Tuesday, July 30, 2013

 Renewed international interest in his plight came in July 1978

 Renewed international interest in his plight came in July 1978, when he celebrated his 60th birthday.[145] He was awarded an honorary doctorate in Lesotho, the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in India in 1979, and the Freedom of the City of Glasgow, Scotland in 1981.[ Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

In March 1980 the slogan "Free Mandela!" was developed by journalist Percy Qoboza, sparking an international campaign that led the UN Security Council to call for his release.[149] Despite increasing foreign pressure, the government refused, Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

relying on powerful foreign Cold War allies in US President Ronald Reagan and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; Thatcher considered Mandela a communist terrorist and supported the suppression of the ANC.

In April 1982 Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, Cape Town along with senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba; they believed that they were being isolated to remove their influence on younger activists.[151] Conditions at Pollsmoor were better than at Robben Island, although Mandela missed the camaraderie and scenery of the island.[152] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

Getting on well with Pollsmoor's commanding officer, Brigadier Munro, Mandela was permitted to create a roof garden,[153] also reading voraciously and corresponding widely, now permitted 52 letters a year.[154] He was appointed patron of the multi-racial United Democratic Front (UDF), Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

founded to combat reforms implemented by South African President P.W. Botha. Botha's National Party government had permitted Coloured and Indian citizens to vote for their own parliaments which would have control over education, health, and housing, but black Africans were excluded from the system; Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery

like Mandela, the UDF saw this as an attempt to divide the anti-apartheid movement on racial lines.

Violence across the country escalated, with many fearing civil war. Under pressure from an international lobby, multinational banks stopped investing in South Africa, resulting in economic stagnation. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery

Numerous banks and Thatcher asked Botha to release Mandela – then at the height of his international fame – to defuse the volatile situation.[156] Although considering Mandela a dangerous "arch-Marxist",[157] in February 1985 Botha offered him a release from prison on condition that he '"unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon". Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

Mandela spurned the offer, releasing a statement through his daughter Zindzi stating "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts."[158] Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery

In 1985 Mandela underwent surgery on an enlarged prostate gland, before being given new solitary quarters on the ground floor.[159]He was met by "seven eminent persons", an international delegation sent to negotiate a settlement, but Botha's government refused to co-operate, Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery

in June calling a state of emergency and initiating a police crackdown on unrest. The anti-apartheid resistance fought back, with the ANC committing 231 attacks in 1986 and 235 in 1987. Utilising the army and right-wing paramilitaries to combat the resistance, Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery

the government secretly funded Zulu nationalist movement Inkatha to attack ANC members, furthering the violence.[160]Mandela requested talks with Botha but was denied, instead secretly meeting with Minister of Justice Kobie Coetsee in 1987, having a further 11 meetings over 3 years. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery

Coetsee organised negotiations between Mandela and a team of four government figures starting in May 1988; the team agreed to the release of political prisoners and the legalisation of the ANC on the condition that they permanently renounce violence, break links with the Communist Party and not insist on majority rule. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery

Mandela rejected these conditions, insisting that the ANC would only end the armed struggle when the government renounced violence.[161]

Mandela's 70th birthday in July 1988 attracted international attention, with the BBC organising the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute music gig at London's Wembley Stadium.[162] Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery

Although presented globally as a heroic figure, he faced personal problems when ANC leaders informed him that Winnie had set herself up as head of a criminal gang, the "Mandela United Football Club", who had been responsible for torturing and killing opponents – including children – in Soweto. Sony PCG-71213M Battery

Though some encouraged him to divorce her, he decided to remain loyal until she was found guilty by trial.

Recovering from tuberculosis caused by dank conditions in his cell,[164] in December 1988 Mandela was moved to Victor Verster Prisonnear Paarl. Sony PCG-71311M Battery

Here, he was housed in the relative comfort of a warders house with a personal cook, using the time to complete his LLB degree.[165] Allowed many visitors, Mandela organised secret communications with exiled ANC leader Oliver Tambo.[166] In 1989, Botha suffered a stroke, Sony PCG-71312M Battery

retaining the state presidency but stepping down as leader of the National Party, to be replaced by the conservative F. W. de Klerk.[167] In a surprise move, Botha invited Mandela to a meeting over tea in July 1989, an invitation Mandela considered genial.[168] Botha was replaced as state president by de Klerk six weeks later; Sony PCG-71212M Battery

the new president believed that apartheid was unsustainable and unconditionally released all ANC prisoners except Mandela.[169] Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, de Klerk called his cabinet together to debate legalising the ANC and freeing Mandela. Sony VAIO PCG-5J4M Battery

Although some were deeply opposed to his plans, de Klerk met with Mandela in December to discuss the situation, a meeting both men considered friendly, before releasing Mandela unconditionally and legalising all formerly banned political parties on 2 February 1990.[170] Sony VAIO PCG-5K1M Battery

The government published a photograph of Mandela meeting with de Klerk in Cape Town, the first photograph of Mandela published in over 20 years.[171][172][173]

Leaving Victor Verster on 11 February, Mandela held Winnie's hand in front of amassed crowds and press; the event was broadcast live across the world.[174] Sony VAIO PCG-5K2M Battery

Driven to Cape Town's City Hall through crowds, he gave a speech declaring his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the white minority, but made it clear that the ANC's armed struggle was not over, and would continue as "a purely defensive action against the violence of apartheid." Sony VAIO PCG-5J5M Battery

He expressed hope that the government would agree to negotiations, so that "there may no longer be the need for the armed struggle", and insisted that his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in national and local elections.[175] Sony VAIO PCG-5L2M Battery

Staying at the home of Desmond Tutu, in the following days, Mandela met with friends, activists, and press, giving a speech to 100,000 people at Johannesburg's Soccer City.

Mandela proceeded on an African tour, meeting supporters and politicians in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Sony VAIO PCG-6S4M Battery

Libya and Algeria, continuing to Sweden where he was reunited with Tambo, and then London, where he appeared at the Nelson Mandela: An International Tribute for a Free South Africa concert in Wembley Stadium.[177] Encouraging foreign countries to support sanctions against the apartheid government, Sony VAIO PCG-6W1M Battery

in France he was welcomed by President François Mitterrand, in the Vatican City by Pope John Paul II, and in England he met Margaret Thatcher. In the United States, he met President George H.W. Bush, addressed both Houses of Congress and visited eight cities, being particularly popular among the African-American community.[178] Sony VAIO PCG-6W2M Battery

In Cuba he met President Fidel Castro, whom he had long emulated, with the two becoming friends.[179] In Asia he met President R. Venkataraman in India, President Suharto in Indonesia and Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in Malaysia, before visiting Australia and Japan; he notably did not visit the Soviet Union, a longtime ANC supporter.[180] Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1M Battery

In May 1990, Mandela led a multiracial ANC delegation into preliminary negotiations with a government delegation of 11 Afrikaner men. Mandela impressed them with his discussions of Afrikaner history, and the negotiations led to the Groot Schuur Minute, in which the government lifted the state of emergency. Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2M Battery

In August Mandela – recognising the ANC's severe military disadvantage – offered a ceasefire, the Pretoria Minute, for which he was widely criticised by MK activists.[181] He spent much time trying to unify and build the ANC, appearing at a Johannesburg conference in December attended by 1600 delegates, many of whom found him more moderate than expected.[182] Sony VAIO PCG-8Y3M Battery

 At the ANC's July 1991 national conference in Durban, Mandela admitted the party's faults and announced his aim in building a "strong and well-oiled task force" for securing majority rule. At the conference, he was elected ANC President, replacing the ailing Tambo, while a 50-strong multiracial, multi-gendered national executive was elected.[183] Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1M Battery

Mandela was given an office in the newly purchased ANC headquarters at Shell House, central Johannesburg, while moving with Winnie to her large Soweto home.[184] Their marriage was increasingly strained as he learned of her affair with Dali Mpofu, but he supported her during her trial for kidnap and assault. Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2M Battery

He gained funding for her defence from the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa and from Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, but in June 1991 she was found guilty and sentenced to six years, reduced to two on appeal. On 13 April 1992, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery

Mandela publicly announced his separation from Winnie, while the ANC forced her to step down from the national executive for misappropriating ANC funds; Mandela moved into the mostly-white Johannesburg suburb of Houghton.[185] Mandela's reputation was further damaged by the increase in "black-on-black" violence, Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

particularly between ANC and Inkatha supporters in KwaZulu-Natal, in which thousands died. Mandela met with Inkatha leader Buthelezi, but the ANC prevented further negotiations on the issue. Mandela recognised that there was a "third force" within the state intelligence services fuelling the "slaughter of the people" and openly blamed de Klerk – whom he increasingly distrusted – for the Sebokeng massacre.[186] Sony VGP-BPL15/B Battery

In September 1991 a national peace conference was held in Johannesburg in which Mandela, Buthelezi and de Klerk signed a peace accord, though the violence continued.

The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) began in December 1991 at the Johannesburg World Trade Center, attended by 228 delegates from 19 political parties. Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery

Although Cyril Ramaphosa led the ANC's delegation, Mandela remained a key figure, and after de Klerk used the closing speech to condemn the ANC's violence, he took to the stage to denounce him as "head of an illegitimate, discredited minority regime". Dominated by the National Party and ANC, little negotiation was achieved.[188] Sony VGP-BPL15/S Battery

CODESA 2 was held in May 1992, in which de Klerk insisted that post-apartheid South Africa must use a federal system with a rotating presidency to ensure the protection of ethnic minorities; Mandela opposed this, demanding a unitary system governed by majority rule.[189] Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery

Following theBoipatong massacre of ANC activists by government-aided Inkatha militants, Mandela called off the negotiations, before attending a meeting of the Organisation of African Unity in Senegal, at which he called for a special session of the UN Security Council and proposed that a UN peacekeeping force be stationed in South Africa to prevent "state terrorism". Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery

The UN subsequently sent special envoy Cyrus Vance to the country to aid negotiations.[190] Calling for domestic mass action, in August the ANC organised the largest-ever strike in South African history, while supporters marched on Pretoria. Sony VGP-BPL15 Battery

Following the Bisho massacre, in which 28 ANC supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march, Mandela realised that mass action was leading to further violence and resumed negotiations in September. Sony VGN-P series Battery

He agreed to do so on the conditions that all political prisoners be released, that Zulu traditional weapons be banned, and that Zulu hostels would be fenced off, the latter two measures to prevent further Inkatha attacks; under increasing pressure, de Klerk reluctantly agreed. Sony VGN-P11Z/Q Battery

The negotiations agreed that a multiracial general election would be held, resulting in a five-yearcoalition government of national unity and a constitutional assembly that gave the National Party continuing influence. The ANC also conceded to safeguarding the jobs of white civil servants; such concessions brought fierce internal criticism.[192] Sony VGN-P11Z/R Battery

The duo agreed on an interim constitution, guaranteeing separation of powers, creating a constitutional court, and including a US-style bill of rights; it also divided the country into nine provinces, each with its own premier and civil service, a concession between de Klerk's desire for federalism and Mandela's for unitary government.[193] Sony VGN-P11Z/W Battery\

The democratic process was threatened by the Concerned South Africans Group (COSAG), an alliance of far-right Afrikaner parties and black ethnic-secessionist groups like Inkatha; in June 1993 the white supremacist Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging(AWB) attacked the Kempton Park World Trade Centre.[194] Sony VGN-P21S/W Battery

Following the murder of ANC leader Chris Hani, Mandela made a publicised speech to calm rioting, soon after appearing at a mass funeral in Soweto for Tambo, who had died from a stroke.[195] In July 1993, both Mandela and de Klerk visited the US, independently meeting President Bill Clinton and each receiving the Liberty Medal.[196] Sony VGN-P21Z/G Battery

Soon after, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Norway.[197] Influenced by young ANC leader Thabo Mbeki, Mandela began meeting with big business figures, and played down his support for nationalisation, fearing that he would scare away much-needed foreign investment. Sony VGN-P21Z/R Battery

Although criticised by socialist ANC members, he was encouraged to embrace private enterprise by members of the Chinese and Vietnamese Communist parties at the January 1992 World Economic Forum in Switzerland.[198] Mandela also made a cameo appearance as a schoolteacher reciting one of Malcolm X's speeches in the final scene of the 1992 film Malcolm XSony VGN-P29VN/Q Battery

With the election set for 27 April 1994, the ANC began campaigning, opening 100 election offices and hiring advisor Stanley Greenberg. Greenberg orchestrated the foundation of People's Forums across the country, at which Mandela could appear;  Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery

though a poor public speaker, he was a popular figure with great status among black South Africans.[200] The ANC campaigned on a Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) to build a million houses in five years, introduce universal free education and extend access to water and electricity. Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

The party's slogan was "a better life for all", although it was not explained how this development would be funded.[201] With the exception of the Weekly Mail and the New Nation, South Africa's press opposed Mandela's election, fearing continued ethnic strife, instead supporting the National or Democratic Party.[202] Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery

Mandela devoted much time to fundraising for the ANC, touring North America, Europe and Asia to meet wealthy donors, including former supporters of the apartheid regime.[203] He also urged a reduction in the voting age from 18 to 14; rejected by the ANC, this policy became the subject of ridicule.[204] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery Concerned that COSAG would undermine the election, particularly in the wake of the Battle of Bop and Shell House Massacre – incidents of violence involving the AWB and Inkatha, respectively – Mandela met with Afrikaner politicians and generals, including P.W. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery Botha, Pik Botha and Constand Viljoen, persuading many to work within the democratic system, and with de Klerk convinced Inkatha's Buthelezi to enter the elections rather than launch a war of secession.[205] As leaders of the two major parties, de Klerk and Mandela appeared on a televised debate; Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery although de Klerk was widely considered the better speaker at the event, Mandela's offer to shake his hand surprised him, leading some commentators to consider it a victory for Mandela.[206] The election went ahead with little violence, although an AWB cell killed 20 with car bombs. Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery Mandela voted at the Ohlange High School in Durban, and though he was elected President, he publicly accepted that the election had been marred by instances of fraud and sabotage.[207] Having taken 62% of the national vote, the ANC was just short of the two-thirds majority needed to unilaterally change the constitution. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery

The ANC was also victorious in 7 provinces, with Inkatha and the National Party each taking another.

Mandela's inauguration took place in Pretoria on 10 May 1994, televised to a billion viewers globally. The event was attended by 4000 guests, including world leaders from disparate backgrounds.[209] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

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