stallions may need to live on their own as they may fight with other animals. HP 431325-321 Battery Horses that are not on full-time turnout in a field or pasture normally require some form of regular exercise, whether it is being ridden, longed or turned out for free time. However, if a horse is ill or injured it may need to be confined to a stable, usually in a box stall. If a horse is kept in a pasture, the amount of land needed for basic maintenance varies with climate, HP 431325-361 Battery an animal needs more land for grazing in a dry climate than in a moist one. However, an average of between one and 3 acres (12,000 m2) of land per horse will provide adequate forage in much of the world, though feed may have to be supplemented in winter or during periods of drought. HP 431325-541 Battery To lower the risk of laminitis, horses also may need to be removed from lush, rapidly changing grass for short periods in the spring and fall (autumn), when the grass is particularly high in non-structural carbohydrates such asfructans. If the terrain does not provide natural shelter in the form of heavy trees or other windbreaks, an artificial shelter must be provided; HP 432306-001 Battery a horse's insulating hair coat works less efficiently when wet or when subjected to wind, horses that cannot get away from wind and precipitation put unnecessary energy into maintaining core body warmth and may become susceptible to illness.[1] Some horses are turned out in a natural setting during the winter or when retired from work. HP 432307-001 Battery However, even in these cases, animals need to be checked frequently for evidence of injury, parasites, sickness or weight loss. Horses cannot live for more than a few days without water. Therefore even in a natural, semi-feral setting, a check every day is recommended; a stream or irrigation source can dry up, HP 434045-141 Battery ponds may become stagnant or develop toxic blue-green algae, a fence can break and allow escape, poisonous plants can take root and grow; windstorms, precipitation, or even human vandalism can create unsafe conditions. The pasture used to graze any horse or pony should be rotated when it has been used for some months. HP 434045-621 Battery Horses will not eat grass that contains too much of their own manure. This is known as sour grass and further decomposition of the manure needs to be allowed while the horses are kept in an alternative paddock. Horses evolved to live on prairie grasslands and to cover long distances unfettered by artificial barriers. HP 434045-661 Battery Therefore, when fenced in, accident potential must be considered. Horses will put their heads and legs through fences in an attempt to reach forage on the other side. They may run into fences if chased by another animal, or even when running at play if the fence (such as a wire fence) is not particularly visible. HP 434674-001 Battery The smaller the area, the more visible and substantial a fence needs to be.[1] For exercise alone, a pen, run, corral or "dry lot" without forage can be much smaller than a pasture, and this is a common way that many horses are managed; kept in a barn with a turnout run, or in a dry lot with a shelter, feeding hay, allowing either no pasture access, HP 436281-141 Battery or grazing for only a few hours per day. Outdoor turnout pens range greatly in size, but 12 feet (4 m) by 20 to 30 feet (9 m) is a bare minimum for a horse that does not get ridden daily. To gallop for short stretches, a horse needs a "run" of at least 50 to 100 feet (30 m). When kept in a dry lot, a barn or shelter is a must. HP 436281-241 Battery If kept in a small pen, a horse needs to be worked regularly or turned out in a larger area for free exercise.Fences in pens must be sturdy. In close quarters, a horse may contact the fence frequently. Wire is very dangerous in any small pen. Pens are often made of metal pipe, or wood. Larger pens are sometimes enclosed in closely woven mesh, sometimes called "no climb" fencing. HP 436281-251 Battery However, if a wire mesh is used in a small pen, the openings must be too small for a horse hoof to pass through. Over vast areas, barbed wire is often seen in some parts of the world, but it is the most dangerous fencing material that can be used around horses, even in a large pasture. HP 436281-251 Battery If a horse is caught in barbed wire, it can quickly become severely hurt, often leaving lasting scars or even permanent injuries. Horse management books and periodicals are nearly universal in stating that barbed wire should never be used to contain horses.[2]However, this advice is widely ignored, particularly in the western United States. HP 436281-361 Battery Various types of smooth wire fencing, particularly when supported by a strand of electric fence, can be used to enclose a large pasture of several acres, and is one of the least expensive fencing options. A wire fence should have at least four, preferably five strands to provide adequate security. HP 436281-422 Battery However, even without sharp barbs, wire has the highest potential for horses to become tangled in the fence and injured. If used, it must be properly installed and kept tight through regular maintenance. Visibility is also an issue; a horse galloping in an unfamiliar pasture may not see a wire fence until it is too late to stop. HP 436426-311 Battery Woven mesh wire is safer but more expensive than strands of smooth wire. It is more difficult to install, and has some visibility issues, but horses are less likely to become tangled in it or be injured if they run into it. Adding a top rail of wood or synthetic material increases visibility of the fence and prevents it from being bent by horses reaching over it. HP 436426-351 Battery A strand of electric fence may also keep horses from pushing on a mesh fence. Mesh fencing needs to be heavy-gauge wire, woven, not welded, and the squares of the mesh should be too small for a horse to put a foot through. "Field fence" or "no-climb" fence are safer designs than more widely woven "sheep fence." HP 436426-711 Battery Chain link fence is occasionally seen, but horses can bend chain link almost as easily as a thinner-gauge wire, so the additional expense is often not justified by any gain over good-quality woven wire. Electric fence comes in many styles of wire, rope and webbing, and is particularly useful for internal division of pastures. HP 436426-751 Battery It carries only a mild charge that causes a noticeable shock, but no permanent injury to animals or people. It is relatively inexpensive and is easy to install, but if electricity fails, it is easily broken. It is excellent both as a temporary fence and, in single strands, as a top or middle barrier to keep horses away from conventional fencing. HP 436426-752 Battery There is some danger that horses can become tangled in an electric fence, though because the materials are finer, it usually breaks, stopping the current, though injuries are still possible. Because electricity can fail, it should not be the sole fencing used on property boundaries, particularly next to roads, HP 437403-321 Battery though a strand on top may be used to keep a horse from leaning over a fence made of other materials. Nor should it be used alone in small pens where horses may accidentally bump into it on a regular basis. However, small single-horse enclosures are sometimes seen at endurance riding competition, where temporary fencing must be set up in remote areas. HP 437403-361 Battery In residential areas, warning signs should be posted on any boundary fences with electrified sections to keep people from touching the fence and accidentally being shocked.[2] Wood is the "classic" form of horse fencing, either painted planks or natural round rails. It is one of the safest materials for containing horses. HP 437403-541 Battery Wood or a synthetic material with similar properties is the best option for small paddocks, pens and corrals. It can be used to fence pastures and has some ability to give or break if a horse collides with it. However, wood is expensive, high maintenance and not completely without safety concerns; HP 438518-001 Battery boards can splinter, nails can stick out and cause lacerations. Wood-like synthetics are even more expensive, but are often safer and lower maintenance. Cable of various sorts is sometimes used for horse fencing, and, especially if combined with a top rail or pipe or wood, can be reasonably safe. However, if cable is not kept tight, like wire, horses can be tangled in it. HP 440264-ABC Battery However, it not only cannot break but unlike wire, it also cannot easily be cut by humans. Its advantage over wire is that it poses less of a risk of entanglement. It is often less expensive than wood or pipe, has some give if a horse runs into it, and requires relatively little maintenance.[4] HP 440266-ABC Battery Metal pipe is often used for fences instead of wood and if properly installed, can be fairly safe in the right circumstances. Pipe is often the most expensive fencing option, but is low maintenance and is very strong. Pipe will generally not give or break if it is run into or if the horse puts a foot through it, which can itself be a potential injury risk; HP 440267-ABC Battery horse owners debate the relative merits and dangers of pipe versus wood for horse fencing. Usually pipe is most suitable for very small areas such as pens where a horse may often bump or test the fence, but will not be at risk of colliding with the fence at full speed. HP 440268-ABC Battery Solid wall masonry fences, typically either brick or fieldstone, are a type of horse fencing with an ancient tradition. Advantages of stone fences are high visibility, durability, strength and safety. Horses cannot get caught or tangled in them, put legs through, and if a horse runs into one, the impact is spread over much of the body, rather than concentrated on a single spot. HP 440704001 Battery They will last for decades with only minor repairs. The major disadvantage is the cost: the materials are expensive, fences require skilled labor for proper construction, and take longer to build. Horses are sometimes kept indoors in buildings called either barns or stables. HP 440772-001 Battery The terms are often used interchangeably; a barn is the more general term for a rural building that houses livestock, the term stable is more often used in urban areas and can be used as a noun to refer to the building that houses horses or the collection of horses themselves, or as a verb to describe the act of keeping horses in a stable. HP 441131-001 Battery These buildings are usually unheated and well-ventilated; horses may develop respiratory problems when kept in damp or stuffy conditions. Most horse barns have a number of box stalls inside, that allow many horses to be safely stabled together in separate quarters. There are also separate areas or even rooms for feed, equipment and tack storage and, HP 441132-001 Battery in some large stables, there may be additional facilities such as a veterinary treatment area or a washing area in the building. Barns may be designed to hold one horse in the backyard of a family home, or be a commercial operation capable of holding dozens of animals. HP 441243-141 Battery The standard dimensions for a box stall (called a "box" in the UK, and a "stall" in the USA) vary from 10' by 12' to 14' by 14', depending on local cultural traditions, the breed of horse, gender, and any special needs. Mares with foals often are kept in double stalls.[5] Stallions, kept alone with less access to turnout, are also often given larger quarters. HP 441243-251 Battery Ponies sometimes are kept in smaller box stalls, and warmbloods or draft horses may need larger ones. Horses kept in stables need daily exercise and may develop stable vices if they are not given work or turnout. Box stalls usually contain a layer of absorbent bedding such as straw or wood shavings and need to be cleaned daily; HP 441425-001 Battery a horse generates approximately 15 pounds (6.8 kg) of manure and several gallons of urine each day. There are health risks to the horse if forced to stand all day in its own waste. However, stables are built as much for the convenience of humans as horses; most healthy horses are equally, HP 441462-251 Battery if not more, comfortable in a field or paddock with a simple three-sided shed that protects them from the elements. In some parts of the world, horses that are worked daily are kept in tie stalls, usually about 5 to 6 feet (2 m) wide and 8 to 10 feet (3 m) long. HP 441611-001 Battery As the name implies, a horse is tied, usually to a ring in front of a hay manger, and cannot turn around in a tie stall. But if the stall is wide enough, it can lay down. Tie stalls were used extensively prior to the 20th century, and barns with tie stalls are still seen in some regions, particularly in poorer countries, HP 441674-001 Battery at olderfairgrounds and agricultural exposition facilities, but are not used as often in modern barns. A horse or pony needs approximately 1.5% to 2.5% of its body weight in food per day, depending on its age and level of work. This may include forages such as grass or hay and concentrates such as grain or commercially prepared pelleted feeds. HP 446506-001 Battery Like people, some horses are "easy keepers" and prone toobesity, while others are "hard keepers" and need a great deal of food just to maintain a slim build. The average riding horse weighs roughly 1,000 pounds (450 kg), but the weight of a horse can be more closely estimated using a weight tape, which can be purchased from a feed store or tack shop. HP 446507-001 Battery Best practice is to feed horses small quantities multiple times daily, unless they are on full time pasture. Fresh, cleanwater should be provided free choice at all times, unless there is a specific reason to limit water intake for a short period of time. HP 448007-001 Battery A horse that is not ridden daily or subjected to other stressors can maintain adequate nutrition on pasture or hay alone, with adequate water (10–12 gallons per day minimum) and free access to a saltblock or loose salt. However, horses and ponies in regular work often need a ration of both forage and concentrates. HP 451085-121 Battery Horses that are fed improperly may develop colic or laminitis, particularly if fed spoiled feed, subjected to excessive feed, or an abrupt change of feed. Young horses who are improperly fed may develop growth disorders due to an imbalance of nutrients. Young horses may also develop osteochondrosis if they are overfed. HP 451085-141 Battery Regularly monitoring the horse's body condition score on a regular basis assists in helping the horse maintain proper weight. Horses groomed regularly have healthier and more attractive coats. Many horse management handbooks recommend grooming a horse daily, though for the average modern horse owner, this is not always possible. HP 451085-142 Battery However, a horse should always be groomed before being ridden to avoid chafing and rubbing of dirt and other material, which can cause sores on the animal and also grind dirt into horse tack. Grooming also allows the horse handler to check for injuries and is a good way to gain the trust of the animal.[6] HP 451085-361 Battery Proper basic grooming of a horse is a multi-step process involving several simple tools: Curry, curry comb, or currycomb: Usually a round tool with short teeth made of plastic or stiff rubber, used to loosen dirt, hair, and other detritus, plus stimulate the skin to produce natural oils. HP 451085-621 Battery
  1. Dandy brush: A stiff-bristled, "dandy" brush is used to remove the dirt, hair and other material stirred up by the curry. The best quality dandy brushes are made of stiff natural bristles such as rice stems, plastic-bristled dandy brushes are more common.
Body brush: A soft-bristled "body" brush removes finer particles and dust. HP 451085-661 Battery

Some natural body brushes are made of boar bristles, like human hairbrushes, others are made of soft synthetic fibers.

Grooming rag or towel: A terrycloth towel or other type of cloth. Sometimes called a "stable rubber." HP 451086-121 Battery Mane brush or comb: Horses with short, pulled manes have their manes combed with a wide-toothed plastic or metal comb. Horse tails and long manes many be finger-combed or are brushed with either a dandy brush, body brush, or a suitable human hairbrush. HP 451086-161 Battery

Hoof pick: All four feet of the horse need to be cleaned out and inspected for signs of injury or infection. See "Hoof care and shoeing," below.

In special weather conditions, a metal shedding blade with short, dull teeth is used to remove loose winter hair. Metal grooming tools used on sheep and show cattle may also be too harsh to use on a horse. HP 451545-361 Battery

In the summer, fly spray is often applied to the horse after grooming.

Sweat or Water Scraper: A metal or plastic tool to remove excess liquid from a horse's coat.

Sometimes, though not always, horses are clipped with scissors or, preferably, electric clippers. HP 451568-001 Battery

The most common areas are a short "bridle path" just behind the ears, where a few inches of mane is removed to help the bridle lay more neatly; and the fetlocks, where extra hair can collect undesired amounts of mud and dirt. For horse show and exhibition purposes, additional clipping may be done. HP 452057-001 Battery

Beyond the basic equipment, there are literally thousands of grooming tools on the market, from multiple designs on the basic brushes, available in many colors, to specialized tools for braiding manes, polishing hooves and clipping loose hair. There are also grooming products for horses ranging from moisturizing hair dressings to glitter gel and hoof polish. HP 454668-001 Battery

Horses can be bathed by being wet down with a garden hose, but they do not require bathing and many horses live their entire lives without a bath. Either horse or human shampoo may be safely used on a horse, if thoroughly rinsed out, and cream rinses or hair conditioners, similar to those used by humans, are often used on show horses. HP 454931-001 Battery

Too-frequent shampooing can strip the hair coat of natural oils and cause it to dry out. A well-groomed, clean horse can be kept clean by wearing a horse blanket or horse sheet.[7]

A horse show class that considers quality of grooming for as much as 40% of the total score is called showmanship. HP 455804-001 Battery

The hooves of a horse or pony are cleaned by being picked out with a hoof pick to remove any stones, mud and dirt and to check that the shoes (if worn) are in good condition. Keeping feet clean and dry wherever possible helps prevent both lameness as well as hoof diseases such as thrush (a hoof fungus). HP 456623-001 Battery

The feet should be cleaned every time the horse is ridden, and if the horse is not ridden, it is still best practice to check and clean feet frequently. Daily cleaning is recommended in many management books, but in practical terms, a weekly hoof check of healthy horses at rest is often sufficient during good weather. HP 456865-001 Battery

Use of hoof oils, dressings, or other topical treatments varies by region, climate, and the needs of the individual horse. Many horses have healthy feet their entire lives without need for any type of hoof dressing. While some horses may have circumstances where a topical hoof treatment is of benefit, HP 458274-421 Battery

improper use of dressings can also create hoof problems, or make a situation worse instead of better. Thus, there is no universal set of guidelines suitable for all horses in all parts of the world. Farriers and veterinarians in a horse owner's local area can provide advice on the use and misuse of topical hoof dressings, offering suggestions tailored for the needs of the individual horse. HP 460143-001 Battery

Horses and ponies require routine hoof care by a professional farrier every 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the animal, the work it performs and, in some areas, weather conditions. Hooves usually grow faster in the spring and fall than in summer or winter. They also appear to grow faster in warm, moist weather than in cold or dry weather. HP 462889-121 Battery

In damp climates, the hooves tend to spread out more and wear down less than in dry climates, though more lush, growing forage may also be a factor. Thus, a horse kept in a climate such as that of Ireland may need to have its feet trimmed more frequently than a horse kept in a drier climate such asArizona, in the southwestern United States. HP 462889-421 Battery

All domesticated horses need regular hoof trims, regardless of use. Horses in the wild do not need hoof trims because they travel as much as 50 miles (80 km) a day in dry or semi-arid grassland in search of forage, a process that wears their feet naturally. HP 462890-151 Battery

Domestic horses in light use are not subjected to such severe living conditions and hence their feet grow faster than they can be worn down. Without regular trimming, their feet can get too long, eventually splitting, chipping and cracking, which can lead to lameness. HP 462890-161 Battery

On the other hand, horses subjected to hard work may need horseshoes for additional protection. Some advocates of the barefoot horse movement maintain that proper management may reduce or eliminate the need for shoes, or propose hoof boots as an alternative. HP 462890-251 Battery

Certain activities, such as horse racing and police horse work, create unnatural levels of stress and will wear down hooves faster than they would in nature. Thus, some types of working horses almost always require some form of hoof protection.

The cost of farrier work varies widely, depending on the part of the world, HP 462890-541 Battery

the type of horse to be trimmed or shod, and any special issues with the horse's foot that may require more complex care. The cost of a trim is roughly half to one-third that of the cost of a set of shoes, and professional farriers are typically paid at a level commeasurate with other skilled labourers in an area, such as plumbers or electricians, though farriers charge by the horse rather than by the hour. HP 462890-751 Battery

In the United Kingdom, it is illegal for anyone other than a registered farrier to shoe a hoof or prepare the hoof to receive a shoe. It is not illegal in the UK for anyone to trim hooves for maintenance or cosmetic purposes, as long as it is not done preparatory to the application of a shoe. HP 462890-761 Battery

The legs of a horse require routine observation for lacerations or swelling. Everyday care involves brushing the legs with a brush to remove dirt and mud. A currycomb is generally not used below the knees. It is common to have excess hair trimmed from the fetlock to prevent excess accumulation of mud and moisture that may lead to skin problems. HP 462891-162 Battery

Many riders wrap the horse's legs with protective boots or bandages to prevent injury while working or exercising. After a ride, it is common for a rider or groom to hose off the legs of a horse to remove dirt and to ease any minor inflammation to the tendons and ligaments. HP 463305-341 Battery

Liniment may also be applied as a preventative measure to minimize stiffness and ease any minor strain or swelling. If the horse has been overworked, injured, or is to be transported, a standing bandage or shipping boot may be placed on the horse's legs for protection, to hold a wound dressing, or to provide support. HP 463305-751 Battery

Wrapping legs requires care and skill. A too loose bandage will fall off, potentially tangling in the horse's legs, causing panic or injury. A too tight bandage may cause injury to tendons, ligaments and possible circulation problems. Commercial boots for riding or shipping are simpler to apply as they attach with a hook and loop fastening, or, less often, with adjustable buckles. HP 464058-121 Battery

Leg bandages require more attention. A bandage is usually applied over a protective padding of roll cotton or a premade quilted pad. The bandage is started on the outside of the leg, in the middle of the cannon bone, then wrapped down to either the fetlock or the hoof, depending on the purpose for which it is used, HP 464058-121 Battery

then back up to just under the knee, then back to the center of the cannon just above the starting point, ending on the outside of the leg. Most of the time, a left leg is wrapped in a counter-clockwise direction, and a right leg wrapped in a clockwise direction, starting on the outside, moving front to back. HP 464059-121 Battery

Legs may be bandaged with either disposable stretchable wrap that sticks to itself, or with washable fleece or cotton wraps that are reusable and fasten at the ends with a hook and loop closure. Bandages may also be taped with medical tape to help them stay on. HP 464059-121 Battery,HP 464059-141 Battery,HP 464059-141 Battery

No comments:

Post a Comment