Friday, August 2, 2013

The controlled movement of African workers

The controlled movement of African workers within the country through the Natives Urban Areas Act of 1923 and the pass-laws, separated family members from one another as men usually worked in urban centres, while women were forced to stay in rural areas. Marriage law and births[64] were also controlled by the government and the pro-apartheid Dutch Reformed Church, which tried to restrict African birth rates. Sony VPCYB15JC Battery
By the 1930s, Association football mirrored the balkanised society of South Africa, football was divided into numerous institutions based on race: the (White) South African Football Association, the South African Indian Football Association (SAIFA), the South African African Football Association (SAAFA) and its rival the South African Bantu Football Association, Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery
and lastly, the South African Coloured Football Association (SACFA). Lack of funds to provide proper equipment would be noticeable in regards to black amateur football matches, this revealed the unequal lives Africans were subject to, in contrast to Whites who were obviously much better off financially.[65] Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery
Apartheid's social engineering made it more difficult to compete across racial lines, thus in an effort to centralise finances the federations merged in 1951, creating the South African Soccer Federation (SASF), which brought Black, Indian and Coloured national associations into one body that opposed apartheid. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery
This was generally opposed more and more by the growing apartheid government and with urban segregation being reinforced with ongoing racist policies, it was harder to play football along these racial lines. In 1956, the Pretoria regime, the administrative capital of South Africa, passed the first apartheid sports policy, by doing so, it emphasised the White-led government’s opposition to inter-racialism. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery
While football was plagued by racism, it also played a role in protesting apartheid and its policies. With the international bans from FIFA and other major sporting events, South Africa would be in the spotlight internationally. In a 1977 survey, white South Africans ranked the lack of international sport as one of the three most damaging consequences of apartheid.[66] Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery
 By the mid-fifties, Black South Africans would also use media to challenge the "racialisation" of sports in South Africa; anti-apartheid forces had begun to pinpoint sport as the 'weakness' of white national morale. Black journalists on the Johannesburg Drum magazine were the first to give the issue public exposure, with an intrepid special issue in 1955 that asked, Sony VPCW1 Battery
"Why shouldn't our blacks be allowed in the SA team?"[66] As time progressed, international standing with South Africa would continue to be strained. In the 1980s, as the oppressive system was slowly collapsing the ANC and National Party started negotiations on the end of apartheid. Football associations also discussed the formation of a single, non-racial controlling body. Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery
This unity process accelerated in the late 1980s and led to the creation, in December 1991, of an incorporated South African Football Association. On 3 July 1992, FIFA finally welcomed South Africa back into international football.
Sport has long been an important part of life in South Africa, Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery
and the boycotting of games by international teams had a profound effect on the white population, perhaps more so than the trade embargoes did. After the re-acceptance of South Africa's sports teams by the international community, Sport played a major unifying role between the country's races. Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery
Nelson Mandela's open support of the previously white-dominated rugby fraternity when South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup went a long way to repairing broken race relations.
Defining its East Asian population, a minority in South Africa who do not appear to belong to any of the four designated groups, was a constant dilemma for the apartheid government. Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery
For political reasons immigrants from Japan, Taiwan and South Korea and their descendents, with which South Africa maintained diplomatic and economic relations.[67] were classified as honorary white and was thus allotted the privilege of that status. Sony VPCY11M1E Battery
Indian South Africans during apartheid were classified many ranges of categories from "Asian" to "Black" to "Coloured" and even the mono-ethnic category of "Indian", but never as White and has been "non-White" throughout South Africa's history. The group faced a severe amount of discrimination during the apartheid regime and were subject numerous racialist policies. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery
Chinese South Africans who were descendants of migrant workers who came to work in the gold mines around Johannesburg in the late 19th century, were initially either classified as "Coloured" or "Other Asian" and hence "non-white" and were subject to numerous forms of discrimination and restrictions, Sony VPCY11V9E Battery
but benefited from often being mistaken for Japanese which at the time were classified as honorary white so sometimes they were able to fool Whites into being allowed to use many White luxuries such as White buses and restaurants. It was not until 1984, when South African Chinese, increased to about 10,000, were finally obtained the same official rights as the Japanese in South Africa, Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery
that is, to be treated as whites in terms of the Group Areas Act although they still faced discrimination and didn't receive all the benefits/rights of their newly obtained honorary white status such as that they could not vote or be conscribed.[ Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery
When it came to Indonesians, which was the largest sect of immigrants adapted to the society of South Africa and formed their own ethnic group/community which came to be known as the Cape Malays during the apartheid regime, they were classified as part of the Coloured racial group and therefore considered "not-white" and were treated as such.[68] Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery
This was the same for South Africans of Malaysian and Filipino descent who were also classified as part of the Coloured race and thus considered "not-white".
The National Party government implemented, alongside apartheid, a programme of social conservatism. Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery
Pornography,[70] gambling[71] and other such "vices" were banned. Cinemas, shops selling alcohol and most other businesses were forbidden from operating on Sundays.[72] Abortion,[73] homosexuality[74] and sex educationwere also restricted; abortion was legal only in cases of rape or if the mother's life was threatened.[73] Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery
Television was not introduced until 1976 because the government viewed English programming as a threat to the Afrikaans language.[75] Television was also run on apartheid lines – TV1 broadcast in Afrikaans and English (geared to a white audience), TV2 in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 in Sotho, Tswana and Pedi (both geared to a black audience), and TV4 mostly showed programmes for an urban-black audience. Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery
The system of apartheid sparked significant internal resistance.[7] The government responded to a series of popular uprisings and protests with police brutality, which in turn increased local support for the armed resistance struggle.[76] Internal resistance to the apartheid system in South Africa came from several sectors of society and saw the creation of organisations dedicated variously to peaceful protests, passive resistance and armed insurrection. Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery
In 1949 the youth wing of the African National Congress (ANC) took control of the organisation and started advocating a radical black nationalist programme. The new young leaders proposed that white authority could only be overthrown through mass campaigns. In 1950 that philosophy saw the launch of the Programme of Action, a series of strikes, Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery
boycotts and civil disobedience actions that led to occasionally violent clashes with the authorities.
In 1959 a group of disenchanted ANC members formed the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), which organised a demonstration against pass books on 21 March 1960. One of those protests was held in the township of Sharpeville, where 69 people were killed by police in the Sharpeville massacre. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery
In the wake of the Sharpeville incident the government declared a state of emergency. More than 18,000 people were arrested, including leaders of the ANC and PAC, and both organisations were banned. The resistance went underground, with some leaders in exile abroad and others engaged in campaigns of domestic sabotage and terrorism. Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery
In May 1961, before the declaration of South Africa as a Republic, an assembly representing the banned ANC called for negotiations between the members of the different ethnic groupings, threatening demonstrations and strikes during the inauguration of the Republic if their calls were ignored. Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery
When the government overlooked them, the strikers (among the main organisers was a 42-year-old, Thembu-origin Nelson Mandela) carried out their threats. The government countered swiftly by giving police the authority to arrest people for up to twelve days and detaining many strike leaders amid numerous cases of police brutality.[77] Defeated, the protesters called off their strike.Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery
The ANC then chose to launch an armed struggle through a newly formed military wing,Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), which would perform acts of sabotage on tactical state structures. Its first sabotage plans were carried out on 16 December 1961, the anniversary of the Battle of Blood River.
In the 1970s the Black Consciousness Movement was created by tertiary students influenced by the American Black Power movement. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery
BC endorsed black pride and African customs and did much to alter the feelings of inadequacy instilled among black people by the apartheid system. The leader of the movement, Steve Biko, was taken into custody on 18 August 1977 and was beaten to death in detention.
In 1976 secondary students in Soweto took to the streets in the Soweto uprising to protest against forced tuition in Afrikaans. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery
On 16 June, police opened fire on students in what was meant to be a peaceful protest. According to official reports 23 people were killed, but the number of people who died is usually given as 176 , with estimates of up to 700. In the following years several student organisations were formed with the goal of protesting against apartheid, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery
and these organisations were central to urban school boycotts in 1980 and 1983 as well as rural boycotts in 1985 and 1986.
In parallel to student protests, labour unions started protest action in 1973 and 1974. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery
After 1976 unions and workers are considered to have played an important role in the struggle against apartheid, filling the gap left by the banning of political parties. In 1979 black trade unions were legalised and could engage in collective bargaining, although strikes were still illegal. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery
At roughly the same time churches and church groups also emerged as pivotal points of resistance. Church leaders were not immune to prosecution, and certain faith-based organisations were banned, but the clergy generally had more freedom to criticise the government than militant groups did. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery
Although the majority of whites supported apartheid, some 20% did not. Parliamentary opposition was galvanised by Helen Suzman, Colin Eglin and Harry Schwarzwho formed the Progressive Federal Party. Extra-parliamentary resistance was largely centred in the South African Communist Party and women's organisation theBlack Sash. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery
Women were also notable in their involvement in trade union organisations and banned political parties.South Africa's policies were subject to international scrutiny in 1960, when Macmillan criticised them during his celebrated Wind of Change speech in Cape Town. Weeks later, tensions came to a head in the Sharpeville Massacre, resulting in more international condemnation. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery
Soon afterwards Verwoerd announced a referendum on whether the country should become a republic. Verwoerd lowered the voting age for whites to eighteen and included whites in South West Africa on the voter's roll. The referendum on 5 October that year asked whites, "Are you in favour of a Republic for the Union?", and 52% voted "Yes".[81] Sony PCG-71213M Battery
As a consequence of this change of status, South Africa needed to reapply for continued membership of theCommonwealth, with which it had privileged trade links. Even though India became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1950, it became clear that African and Asian member states would oppose South Africa due to its apartheid policies. Sony PCG-71311M Battery
As a result, South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth on 31 May 1961, the day that the Republic came into existence.
"We stand here today to salute the United Nations Organisation and its Member States, both singly and collectively, for joining forces with the masses of our people in a common struggle that has brought about our emancipation and pushed back the frontiers of racism." Sony PCG-71312M Battery
At the first UN gathering in 1946, South Africa was placed on the agenda. The primary subject in question was the handling of South African Indians, a great cause of divergence between South Africa and India. In 1952, apartheid was again discussed in the aftermath of the Defiance Campaign, Sony PCG-71212M Battery
and the UN set up a task team to keep watch on the progress of apartheid and the racial state of affairs in South Africa. Although South Africa's racial policies were a cause for concern, most countries in the UN concurred that this was a domestic affair, which fell outside the UN's jurisdiction.[83] Sony VAIO PCG-5J4M Battery
In April 1960, the UN's conservative stance on apartheid changed following the Sharpeville massacre, and the Security Council for the first time agreed on concerted action against the apartheid regime, demanding an end to racial separation and discrimination. From 1960 the ANC began a campaign of armed struggle of which there would later be a charge of 193 acts of terrorism from 1961 to 1963, mainly bombings and murders of civilians. Sony VAIO PCG-5K1M Battery
Instead, the South African government then began further suppression, banning the ANC and PAC. In 1961, UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld stopped over in South Africa and subsequently stated that he had been unable to reach agreement with Prime Minister Verwoerd.
On 6 November 1962, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1761, condemning South African apartheid policies. Sony VAIO PCG-5K2M Battery
In 1966, the UN held the first of many colloquiums on apartheid. The General Assembly announced 21 March as the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in memory of the Sharpeville massacre.[84] In 1971, the General Assembly formally denounced the institution of homelands, and a motion was passed in 1974 to expel South Africa from the UN, Sony VAIO PCG-5J5M Battery
but this was vetoed by France, Britain and the United States of America, all key trade associates of South Africa.[85]
On 7 August 1963 the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 181, calling for a voluntary arms embargo against South Africa. In the same year a Special Committee Against Apartheid was established to encourage and oversee plans of action against the regime. Sony VAIO PCG-5L2M Battery
From 1964 the US and Britain discontinued their arms trade with South Africa. The Security Council also condemned the Soweto massacre in Resolution 392. In 1977, the voluntary UN arms embargo became mandatory with the passing of Resolution 418.
Economic sanctions against South Africa were also frequently debated as an effective way of putting pressure on the apartheid government. Sony VAIO PCG-6S4M Battery
In 1962, the UN General Assembly requested that its members sever political, fiscal and transportation ties with South Africa. In 1968, it proposed ending all cultural, educational and sporting connections as well. Economic sanctions, however, were not made mandatory, because of opposition from South Africa's main trading partners. Sony VAIO PCG-6W1M Battery
In 1973, the UN adopted the Apartheid Convention which defines apartheid and even qualifies it as a crime against humanity which might lead to international criminal prosecution of the individuals responsible for perpetrating it.[86]
In 1978 and 1983 the UN condemned South Africa at the World Conference Against Racism. Sony VAIO PCG-6W2M Battery
After much debate, by the late 1980s the United States, the United Kingdom, and 23 other nations had passed laws placing various trade sanctions on South Africa.[87] A disinvestment from South Africa movement in many countries was similarly widespread, with individual cities and provinces around the world implementing various laws and local regulations forbidding registered corporations under their jurisdiction from doing business with South African firms, factories, or banks. Sony VAIO PCG-7Z1M Battery
Pope John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid in South Africa. In 1985, while visiting the Netherlands, he gave an impassioned speech condemning apartheid at the International Court of Justice, proclaiming that "no system of apartheid or separate development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races."[89] Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2M Battery
In September 1988, Pope John Paul II made a pilgrimage to ten countries bordering South Africa, while demonstratively avoiding South Africa itself. During his visit to Zimbabwe, John Paul II called for economic sanctions against South Africa's government.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was created in 1963. Sony VAIO PCG-8Y3M Battery
Its primary objectives were to eradicate colonialism and improve social, political and economic situations in Africa. It censured apartheid and demanded sanctions against South Africa. African states agreed to aid the liberation movements in their fight against apartheid.[91] In 1969, fourteen nations from Central and East Africa gathered in Lusaka, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1M Battery
Zambia, and formulated the 'Lusaka Manifesto', which was signed on 13 April by all of the countries in attendance except Malawi.[92] This manifesto was later taken on by both the OAU and the United Nations.[91]
The Lusaka Manifesto summarised the political situations of self-governing African countries, Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2M Battery
condemning racism and inequity, and calling for black majority rule in all African nations.[93] It did not rebuff South Africa entirely, though, adopting an appeasing manner towards the apartheid government, and even recognising its autonomy. Although African leaders supported the emancipation of black South Africans, they preferred this to be attained through peaceful means.[94] Sony VAIO PCG-8Z3M Battery
South Africa's negative response to the Lusaka Manifesto and rejection of a change to her policies brought about another OAU announcement in October 1971. The Mogadishu Declaration declared that South Africa's rebuffing of negotiations meant that her black people could only be freed through military means, and that no African state should converse with the apartheid government. Sony VAIO PCG-7112M Battery

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