Friday, January 4, 2013

The overwhelming majority of Colombians

The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish), Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561N20 Battery
but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today. Most of these belong to the Chibchan, Arawak and Caribanlanguage families. The Quechua language, spoken in the Andes region of the country, has also extended more northwards into Colombia, mainly in urban centers of major cities. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561P20 Battery
There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages.
Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples. Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ562P Battery
567 reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families.[99] The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish). Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery
Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[100] the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna, the Paez, the Tucano and theGuahibo. Cauca, La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations.
The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery
is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people – roughly 2% of the population.
In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery
The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Colombia consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. However a low number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery
Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Today is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela.[101][102]
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery
Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese and Arabs, Sephardi Jews, Roma. There are also important communities ofChinese and Japanese.
Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery
Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó, running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black.[103]
Around one third of the people in Colombia have been affected in some way by the ongoing armed conflict. Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery
The FARC is the leading guerilla in Colombia. Those with direct personal experience make up 10% of the population and many others also report suffering a range of serious hardships. Overall, 31% have been affected on a personal level or as a result of the wider consequences of the conflict.[104] During the 1990s, an estimated 35,000 people died as a result of the armed conflict.[105] Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery
Trade unions in Colombia are included among the victimized groups with over 2,800 of their members being murdered between 1986 and 2010.[106]
During the first six months of 2011 it is estimated that 98,000 people had to flee their homes due to the internal armed conflict.Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery
A total of 3.7 million people have been displaced due to violence between 2000 and 2011.
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity,[109] Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q Battery
the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their Catholic faith actively.[110] Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/W Battery
Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombian population[111] While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R Battery
Religious groups are readily able to obtain recognition as organized associations, although some smaller ones have faced difficulty in obtaining the additional recognition required to offer chaplaincy services in public facilities and to perform legally recognized marriages.[110] Before the constitution guaranteed freedom of religion, Catholicism was the official states religion.Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/P Battery
After the 1991 constitution, there was a separation between the Catholic Church and the state, although the Catholic Church still holds a privilege position in Colombia.
Currently in Colombia there is some religious persecution against Evangelical Protestant leaders coming from Terrorist organizations, mostly FARC. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/Q Battery
They persecute Protestant leaders especially in rural areas for their biblical teaching that violence should not be acceptable.Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3 years; 2.1% of the population would not reach the age of 5, and 9.2% would not reach the age of 40;[60] the life expectancy increased to 74.79 years by 2012.[11] Health standards in Colombia have improved greatly since the 1980s. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/R Battery
A 1993 reform transformed the structure of public health-care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. As a result, employees have been obligated to pay into health plans to which employers also contribute. Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21% (pre-1993) to 56% in 2004 and 66% in 2005, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTB Battery
health disparities persist, with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates. In 2002 Colombia had 58,761 physicians, 23,950 nurses, and 33,951 dentists; these numbers equated to 1.35 physicians, 0.55 nurses, and 0.78 dentists per 1,000 population, respectively. In 2005 Colombia was reported to have only 1.1 physicians per 1,000 population, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTP Battery
as compared with a Latin American average of 1.5. The health sector reportedly is plagued by rampant corruption, including misallocation of funds and evasion of health-fund contributions.
The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age five (Educación preescolar). Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTQ Battery
It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from six to ten years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTR Battery
It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school. However, in many rural areas, teachers are poorly qualified, and only the five years' of primary schooling are offered. The school year can extend from February to November or from August to June; Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTW Battery
in many public schools attendance is split into morning and afternoon sessions to accommodate the large numbers of children.[115]
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAB Battery
The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). Students in their final year of middle education take theICFES test (now renamed Saber 11) in order to gain access to higher education (Educación superior). Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAC Battery
This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAD Battery
even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Once graduated from the university, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NBB Battery
people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the Saber-Pro test, formerly known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.[116] Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCA Battery
Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure.[60][117] In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively, slightly below the regional average. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCB Battery
School-life expectancy was 12.4 years.[117] A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.[117] However, literacy levels are considerably lower in rural areas.
Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCC Battery
Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression. Sony VAIO VGN-CS50B/W Battery
Historically, the country's imposing landscape left its various regions largely isolated from one another, resulting in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. Modern transport links and means of communication have mitigated this and done much to foster a sense of nationhood, Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery
but social and political instability, and in particular fear of armed groups and bandits on intercity highways, have contributed to the maintenance of very clear regional differences. Accent, dress, music, food, politics and general attitude vary greatly between the Bogotanos and other residents of the central highlands, Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery
the paisas of Antioquia and the coffee region, the costeños of the Caribbean coast, the llaneros of the eastern plains, and the inhabitants of the Pacific coast and the vast Amazon region to the south east.
An inheritance from the colonial era, Colombia remains a deeply Roman Catholic country and maintains a large base of Catholic traditions which provide a point of unity for its multicultural society. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/P Battery
Colombia has many celebrations and festivals throughout the year, and the majority are rooted in these Catholic religious traditions. However, many are also infused with a diverse range of other influences. Prominent examples of Colombia's festivals include the Feria de Cali, Barranquilla Carnival, the Carnival of Blacks and Whites Pasto, Nariño, Medellín's Festival of the Flowers and Bogotá's Ibero-American Theater FestivalSony VAIO VGN-CS60B/Q Battery
The mixing of various ethnic traditions is reflected in Colombia's music and dance. The most well-known Colombian genres are cumbia and vallenato, the latter now strongly influenced by global pop culture. A powerful and unifying cultural medium in Colombia is television. Notably, the telenovela Betty La Fea has gained international success through localized versions in the United States, Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/R Battery
Mexico, and elsewhere. Television has also played a role in the development of thelocal film industry.
The language spoken is as well a matter of pride, having as many accents as cultural regions. Results special the orthodoxy in the use of the Spanish language, since the times of the creation of the Academia de la Lengua, just second in terms of relevance to the Real Academia Española, in Europe. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/P Battery
As in many Latin American countries, Colombians have a passion for association football. The Colombian national football team is seen as a symbol of unity and national pride.
The Colombian cuisine developed mainly from the food traditions of European countries. Spanish, Italian and French culinary influences can all be seen in Colombian cooking. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/Q Battery
The cuisine of neighboring Latin American countries, Mexico, the United States and the Caribbean, as well as the cooking traditions of the country's indigenous inhabitants, have all influenced Colombian food. For example, cuy or macliona, which is an indigenous cuisine, is eaten in the Andes region of south-western Colombia. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/R Battery
Many national symbols, both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/P Battery
However, there has been little effort in trying to protect Colombia's culture and traditions, especially in the artistic area, which affects people who have studied anything related to arts in a social and economic impasse.
The depiction of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery
has been asserted by Colombian organizations and government to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, stereotypes, societal prejudiceand discrimination due to association with poverty, narcotics trafficking, terrorism and other criminal elements.[122] Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/R Battery
These stereotypes are considered unfair by many Colombians.[123][124] The Colombian government funded the "Colombia es Pasión" advertisement campaign as an attempt to improve Colombia's image abroad, with mixed results.
Colombia's cuisine, influenced heavily by the Spanish and Indigenous populations, Sony VAIO VGN-CS71B/W Battery
is not as widely known as other Latin American cuisines such as Peruvian or Brazilian, but to the adventurous traveler there are plenty of delectable dishes to try, not to mention fruits, rum, and especially Colombian coffee. The most popular dishes are: Ajiaco, Bandeja Paisa, and other. The Colombia's cuisine, has similarities to the Mexican cuisine. Sony VAIO VGN-CS72JB/W Battery
In different countries of North America, and Europe, Colombian immigrants have Colombian cuisine restaurant. Although not food, Colombian coffee is recognized as one of the best in the world, and sold in many parts of the world.
Of all sports in Colombia, football (soccer) is the most popular. It is widely regarded as an important event in both national and international games. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90HS Battery
Oftentimes, football has been considered to be 'sacred' in Colombia due to its passionate fans who rival even those of nations like Brazil and Argentina. The sport has proved to be a stronghold in fighting the stereotypes of Colombia's drug cartels and violence. Despite winning very few international events, Colombia has produced outstanding players, thereby creating a positive reputation in the nation itself. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90NS Battery
A golden era existed for the national team from the mid 1980s towards the late 1990s when it became one of the most powerful teams in football. The tragic death of Andrés Escobar for an own goal at the 1994 FIFA World Cup caused a severe scar in the nation's history of the sport and effectively ended the golden era as many of the star players quit due to his assassination. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90S Battery
The most noticeable players of the national team at the time were Carlos Valderrama and René Higuita.
The Colombian national football team has not qualified for a FIFA World Cup since 1998 although current players such asRadamel Falcao García – who was the first-ever player to score more than 15 goals (17) in one season in the UEFA Cup-Europa League during the 2010/2011 season -,Sony VAIO VGN-CS91HS Battery
Fredy Guarín, Juan Cuadrado, Cristian Zapata, Abel Aguilar Luis MurielSantiago Arias and James Rodríguez have restored hope in the Colombian national team. Colombia qualified for the World Cup in 1962, 1990, 1994, and 1998. Colombia are currently ranked 8th.
The Colombia National Team often found among the 10 best teams in the world in the FIFA World Rankings. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91NS Battery
In club football, Atlético Nacional became the first Colombian club team to win the Copa Libertadores in 1989. Many of Colombia's star players of the golden era came from this team such as Andrés Escobar and René Higuita, among others. Once Caldas were the surprise winners of the 2004 Copa Libertadores and the second Colombian team to do so. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91S Battery
As for baseball, another sport rooted in the Caribbean Coast, Colombia was world amateur champion in 1947 and 1965. Baseball is popular in the Caribbean. Mainly in the cities, Cartagena, Barranquilla and Santa Marta. Of those cities have come good players like: Orlando Cabrera, Sony VAIO VGN-CS92DS Battery
Edgar Rentería[127] who was champion of theWorld Series in 1997 and 2010, and others who have played in Major League Baseball. Overall for this area of the country, baseball is almost as popular as football (soccer).
Colombia's national symbols are representative elements within the country and outside the country. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92JS Battery
Both the flag, emblem and anthem are currently regulated by Law 12 of 1984 which dictates the general provisions of these symbols.
The Flag of Colombia, is described as a rectangle triband yellow, blue and red in 2:1:1 ratio, meaning three horizontal stripes, with yellow on top of it with half the width of the flag, blue in the middle occupying a quarter of the width and red below, occupying the last cuarto. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92XS Battery
Originated tricolor composition created in 1801 by General Francisco de Miranda, who described in his diary military use of primary colors as a flag to represent Latin American nations at that time were in the process of independence. It was definitively adopted on 26 November 1861. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Battery
The meaning of the colors are: Yellow: represents all the gold found in the Colombian land. Blue: represents the seas on Colombia's shores. Red: represents the blood spilled on the battlegrounds by the heroes who gained Colombia's freedom.
The coat of arms of Colombia is considered the symbols of all symbols in Colombia. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11L Battery
The coat of arms integrates the major symbols for which the Colombian identity prevails. It was updated by Protocol based in Decree 1967 of 1991 as stated in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. The coat of arms of Colombia is only used in the center of the flag of the President of Colombia, war flag of Colombia and official documents. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
It can also be used for educational or display purposes within the guidelines of respect for the symbol.
The National Anthem of Colombia is composed of a choir and eleven stanzas and was written by President Rafael Núñez, originally as an ode to celebrate the independence of Cartagena. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery
The music was composed by Italian Oreste Sindici at the behest of actor José Domingo Torres, under President Rafael Núñez and presented to the public for the first time on 11 November 1887. the song became very popular and was quickly adopted, but spontaneously, as the national anthem of Colombia. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-FW140AE Battery

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