Monday, December 23, 2013

Economy of Singapore, Singapore is a highly developed trade-oriented market economy.[9][10] Singapore's economy has been ranked as the most open in the world,[11] least corrupt,[12] most pro-business,[13] with low tax rates (14.2% of Gross Domestic Product, GDP)[14] and has the highest per-capita GDP in the world; in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan Singapore's sovereign wealth fund, Temasek Holdings, holds majority stakes in several of the nation's largest companies, such as Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering and MediaCorp. The economy of Singapore is a major Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) outflow financier in the world. HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan Singapore has also benefited from the inward flow of FDI from global investors and institutions due to her highly attractive investment climate and a stable political environment.[15] Exports, particularly in electronics, chemicals and services including the posture that Singapore is the regional hub for wealth management provide the main source of revenue for the economy, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan which allows it to purchase natural resources and raw goods which she lacks. Moreover, water is scarce in Singapore[19] therefore water is defined as a precious resource in Singapore along with the scarcity of land to be treated with land fillof Pulau Semakau. Singapore has limited arable land[20] that Singapore has to rely on the agrotechnology park[21] IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan for agricultural production and consumption. Human Resource is another vital issue for the health of Singaporean economy.[22] Singapore could thus be said to rely on an extended concept of intermediary trade to Entrepôt trade, by purchasing raw goods and refining them for re-export, such as in the wafer fabrication industry and oil refining. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan Singapore also has a strategic port which makes it more competitive than many of its neighbours in carrying out such entrepot activities. Singapore has the highest trade to GDP ratio in the world, averaging around 400% during 2008-11.[23] The Port of Singapore is the second-busiest in the world by cargo tonnage. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan In addition, Singapore's portinfrastructure and skilled workforce, which is due to the success of the country's education policy in producing skilled workers, is also fundamental in this aspect as they provide easier access to markets for both importing and exporting, and also provide the skill(s) needed to refine imports into exports. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan Singapore's government promotes high levels of savings and investment through policies such as the Central Provident Fund, which is used to fund its citizen's healthcare and retirement needs. Singapore's savings rates have remained among the highest in the world since the 1970s.[24] FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan Most companies in Singapore are registered as private limited-liability companies (commonly known as "private limited companies"). A private limited company in Singapore is a separate legal entity, and shareholders are not liable for the company's debts beyond the amount of share capital they have contributed. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan To preserve its international standing and further its economic prosperity in the 21st century, Singapore has taken measures to promote innovation, encourage entrepreneurship, re-train her workforce, and even attract foreign talents. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan These measures aim to boost Singapore's productivity, so that Singapore remains competitive and ready for the challenges of an information-driven global economy. Upon separation from Malaysia in 1965, Singapore faced a small domestic market, and high levels of unemployment and poverty.[24] 70 percent of Singapore’s households lived in badly overcrowded conditions, and a third of its people squatted in slums on the city fringes. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan Unemployment averaged 14 percent, GDP per capita was US$516, and half of the population was illiterate.[25][26] In response, the Singapore government established the Economic Development Board to spearhead an investment drive, and make Singapore an attractive destination for foreign investment.[26] HP G56-126NR CPU Fan FDI inflows increased greatly over the following decades, and by 2001 foreign companies accounted for 75% of manufactured output and 85% of manufactured exports.[24] Meanwhile, Singapore's savings and investment rates rose among the highest levels in the world, while household consumption and wage shares of GDP fell among the lowest.[ HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan As a result of this investment drive, Singapore's capital stock increased 33 times by 1992, a tenfold increase in the capital-labor ratio.[30] Living standards steadily rose, with more families moving from a lower-income status to middle-income security with increased household incomes. During a National Day Rally speech in 1987, FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan Lee Kuan-Yew claimed that (based on the home ownership criterion) 80% of Singaporeans could now be considered to be members of the middle-class. However, much unlike the economic policies of Greece and the rest of Europe, Singapore followed a policy of individualizing the social safety net. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan This lead to higher than average savings rate and a very sustainable economy on the long run. Without a burdensome welfare state or its likeliness, Singapore has developed a very self-reliant and skilled workforce well versed for a global economy.[31] Singapore's economic strategy produced real growth averaging 8.0% from 1960 to 1999. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan The economy picked up in 1999 after the regional financial crisis, with a growth rate of 5.4%, followed by 9.9% for 2000. However, the economic slowdown in the United States, Japan and the European Union, as well as the worldwide electronics slump, had reduced the estimated economic growth in 2001 to a negative 2.0%. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan The economy expanded by 2.2% the following year, and by 1.1% in 2003 when Singapore was affected by the SARS outbreak. Subsequently, a major turnaround occurred in 2004 allowed it to make a significant recovery of 8.3% growth in Singapore, although the actual growth fell short of the target growth for the year more than half with only 2.5%. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan In 2005, economic growth was 6.4%; and in 2006, 7.9%. As of 8 June 2013, Singapore's unemployment rate is around 1.9% and the country's economy has a lowered growth rate, with a rate of 1.8% on a quarter-by-quarter basis—compared to 14.8% in 2010. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan Manufacturing and financial business services accounted for 26% and 22%, respectively, of Singapore's gross domestic product in 2000. The electronics industry leads Singapore's manufacturing sector, accounting for 48% of total industrial output, but the government also is prioritising development of the chemicals and biotechnologyindustries. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan To maintain its competitive position despite rising wages, the government seeks to promote higher value-added activities in the manufacturing and services sectors. It also has opened, or is in the process of opening, the financial services,telecommunications, and power generation and retailing sectors up to foreign service providers and greater competition. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan The government has also attempted some measures including wage restraint measures and release of unused buildings in an effort to control rising commercial rents with the view to lowering the cost of doing business in Singapore when central business district office rents tripled in 2006. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan Singapore is considered a global financial hub, with Singapore banks offering world-class corporate bank account facilities. These include multiple currencies, internet banking, telephone banking, checking accounts, savings accounts, debit and credit cards, fixed term deposits and wealth management services.[32]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan According to the Human Rights Watch, due to its role as a financial hub for the region, Singapore has continually been criticized for reportedly hosting bank accounts containing ill-gotten gains of corrupt leaders and their associates, including billions of dollars of Burma’s state gas revenues hidden from national accounts. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan Singapore is aggressively promoting and developing its biotechnology industry. Hundred of millions of dollars were invested into the sector to build up infrastructure, fund research and development and to recruit top international scientists to Singapore. Leading drug makers, such as GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Pfizer and Merck & Co., have set up plants in Singapore. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan On 8 June 2006, GSK announced that it is investing another S$300 million to build another plant to produce pediatric vaccines, its first such facility in Asia.[34] Pharmaceuticals now account for more than 8% of the country's manufacturing production. Singapore is the pricing centre and leading oil trading hub in Asia. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan The oil industry makes up 5 per cent of Singapore's GDP, with Singapore being one of the top three export refining centres in the world. In 2007 it exported 68.1 million tonnes of oil. The oil industry has led to the promotion of the chemical industry as well as oil and gas equipment manufacturing.[36] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Singapore has 70 per cent of the world market for both jack-up rigs and for the conversion of Floating Production Storage Offloading units. It has 20 per cent of the world market for ship repair, and in 2008 the marine and offshore industry employed almost 70,000 workers. Singapore's total trade in 2000 amounted to S$373 billion, an increase of 21% from 1999. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Despite its small size, Singapore is currently the fifteenth-largest trading partner of the United States.[38] In 2000, Singapore's imports totaled $135 billion, and exports totaled $138 billion. Malaysia was Singapore's main import source, as well as its largest export market, absorbing 18% of Singapore's exports, with the United States close behind. HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan Re-exports accounted for 43% of Singapore's total sales to other countries in 2000. Singapore's principal exports are petroleum products, food/beverages, chemicals, textile/garments, electronic components, telecommunication apparatus, and transport equipment. Singapore's main imports are aircraft, HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan crude oil and petroleum products, electronic components, radio and television receivers/parts, motor vehicles, chemicals, food/beverages, iron/steel, and textile yarns/fabrics. Trade in Singapore has benefited from the extensive network of trade agreements Singapore has passed. According to Healy Consultants, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Singapore has free trade access to the entirety of the ASEAN network, with import duty reduced when dealing with Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. The Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) continues to attract investment funds on a large-scale for the country despite the city's relatively high-cost operating environment. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan The U.S. leads in foreign investment, accounting for 40% of new commitments to the manufacturing sector in 2000. As of 1999, cumulative investment for manufacturing and services by American companies in Singapore reached approximately $20 billion (total assets). The bulk of U.S. investment is in electronics manufacturing, oil refining and storage, and the chemical industry. More than 1,500 U.S. firms operate in Singapore. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan Singapore's largely corruption-free government, skilled workforce, and advanced and efficient infrastructure have attracted investments from more than 3,000 multinational corporations (MNCs) from the United States, Japan, and Europe. Foreign firms are found in almost all sectors of the economy. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan MNCs account for more than two thirds of manufacturing output and direct export sales, although certain services sectors remain dominated by government-linked corporations. The government also has encouraged firms to invest outside Singapore, with the country's total direct investments abroad reaching $39 billion by the end of 1998. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan The People's Republic of China was the top destination, accounting for 14% of total overseas investments, followed by Malaysia (10%), Hong Kong (8.9%),Indonesia (8.0%) and U.S. (4.0%). The rapidly growing economy of India, especially the high technology sector, is becoming an expanding source of foreign investment for Singapore. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan The United States provides no bilateral aid to Singapore, but the U.S. appears keen to improve bilateral trade and signed the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement. Singapore corporate tax is 17 per cent. In 2000, Singapore had a workforce of about 2.2 million. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan The country has the largest proficiency of English language speakers in Asia, making it an attractive place for multinational corporations.[39] The National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), the sole trade union federation which has a symbiotic relationship with the ruling party, comprises almost 99% of total organized labour. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan Government policy and pro-activity rather than labour legislation controls general labour and trade union matters. The Employment Act offers little protection to white-collar workers due to an income threshold. The Industrial Arbitration Court handles labour-management disputes that cannot be resolved informally through the Ministry of Manpower. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan The Singapore Government has stressed the importance of cooperation between unions, management and government (tripartism), as well as the early resolution of disputes. There has been only one strike in the past 15 years. Singapore has enjoyed virtually full employment for long periods of time. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan Amid an economic slump, the unemployment rate rose to 4.0% by the end of 2001, from 2.4% early in the year. Unemployment has since declined and as of 2012 the unemployment rate stands at 1.9%.[ While the Singapore government has taken a stance against minimum wage and unemployment benefit schemes, Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan in 2007 the government introduced a Workfare Income Supplement (WIS) scheme to supplement wages of low-skilled workers.[41] The Singapore Government and the NTUC have tried a range of programs to increase lagging productivity and boost the labour force participation rates of women and older workers. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan However, labour shortages persist in the service sector and in many low-skilled positions in the construction and electronics industries. Foreign workers help make up this shortfall. In 2000, there were about 600,000 foreign workers in Singapore, constituting 27% of the total work force. As a result, wages are relatively suppressed or do not rise for all workers. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan In order to have some controls, the government imposes a foreign worker levy payable by employers for low end workers like domestic help and construction workers. In 2012, the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) reported that Singapore should continue to fine-tune the calibration of its inflow of foreigners as the country continues to face an ageing population and a shrinking workforce. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan Singapore Parliament accepted the recommendations by its Economic Strategies Committee (ESC) for the optimal ratio of the level of immigration and foreign manpower for both high and low skilled workers.[42] The Government recognises that the current overall foreign workforce should complement the local resident workforce and not replace the Singaporean Core concept, ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan and helps companies greatly as they raise productivity through business restructuring and workforce retraining; raise resident labour force participation rate. Government spending in Singapore has risen since the start of the global financial crisis, from around 15% of GDP in 2008 to 17% in 2012. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan The government's total expenditure as a percentage of GDP ranks among the lowest internationally and allows for a competitive tax regime.[45][dead link][46] The government has no foreign debt and consistent budget surpluses. Singapore government debt is issued for investment purposes, and not for fiscal needs.[47] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan Personal income taxes in Singapore range from 0% to 20% for incomes above S$320,000. There are no capital gains or inheritance taxes in Singapore.[48][49]Singapore's corporate tax rate is 17% with exemptions and incentives for smaller businesses. Singapore has a single-tier corporate income tax system, which means there is no double-taxation for shareholders.[50] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan Singapore introduced Goods and Services Tax (GST) with an initial rate of 3% on 1 April 1994, increasing government's revenue by S$1.6 billion (US$1b, €800m) and establishing government finances.[51] The taxable GST was increased to 4% in 2003, to 5% in 2004, and to 7% in 2007.[52][dead link] HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan The Singapore government owns two investment companies, the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation and smaller Temasek Holdings, which act as the nation's sovereign wealth funds. Both operate as commercial investment holding companies independently of the Singapore government, Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan but Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and his wife Ho Ching serve as Chairman and CEO of these corporations respectively.[53][54][55] Temasek Holdings holds around S$60 billion of assets in Singapore, holding majority stakes in several of the nation's largest companies, such as Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering and MediaCorp. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan In 2012, an economics professor, Dr.(PhD) Christopher Balding, based in China began scrutinizing and criticizing the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation and Temasek Holdings on its alleged accounting and auditing of public finances. The Monetary Authority of Singapore is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan It administers the various statutes pertaining to money, banking, insurance, securities and the financial sector in general, as well as currency issuance. The MAS has been given powers to act as a banker to and financial agent of the Government. It has also been entrusted to promote monetary stability, and credit and exchange policies conducive to the growth of the economy. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan Unlike many other central banks such as Federal Reserve System or Bank of England, MAS does not regulate the monetary system via interest rates to influence the liquidity in the system. Instead, it chooses to do it via the foreign exchange mechanism. It does so by intervening in the SGD market. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan In April 2013, the country was recognised[by whom?] as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income, a full tax exemption on income that is generated outside of Singapore and 69 double taxation treaties[32] that can minimize both withholding tax and capital gains tax. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy, with an estimated personal wealth worth AU$835 million, and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverinare two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore (Blundy in 2013 and Saverin in 2012). Additionally, Australian mining magnate Gina Rinehart owns property in Singapore[60] HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan and American investor Jim Rogers moved to Singapore in 2007—Rogers has identified the 21st century as an era in which Asia will dominate and wishes for his two daughters to learn Mandarin as a key outcome of the relocation.[61][62] Chinese Media TV celebrities Jet Li and Gong Li have also taken up naturalized Singapore citizenship. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan The history of Singapore dates to the 11th century. The island rose in importance during the 14th century under the rule of Srivijayan prince Parameswara and became a port until it was destroyed by Acehnese raiders in 1613 During World War II, Singapore was conquered and occupied by the Japanese Empire from 1942 to 1945. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan When the war ended, Singapore reverted to British control, with increasing levels of self-government being granted, culminating inSingapore's merger with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia in 1963. However, social unrest and disputes between Singapore's ruling SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan People's Action Party and Malaysia's Alliance Party resulted in Singapore's separation from Malaysia. Singapore became an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Facing severe unemployment and a housing crisis, Singapore embarked on a modernisation programme[when?] that focused on establishing a manufacturing industry, Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan developing large public housing estates and investing heavily on public education. Since independence, Singapore's economy has grown by an average of nine percent each year.By the 1990s, the country had become one of the world's most prosperous nations, with a highly developed free market economy, strong international trading links, and the highest per capita gross domestic product in Asia outside of Japan. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan The earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung(蒲 罗 中). This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end" (of the Malay Peninsula).[2]The quasi-mythological Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) contains a tale of a prince of Srivijaya, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Sri Tri Buana (also known as Sang Nila Utama), who landed on the island during the 13th century. When he saw a lion, the prince took this as an auspicious sign and founded a settlement called Singapura, which means "Lion City" in Malay.[3] However, it is unlikely there ever were lions in Singapore, though tigers continued to roam the island until the early 20th century.[3][4] HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan In 1320, the Mongol Empire sent a trade mission to a place called Long Ya Men (or Dragon's Tooth Strait), which is believed to beKeppel Harbour, at the southern part of the island.[5] The Chinese traveler Wang Dayuan, visiting the island around 1330, described a small settlement called Dan Ma Xi (淡马锡, from Malay Tamasik) with Malay and Chinese residents. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan The Nagarakretagama, a Javaneseepic poem written in 1365, also referred to a settlement on the island called Temasek (Sea Town). Recent excavations in Fort Canningfound evidence indicating that Singapore was an important port in the 14th century.[6] In the 1390s, a Palembang prince, Parameswara, fled to Temasek after being deposed by the Majapahit kingdom. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan During the 14th century, Singapore was caught in the struggle between Siam (now Thailand) and the Java-based Majapahit Empire for control over the Malay Peninsula. According to Sejarah Melayu, Singapore was defeated in one Majapahit attack. He ruled the island for several years, before being forced to Melaka where he founded the Sultanate of Malacca.[3] HP G62-244CA CPU Fan   Singapore became an important trading port of the Malacca Sultanate[2] and later the Sultanate of Johor. In the early 15th century, Singapore was a Thai vassal state, but the Malacca Sultanate which Iskandar had founded quickly extended its authority over the island. After the Portuguese seizure of Malacca in 1511, the Malay admiral fled to Singapura and established a new capital at Johor Lama, keeping a port officer in SingapuraASUS A6000R CPU Fan . The Portuguese destroyed the settlements in Singapore in 1587 and the island sank into obscurity for the next two centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Malay Archipelago was gradually taken over by the European colonial powers, beginning with the arrival of the Portuguese at Malacca in 1509. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan The early dominance of the Portuguese was challenged during the 17th century by the Dutch, who came to control most of the ports in the region. The Dutch established a monopoly over trade within the archipelago, particularly in spices, then the region's most important product. Other colonial powers, including the British, were limited to a relatively minor presence.[9] Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan In 1818, Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the Lieutenant Governor of the British colony at Bencoolen. He was determined that Great Britain should replace the Netherlands as the dominant power in the archipelago, since the trade route between China andBritish India, which had become vitally important with the institution of the opium trade with China, Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan passed through the archipelago. The Dutch had been stifling British trade in the region by prohibiting the British from operating in Dutch-controlled ports or by subjecting them to a high tariff. Raffles hoped to challenge the Dutch by establishing a new port along the Straits of Malacca, the main ship passageway for the India-China trade. He convinced Lord Hastings, HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan the Governor-General of India and his superior at the British East India Company, to fund an expedition to seek a new British base in the region. Raffles arrived in Singapore on 28 January 1819 and soon recognized the island as a natural choice for the new port. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan It lay at the southern tip of the Malay peninsula, near the Straits of Malacca, and possessed a natural deep harbor, fresh water supplies, and timber for repairing ships. Raffles found a small Malay settlement, with a population of a few hundred, at the mouth of the Singapore River, headed by Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan The island was nominally ruled by the Sultan of Johor, Tengku Rahman, who was controlled by the Dutch and the Bugis. However, the Sultanate was weakened by factional division and Temenggong Abdu'r Rahman and his officials were loyal to Tengkoo Rahman's elder brother Tengku Hussein (or Tengku Long) who was living in exile in Riau. DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan With the Temenggong's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein back into Singapore. He offered to recognize Hussein as the rightful Sultan of Johor and provide him with a yearly payment; in return, Hussein would grant the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore.[9] A formal treaty was signed on 6 February 1819 and modern Singapore was born.[10][11] HP 532613-001 CPU Fan Before Raffles arrived, there were around 1,000 people living in Singapore, mostly Malays and a few dozen Chinese.[12] By 1869, due to migration from Malaya and other parts of Asia, Singapore's population had reached 100,000. Many Chinese and Indian immigrants came to Singapore to work in the rubber plantations and tin mines, and their descendents later formed the bulk of Singapore's population. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan Raffles returned to Bencoolen soon after the signing of the treaty and left Major William Farquhar in charge of the new settlement, with some artillery and a small regiment of Indian soldiers. Establishing a trading port from scratch was a daunting endeavor. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan Farquhar's administration was fairly funded and was prohibited from collecting port duties to raise revenue as Raffles had decided that Singapore would be a free port. Farquhar invited settlers to Singapore, and stationed a British official on St. John's Island to invite passing ships to stop in Singapore. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan As news of the free port spread across the archipelago, Bugis, Peranakan Chinese, and Arab traders flocked to the island, seeking to circumvent the Dutch trade restrictions. During the starting year of operation, $400,000 (Spanish dollars) worth of trade passed through Singapore. By 1821, the island's population had gone up to around 5,000, and the trade volume was $8 million. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan The population reached the 10,000 mark in 1825, and with a trade volume of $22 million, Singapore surpassed the long-established port of Penang.[9] Raffles returned to Singapore in 1822 and became critical of many of Farquhar's decisions, despite Farquhar's success in leading the settlement through its difficult early years. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan For instance, in order to generate much-needed revenue, Farquhar had resorted to selling licenses for gambling and the sale of opium, which Raffles saw as social evils. Shocked at the disarray of the colony, Raffles set about drafting a set of new policies for the settlement. He also organized Singapore into functional and ethnic subdivisions under the Raffles Plan of Singapore.[9] Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Today, remnants of this organization can still be found in the ethnic neighborhoods. On 7 June 1823, John Crawfurd signed a second treaty with the Sultan and Temenggong, which extended British possession to most of the island. The Sultan and Temenggong traded most of their administrative rights of the island, including the collection of port taxes for lifelong monthly payments of $1500 and $800 respectively. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan This agreement brought the island under the British Law, with the provision that it would take into account Malay customs, traditions and religion.[9] Raffles replaced Farquhar with John Crawfurd, an efficient and frugal administrator, as the new governor.[14] In October 1823, Raffles departed for Britain and would never return to Singapore as he died in 1826, at the age of 44.[15] HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan In 1824, Singapore was ceded in perpetuity to the East India Company by the Sultan. The status of a British outpost in Singapore seemed initially in doubt as the Dutch government soon protested to Britain for violating the Netherlands' sphere of influence. But as Singapore rapidly emerged as an important trading post, Britain consolidated its claim on the island. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 cemented the status of Singapore as a British possession, carving up the Malay archipelago between the two colonial powers with the area north of the Straits of Malacca, including Singapore, falling under Britain's sphere of influence. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan In 1826, Singapore was grouped by the British East India Company[16][by whom?] together with Penang and Malacca to form the Straits Settlements, administrated by the British East India Company. In 1830, the Straits Settlements became a residency, or subdivision, of the Presidency of Bengal in British India.[17] SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan During the subsequent decades, Singapore grew to become an important port in the region. Its success was due to several reasons including the opening of market in China, the advent of ocean-going steamships, and the production of rubber and tin in Malaya.[18] Its status as a free port provided crucial advantage over other colonial port cities in Batavia (Jakarta) Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan andManila where tariffs were levied, and it drew many Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Arab traders operating in South-East Asia to Singapore. The later opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 would further boost trade in Singapore. By 1880, over 1.5 million tons of goods were passing through Singapore each year, with around 80% of the cargo transported by steamships.[19]  DELL yy529 CPU Fan The main commercial activity was entrepôt trade which flourished under no taxation and little restriction. Many merchant houses were set up in Singapore mainly by European trading firms, but also by Jewish, Chinese, Arab, Armenian, American and Indian merchants. There were also many Chinese middlemen who handled most of the trade between the European and Asian merchants.[17] HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan By 1827, the Chinese became the largest ethnic group in Singapore. They consisted of Peranakans, who were descendants of early Chinese settlers, and Chinese coolies who flocked to Singapore to escape the economic hardship in southern China due to the Opium Wars. Many arrived in Singapore as impoverished indentured laborers and they were predominantly males. HP G62-369TX CPU Fan The Malays were the second largest ethnic group until the 1860s and they worked as fishermen, craftsmen, or as wage earners while continued to live mostly in kampungs. By 1860, the Indians became the second largest ethnic group. They consisted of unskilled laborers, traders, and convicts who were sent to carry out public works projects such as clearing jungles and laying out roads. There were also Indian Sepoy troops garrisoned at Singapore by the British.[17] HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan Despite Singapore's growing importance, the administration governing the island was understaffed, ineffectual and unconcerned with the welfare of the populace. Administrators were usually posted from India and were unfamiliar with local culture and languages. While the population had quadrupled during 1830 to 1867, Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan the size of the civil service in Singapore had remained unchanged. Most people had no access to public health services and diseases such as cholera and smallpox caused severe health problems, especially in overcrowded working-class areas.[17] As a result of the administration's ineffectiveness and the predominantly male, transient, and uneducated nature of the population, HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan the society was lawless and chaotic. In 1850 there were only twelve police officers in the city of nearly 60,000 people. Prostitution, gambling, and drug abuse (particularly of opium) were widespread. Chinese criminal secret societies (analogous to modern-day triads) were extremely powerful, and some had tens of thousands of members. HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan Turf wars between rival societies occasionally led to hundreds of deaths and attempts to suppress them had limited success.[20] The situation created deep concern in the European population of the island. In 1854 the Singapore Free Press complained that Singapore was a "small island" full of the "very dregs of the population of south eastern Asia".SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan As Singapore continued to grow, the deficiencies in the Straits Settlements administration became serious and Singapore's merchant community began agitating against British Indian rule. The British government agreed to establish the Straits Settlements as a separate Crown Colony on 1 April 1867. IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan This new colony was ruled by a governor under the supervision of theColonial Office in London. An executive council and a legislative council assisted the governor.[22] Although members of the councils were not elected, more representatives for the local population were gradually included over the years. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan The colonial government embarked on several measures to address the serious social problems facing Singapore. A Chinese Protectorate under Pickering was established in 1877 to address the needs of the Chinese community, especially in controlling the worst abuses of the coolie trade and protecting Chinese women from forced prostitution.[22] SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan In 1889 Governor Sir Cecil Clementi Smith banned secret societies, driving them underground.[22] Nevertheless, many social problems persisted up through the post-war era, including an acute housing shortage and poor health and living standards. HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan In 1906, the Tongmenghui, a revolutionary Chinese organisation dedicated to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and led by Sun Yat-sen, founded its Nanyangbranch in Singapore, which served as the organisation's headquarters in Southeast Asia.[22] The members of the branch included Dr. Wong Hong-Kui (黃康衢),[23] HP G42-367TU CPU Fan Mr. Chan Cho-Nam (陳楚楠, 1884-1971, originally a rubber manufacturer) [24] and Mr. Cheung Wing-Fook (張永福, originally a rubber shoe manufacturer).[25] Chan Cho-Nam, Cheung Wing-Fook and Chan Po-Yin (陳步賢, 1883-1965) started the revolution-related Chong Shing Chinese Daily Newspaper (中興日報, 中興 meaning China revival),[26] Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan with the inaugural issue on 20 August 1907 and a daily distribution of 1000 copies. The newspaper ended in 1910, presumably due to the revolution in 1911. Working with other Cantonese people, Chan, Cheung and Chan opened the revolution-related Kai Ming Bookstore (開明書報社, 開明 meaning open wisdom) [27] in Singapore. ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan For the revolution, Chan Po-Yin raised over 30,000 yuan for the purchase and shipment (from Singapore to China) of military equipment and for the support of the expenses of people travelling from Singapore to China for revolutionary work.[28][29] The immigrant Chinese population in Singapore donated generously to Tongmenghui, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan which organised the 1911Xinhai Revolution that led to the establishment of the Republic of China. World War I (1914–1918) did not deeply affect Singapore: the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia. The only significant local military event during the war was a 1915 mutiny by the British Muslim Indian sepoys garrisoned in Singapore.[30] IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan After hearing rumors of plans to send them to fight the Ottoman Empire, the soldiers revolted, killing their officers and several British civilians before troops arriving from Johor and Burma suppressed the unrest.[31] After the war, the British government devoted significant resources into building a naval base in Singapore, IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan as a deterrent to the increasingly ambitious Japanese Empire. Completed in 1939 at a staggering cost of $500 million, the naval base boasted what was then the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months. It was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns and by IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan Royal Air Force squadrons stationed at Tengah Air Base. Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East." Unfortunately, it was a base without a fleet. TheBritish Home Fleet was stationed in Europe and the plan was for it to sail quickly to Singapore when needed. However, after World War II broke out in 1939, the Fleet was fully occupied with defending Britain. ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan On 7 December 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and the Pacific War began in earnest. One of Japan's objectives was to capture Southeast Asia and secure the rich supply of natural resources to feed its military and industry needs. Singapore, the main Allied base in the region, was an obvious military target because of its flourishing trade and wealth. DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan The British military commanders in Singapore had believed that the Japanese attack would come by sea from the south, since the dense Malayan jungle in the north would serve as a natural barrier against invasion. Although they had drawn up a plan for dealing with an attack on northern Malaya, preparations were never completed. ASUS F80S CPU Fan The military was confident that "Fortress Singapore" would withstand any Japanese attack and this confidence was further reinforced by the arrival of Force Z, a squadron of British warships dispatched to the defense of Singapore, including the battleship HMS Prince of Wales, and cruiserHMS Repulse. HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan The squadron was to have been accompanied by a third capital ship, the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable, but it ran aground en route, leaving the squadron without air cover. On 8 December 1941, Japanese forces landed at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Just two days after the start of the invasion of Malaya, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk 50 miles off the coast of Kuantan in Pahang, by a force of Japanese bombers and torpedo bomber aircraft, in the worst British naval defeat of World War II. Allied air support did not arrive in time to protect the two capital ships.[33] After this incident, IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan Singapore and Malaya suffered daily air raids, including those targeting civilian structures such as hospitals or shophouses with casualties ranging from the tens to the hundreds each time. The Japanese army advanced swiftly southward through the Malay Peninsula, crushing or bypassing Allied resistance.[34] IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan The Allied forces did not have tanks, which they considered unsuitable in the tropical rainforest, and their infantry proved powerless against the Japanese light tanks. As their resistance failed against the Japanese advance, the Allied forces were forced to retreat southwards towards Singapore. By 31 January 1942, HP 535438-001 CPU Fan a mere 55 days after the start of the invasion, the Japanese had conquered the entire Malay Peninsula and were poised to attack Singapore. The causeway linking Johor and Singapore was blown up by the Allied forces in an effort to stop the Japanese army. DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan However, the Japanese managed to cross the Straits of Johor in inflatable boats days after. Several fights by the Allied forces and volunteers of Singapore's population against the advancing Japanese, such as the Battle of Pasir Panjang, took place during this period.[36] However, with most of the defenses shattered and supplies exhausted, HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan Lieutenant-General Arthur Percivalsurrendered the Allied forces in Singapore to General Tomoyuki Yamashita of the Imperial Japanese Army on Chinese New Year, 15 February 1942. About 130,000 Indian, Australian and British troops became prisoners of war, many of whom would later be transported to Burma, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan Japan, Korea, or Manchuria for use as slave labour via prisoner transports known as "hell ships." The fall of Singapore was the largest surrender of British-led forces in history.[37] Japanese newspapers triumphantly declared the victory as deciding the general situation of the war.[38] ASUS A8H CPU Fan Singapore, renamed Syonan-to (昭南島 Shōnan-tō, "Light of the South Island" in Japanese), was occupied by the Japanese from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese army imposed harsh measures against the local population, with troops, especially the Kempeitai or Japanese military police, particularly ruthless in dealing with the Chinese population.[39] SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan The most notable atrocity was theSook Ching massacre of Chinese civilians, undertaken in retaliation against support of the war effort in China. The mass executions claimed between 25,000 and 50,000 lives in Malaya and Singapore. The rest of the population suffered severe hardship throughout the three and a half years of Japanese occupation.[40] HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan The Malay and Indians were forced to build the "Death Railway", a railway between Thailand and Burma (Myanmar). Most of them died while building the railway. The Eurasians were also caught as POWs (Prisoners of War). After the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August 1945, Singapore fell into a brief state of anomie; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan British troops led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander for Southeast Asia Command, returned to Singapore to receive formal surrender of the Japanese forces in the region from General Itagaki Seishiro on behalf of General Hisaichi Terauchi on 12 September 1945, and a British Military Administration was formed to govern the island until March 1946. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including electricity and water supply systems, telephone services, as well as the harbor facilities at the Port of Singapore. There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in 1947 causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late 1947, the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.[41]  cCompaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan The failure of Britain to defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise ofanti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, epitomized by the slogan Merdeka, or "independence" in the Malay language. SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan The British, on their part, were prepared to gradually increase self-governance for Singapore and Malaya.[41] On 1 April 1946, the Straits Settlements was dissolved and Singapore became a separate Crown Colony with a civil administration headed by a Governor. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan In July 1947, separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year. The first Singaporean elections, held in March 1948, were limited as only six of the twenty-five seats on theLegislative Council were to be elected. SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan Only British subjects had the rights to vote, and only 23,000 or about 10% of those eligible registered to vote. Other members of the Council were chosen either by the Governor or by the chambers of commerce.[41] Three of the elected seats were won by a newly formed Singapore Progressive Party(SPP), HP G56-126NR CPU Fan a conservative party whose leaders were businessmen and professionals and were disinclined to press for immediate self-rule. The other three seats were won by independents. Three months after the elections, an armed insurgency by communist groups in Malaya – the Malayan Emergency – broke out. HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan The British imposed tough measures to control left-wing groups in both Singapore and Malaya and introduced the controversial Internal Security Act, which allowed indefinite detention without trial for persons suspected of being "threats to security". Since the left-wing groups were the strongest critics of the colonial system, progress on self-government was stalled for several years. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan A second Legislative Council election was held in 1951 with the number of elected seats increased to nine. This election was again dominated by the SPP which won six seats. While this contributed to the formation of a distinct local government of Singapore, the colonial administration was still dominant. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan In 1953, with the communists in Malaya suppressed and the worst of the Emergency over, a British Commission, headed by Sir George Rendel, proposed a limited form of self-government for Singapore. A new Legislative Assembly with twenty-five out of thirty-two seats chosen by popular election would replace the Legislative Council, Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan from which a Chief Minister as head of government and Council of Ministers as a cabinet would be picked under a parliamentary system. The British would retain control over areas such as internal security and foreign affairs, as well as veto power over legislation. The election for the Legislative Assembly held on 2 April 1955 was a lively and closely fought affair, Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan with several new political parties joining the fray. Unlike previous elections, voters were automatically registered, expanding the electorate to around 300,000. The SPP was soundly defeated in the election, winning only four seats. The newly formed, left-leaning Labour Front was the biggest winner with ten seats and it formed a coalition government with the UMNO-MCA Alliance, which won three seats.[41] ASUS G2P CPU Fan Another new party, the leftist People's Action Party (PAP), won three seats. David Marshall, leader of the Labour Front, became the first Chief Minister of Singapore. He presided over a shaky government, receiving little cooperation from either the colonial government or the other local parties. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan   Social unrest was on the rise, and in May 1955, the Hock Lee bus riots broke out, killing four people and seriously discrediting Marshall's government.[43] In 1956, the Chinese middle school riotsbroke out among students in The Chinese High School and other schools, DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan further increasing the tension between the local government and the Chinese students and unionists who were regarded of having communist sympathies. In April 1956, Marshall led a delegation to London to negotiate for complete self-rule in the Merdeka Talks, but the talks failed when the British were reluctant to give up control over Singapore's internal security. HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan The British were concerned about communist influence and labour strikes which were undermining Singapore's economic stability, and felt that the local government was ineffective in handling earlier riots. Marshall resigned following the failure of the talk. The new Chief Minister, Lim Yew Hock, launched a crackdown on communist and leftist groups, Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan imprisoning many trade union leaders and several pro-communist members of the PAP under the Internal Security Act.[44] The British government approved of Lim's tough stance against communist agitators, and when a new round of talks was held beginning in March 1957, they agreed to grant complete internal self-government. Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan A State of Singapore would be created, with its own citizenship. The Legislative Assembly would be expanded to fifty-one members, entirely chosen by popular election, and the Prime Minister and cabinet would control all aspects of government except defense and foreign affairs. The governorship was replaced by a Yang di-Pertuan Negara or head of state. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan In August 1958, the State of Singapore Act was passed in the United Kingdom Parliament providing for the establishment of the State of Singapore. Elections for the new Legislative Assembly were held in May 1959. The People's Action Party (PAP) won the polls in a landslide victory, winning forty-three of the fifty-one seats. ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan They accomplished this by courting the Chinese-speaking majority, particularly those in the labour unions and radical student organizations. Its leader Lee Kuan Yew, a young Cambridge-educated lawyer, became the first Prime Minister of Singapore. The PAP's victory was viewed with dismay by foreign and local business leaders because some party's members were pro-communists. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan Many businesses promptly shifted their headquarters from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur.[44] Despite these ill omens, the PAP government embarked on a vigorous program to address Singapore's various economic and social problems. Economic development was overseen by the new Minister of Finance Goh Keng Swee, Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan whose strategy was to encourage foreign and local investment with measures ranging from tax incentives to the establishment of a large industrial estate in Jurong.[44] The education system was revamped to train a skilled workforce and the English language was promoted over the Chinese language as the language of instruction. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan To eliminate labour unrest, existing labour unions were consolidated, sometimes forcibly, into a single umbrella organisation, called the National Trades Union Congress (NTUC) with strong oversight from the government. On the social front, an aggressive and well-funded public housing program was launched to solve the long-standing housing problem. SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan More than 25,000 high-rise, low-cost apartments were constructed during the first two years of the program. Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders, including Lee, Goh, believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya. They felt that the historical and economic ties between Singapore and Malaya were too strong for them to continue as separate nations, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan and they campaigned vigorously for a merger. On the other hand, the sizable pro-communist wing of the PAP were strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence as the ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation, was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan The UMNO leaders were also skeptical of the merger idea due to their distrust of the PAP government and concerns that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan The issue came to a head in 1961 when pro-communist PAP minister Ong Eng Guan defected from the party and beat a PAP candidate in a subsequent by-election, a move that threatened to bring down Lee's government. Faced with the prospect of a takeover by the pro-communists, UMNO did an about-face on the merger. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan On 27 May, Malaya's Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, mooted the idea of a Federation of Malaysia, comprising existing Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei and the British Borneo territories of Sabah and Sarawak. The UMNO leaders believed that the additional Malay population in the Borneo territories would offset Singapore's Chinese population.[44] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan On 9 July 1963, the leaders of Singapore, Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak signed the Malaysia Agreement to establish the Federation of Malaysia. On 16 September 1963, Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak were formally merged and Malaysia was formed.[44] The PAP Government felt that Singapore's survival as a nation would be difficult. HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan They lacked natural resources and faced a declining entrepot trade and a growing population which required jobs. Therefore, Singapore felt that the merger was thought to benefit the economy by creating a common free market, eliminating trade tariffs, solving unemployment woes and to support new industries. HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan The British government were reluctant to grant full independence to Singapore because they believed it would provide a haven for communism. The union was rocky from the start. During the 1963 Singapore state elections, a local branch of UMNO took part in the election despite an earlier UMNO's agreement with the PAP not to participate in the state's politics during Malaysia's formative years. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Although UMNO lost all its bids, relations between PAP and UMNO worsened. The PAP, in a tit-for-tat, challenged UMNO candidates in the 1964 federal election as part of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention, winning one seat in Malaysian Parliament. Racial tensions increased as the Chinese in Singapore disdained being discriminated against by the federal policies of affirmative action, Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan which granted special privileges to the Malays guaranteed under Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia. There were also other financial and economic benefits that were preferentially given to Malays. Lee Kuan Yew and other political leaders began advocating for the fair and equal treatment of all races in Malaysia, with a rallying cry of "Malaysian Malaysia!". HP Pavilion dv7-2250sf CPU Fan Meanwhile, the Malays in Singapore were being increasingly incited by the federal government's accusations that the PAP was mistreating the Malays. The external political situation was also tense; Indonesian President Sukarno declared a state of Konfrontasi (Confrontation) against Malaysia and initiated military and other actions against the new nation, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan including the bombing of MacDonald House in Singapore 10 March 1965 by Indonesian commandos, killing three people.[45]Indonesia also conducted sedition activities to provoke the Malays against the Chinese.[44] Numerous racial riots resulted and curfews were frequently imposed to restore order. HP G60-230us CPU Fan The most notorious riots were the 1964 Race Riots that first took place on Prophet Muhammad's birthday on 21 July with twenty three people killed and hundreds injured. During the unrest, the price of food skyrocketed when transport system was disrupted, causing further hardship for the people. HP Pavilion dv6365us CPU Fan The state and federal governments also had conflicts on the economic front. UMNO leaders feared that the economic dominance of Singapore would inevitably shift political power away from Kuala Lumpur. Despite earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan In retaliation, Singapore refused to provide Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans previously agreed to for the economic development of the two eastern states. The Bank of China branch of Singapore was closed by the Central Government in Kuala Lumpur as it was suspected of funding communists. COMPAQ 6910c CPU Fan The situation escalated to such an extent that talks between UMNO and the PAP broke down, and abusive speeches and writings became rife on both sides. UMNO extremists called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew. Seeing no other alternative to avoid further bloodshed, IBM Lenovo IdeaPad G510 CPU Fan the Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to expel Singapore from the federation. Goh Keng Swee, who had become skeptical of merger's economic benefits for Singapore, convinced Lee Kuan Yew that the separation had to take place. UMNO and PAP representatives worked out the terms of separation in extreme secrecy in order to present the British government, in particular, with a fait accompli. HP G62-110SO CPU Fan On the morning of 9 August 1965, the Parliament of Malaysia voted 126–0 in favor of a constitutional amendment expelling Singapore from the federation; hours later, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Republic of Singapore Independence Act, establishing the island as an independent and sovereign republic. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan A tearful Lee Kuan Yew announced in a televised press conference that Singapore had become a sovereign, independent nation. In a widely remembered quote, he stated: "For me, it is a moment of anguish. All my life, my whole adult life, I have believed in merger and unity of the two territories."[46][47] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan The new state became the Republic of Singapore, with Yusof bin Ishak appointed as its first President. After gaining independence abruptly, Singapore faced a future filled with uncertainties. The Konfrontasi was on-going and the conservative UMNO faction strongly opposed the separation; HP Envy 17-1090eo CPU Fan Singapore faced the dangers of attack by the Indonesian military and forcible re-integration into the Malaysia Federation on unfavorable terms. Much of the international media was skeptical of prospects for Singapore's survival. Besides the issue of sovereignty, the pressing problems were unemployment, housing, education, and the lack of natural resources and land.[49] Toshiba Satellite A210-1CF CPU Fan Unemployment was ranging between 10–12%, threatening to trigger civil unrest. Singapore immediately sought international recognition of its sovereignty. The new state joined the United Nations on 21 September 1965, becoming the 117th member; and joined the Commonwealth in October that year. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan Foreign minister Sinnathamby Rajaratnam headed a new foreign service that helped assert Singapore's independence and establishing diplomatic relations with other countries.[50] On 22 December 1965, the Constitution Amendment Act was passed under which the Head of State became the President and the State of Singapore became the Republic of Singapore. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan Singapore later co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations on 8 August 1967 and was admitted into the Non-Aligned Movement in 1970.[51] The Economic Development Board had been set up in 1961 to formulate and implement national economic strategies, focusing on promoting Singapore's manufacturing sector.[52] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan Industrial estates were set up, especially in Jurong, and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. The industrialization transformed the manufacturing sector to one that produced higher value-added goods and achieved greater revenue. Theservice industry also grew at this time, driven by demand for services by ships calling at the port and increasing commerce. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan This progress helped to alleviate the unemployment crisis. Singapore also attracted big oil companies like Shell and Esso to establish oil refineries in Singapore which, by the mid-1970s, became the third largest oil-refining centre in the world.[49] The government invested heavily in an education system that adopted English as the language of instruction and emphasised practical training to develop a competent workforce well suited for the industry. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan The lack of good public housing, poor sanitation, and high unemployment led to social problems from crime to health issues. The proliferation of squattersettlements resulted in safety hazards and caused the Bukit Ho Swee Squatter Fire in 1961 that killed four people and left 16,000 others homeless.[53] SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan TheHousing Development Board set up before independence continued to be largely successful and huge building projects sprung up to provide affordable public housing to resettle the squatters. Within a decade, the majority of the population had been housed in these apartments. The Central Provident Fund (CPF) Housing Scheme, SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan introduced in 1968, allows residents to use their compulsory savings account to purchase HDB flats and gradually increases home ownership in Singapore.[54] British troops had remained in Singapore following its independence, but in 1968, London announced its decision to withdraw the forces by 1971.[55] HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan With the secret aid of military advisers from Israel, Singapore rapidly established the Singapore Armed Forces, with the help of a national service program introduced in 1967.[56] Since independence, Singaporean defense spending has been approximately five percent of GDP. Today, the Singapore Armed Forces is among the best-equipped in Asia. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan Further economic success continued through the 1980s, with the unemployment rate falling to 3% and real GDP growth averaging at about 8% up until 1999. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technology industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan Singapore Changi Airport was opened in 1981 and Singapore Airlines was developed to become a major airline.[57] The Port of Singapore became one of the world's busiest ports and the service and tourism industries also grew immensely during this period. Singapore emerged as an important transportation hub and a major tourist destination. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan The Housing Development Board continued to promote public housing with new towns, such as Ang Mo Kio, being designed and built. These new residential estates have larger and higher-standard apartments and are served with better amenities. Today, 80–90% of the population lives in HDB apartments. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan In 1987, the first Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line began operation, connecting most of these housing estates and the city centre.[58] The political situation in Singapore continued to be dominated by the People's Action Party. The PAP won all the parliamentary seats in every election between 1966 and 1981.[59] HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan The PAP rule is termed authoritarian by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights.[60] The conviction of opposition politician Chee Soon Juan for illegal protests and the defamation lawsuits against J. B. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan Jeyaretnam have been cited by the opposition parties as examples of such authoritarianism.[61] The lack of separation of powers between the court system and the government led to further accusations by the opposition parties of miscarriage of justice. The government of Singapore underwent several significant changes. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan Non-Constituency Members of Parliament were introduced in 1984 to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs. Group Representation Constituencies (GRCs) was introduced in 1988 to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament.[62] HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan Nominated Members of Parliament were introduced in 1990 to allow non-elected non-partisan MPs.[63] The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide for an Elected President who has veto power in the use of national reserves and appointments to public office.[64] HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan The opposition parties have complained that the GRC system has made it difficult for them to gain a foothold in parliamentary elections in Singapore, and the plurality voting system tends to exclude minority parties.[65] In 1990, Lee Kuan Yew passed the reins of leadership to Goh Chok Tong, who became the second prime minister of Singapore. HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan Goh presented a more open and consultative style of leadership as the country continued to modernise. In 1997, Singapore experienced the effect of the Asian financial crisis and tough measures, such as cuts in the CPF contribution, were implemented. In the early 2000s, Singapore went through some post-independence crises, HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan including the SARS outbreak in 2003 and the threat of terrorism. In December 2001, a plot to bomb embassies and other infrastructure in Singapore was uncovered[66] and as many as 36 members of the Jemaah Islamiyah group were arrested under the Internal Security Act.[67] Major counter-terrorism measures were put in place to detect and prevent potential terrorism acts and to minimise damages should they occur.[68HP 580696-001 CPU Fan ] More emphasis was placed on promoting social integration and trust between the different communities.[69] In 2004, Lee Hsien Loong, the eldest son of Lee Kuan Yew, became the third prime minister of Singapore. HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan He introduced several policy changes, including the reduction of national service duration from two and a half years to two years, and the legalisation of casino gambling.[70] Other efforts to raise the city's global profile included the reestablishment of the Singapore Grand Prix in 2008, and the hosting of the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan The general election of 2006 was a landmark election because of the prominent use of the internet and blogging to cover and comment on the election, circumventing the official media.[71] The PAP returned to power, winning 82 of the 84 parliamentary seats and 66% of the votes.[72] In 2005, Wee Kim Wee and Devan Nair, two former Presidents, died. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan The general election of 2011 was yet another watershed election due to the first time a GRC was lost by the ruling party PAP, to the opposition party WP. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan,HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

No comments:

Post a Comment