Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Next in 2006 came the EU's structural funds

Next in 2006 came the EU's structural funds, which are used to support specific regions in the EU, as part of EU's regional policy, which aims to reduce regional disparities in terms of income, wealth and opportunities. Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan Europe's poorer regions receive most of the support, but all European regions are eligible for funding under the policy's various funds and programmes. In 2006 approximately 30.4% of the EU budget was used for such support. While the CAP spending is going down, the regional support is increasing, and is expected to reach almost 36% in 2013.[7] ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan Internal policies (training, youth, culture, audiovisual, media, information, energy, Euratom nuclear safeguards and environment, consumer protection, internal market, industry and Trans-European networks, research and technological development, other internal policies) took up around 8.5% in the 2006 budget. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan Administration, i.e. the actual running of the EU institutions, including salaries and property costs, accounted for around 6.3% in 2006. External actions, i.e. EU's international activities outside the EU (development aid, peace keeping and security work, election observers etc.) accounted for 4.9% in 2006. Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Finally, the pre-accession strategy, compensations and reserves brought up the rear of the budget, with approximately 2.1%, 1% and 0.1% respectively in 2006. Net receipts or contributions vary over time, and there are various ways of calculating net contributions to the EU budget, depending, for instance, on whether countries' administrative expenditure is included. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan Also, one can use either absolute figures (which indicate that Germany is the largest contributor), the proportion of GDP (which show that Denmark is the largest contributor), or per capita amounts (which show that Denmark is the largest contributor). Different countries may tend to favour different methods, to present their country in a more favourable light. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan The table shows the traditional calculation (with own resources), based on research by Deutsche BankResearch (net contributors are shown in blue).[8] As a proportion of GDP, net contributors pay from 0.09 percent (Ireland) to 0.53 percent (Denmark), and net recipients receive from 0.04 percent (Spain) to 5.33 percent (Lithuania). Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan On 29 June 2011, the European Commission presented the Communication 'A budget for Europe 2020' to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.[9]Due to the tough economic times, seven member states (Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) HP 646578-001 CPU Fan argued during the 26 March 2012 General Affairs Council meeting that the EC's proposed overall amount for the seven-year EU budget plan should be reduced by €100 billion, or in the case of Sweden, by more than €100 billion.[10] On 8 February 2013, European Union leaders agreed to cut the budget by 3.3%; SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan the agreement on the proposed budget by the European Council has yet to be approved by the European Parliament, adopted unanimously by the Council of the European Union and ratified by the national parliaments of all member states; if adopted, it will be the first cut in its 56-year history.[11][12][13] Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan The Budget was finally approved by the European Parliament Tuesday 19th November 2013 by overwhelming majority. MEPs voted 537 in favour, 126 against and with 19 abstentions. Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court. The EU Treaty of Lisbon of 2007 legally includes solidarity in matters of energy supply and changes to the energy policy within the EU. HP Pavilion dv7-3020es CPU Fan Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, EU energy legislation has been based on the EU authority in the area of the common market and environment. However, in practice many policy competencies in relation to energy remain at national member state level, and progress in policy at European level requires voluntary cooperation by members states.[1] HP G62-369TX CPU Fan In 2007, the EU was importing 82% of its oil and 57% of its gas, which then made it the world's leading importer of these fuels.[2]Only 3% of the uranium used in European nuclear reactors was mined in Europe. Russia, Canada, Australia, Niger and Kazakhstan were the five largest suppliers of nuclear materials to the EU, supplying more than 75% of the total needs in 2009. HP 13.V1.BJ195.F.GN CPU Fan The possible principles of Energy Policy for Europe were elaborated at the Commission's green paper A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy on 8 March 2006.[4] As a result of the decision to develop a common energy policy, the first proposals, Energy for a Changing World were published by theEuropean Commission, following a consultation process, on 10 January 2007. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7016 CPU Fan It is claimed that they will lead to a 'post-industrial revolution', or a low-carbon economy, in the European Union, as well as increased competition in the energy markets, improved security of supply, and improved employment prospects. The Commission's proposals have been approved at a meeting of the European Council on 8 and 9 March 2007. HP Pavilion dv7-1451nr CPU Fan Underlying many of the proposals are to designed to limit global temperature changes to no more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,[7] of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5–0.7 °C is already committed.[8] 2 °C is usually seen as the upper temperature limit to avoid 'dangerous global warming'.[9] HP G62-a57SG CPU Fan Due to only minor efforts in global Climate change mitigation it is highly likely that the world will not be able to reach this particular target. The EU might then not only be forced to accept a less ambitious global target. Because the planned emissions reductions in the European energy sector (95% by 2050) are derived directly from the 2 °C target since 2007, the EU will have to revise its energy policy paradigm. SONY Vaio VGN-NR31S/S CPU Fan The FP7 research program only reserved a moderate amount of funding for energy research, although energy has recently emerged as one of the key issues of the European Union. A large part of FP7 energy funding is also devoted to fusion research, a technology that will not be able to help meet European climate and energy objectives until beyond 2050.[11] IBM 91P9252 CPU Fan The European Commission tried to redress this shortfall with the SET plan.[12] The Steering Group on the implementation of the Strategic Energy Technologies Plan (SET Plan) on 26 June 2008 will set the agenda for an EU energy technology policy. It will enhance the coordination of national and European research and innovation efforts to position the EU in the forefront of the low-carbontechnologies markets. Toshiba Satellite M70-122 CPU Fan The European Energy Research Alliance (EERA)[16] is founded by the leading research institutes in the European Union (EU), to expand and optimise EU energy research capabilities through the sharing of world-class national facilities and the joint realisation of national and European programmes. SONY UDQFWPH22FQU CPU Fan This new Research Alliance will be a key actor of the EU Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan) and will contribute to accelerate the development of new low carbontechnologies for EU to move toward a low carbon economy. Under the requirements of the Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources, HP Pavilion dv6-2150ei CPU Fan which entered into force in October 2001, the member states are expected to meet "indicative" targets for renewable energy production. Although there is significant variation in national targets, the average is that 22% of electricity should be generated by renewables by 2010 (compared to 13,9% in 1997). HP G42-367TU CPU Fan The European Commission has proposed in its Renewable Energy Roadmap21 a binding target of increasing the level of renewable energy in the EU's overall mix from less than 7% today to 20% by 2020. At the Heiligendamm Summit in June 2007, the G8 acknowledged an EU proposal for an international initiative on energy efficiency tabled in March 2007, Toshiba Satellite P100-238 CPU Fan and agreed to explore, together with the International Energy Agency, the most effective means to promote energy efficiency internationally. A year later, on 8 June 2008, the G8 countries, China, India, South Korea and the European Community decided to establish the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation, ACER Aspire 5739 CPU Fan at the Energy Ministerial meeting hosted by Japan in the frame of the 2008 G8 Presidency, in Aomori.Buildings account for around 40% of EU energy requirements and have been the focus of several initiatives.[24] From 4 January 2006, the 2002 Directive on the energy performance of buildings[25] requires member states to ensure that new buildings, IBM ThinkPad T40 2678 CPU Fan as well as large existing building undergoing refurbishment, meet certain minimum energy requirements. It also requires that all buildings should undergo 'energy certification' prior to sale, and that boilers and air conditioning equipment should be regularly inspected. As part of the EU's SAVE Programme,[26] aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour, IBM Thinkpad T43 CPU Fan the Boiler Efficiency Directive[27] specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels. Originally, from June 2007, all homes (and other buildings) in the UK would have to undergo Energy Performance Certification before they are sold or let,[28] to meet the requirements of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (Directive 2002/91/EC). IBM ThinkPad T43 2668 CPU Fan Carbon dioxide emissions from transport have risen rapidly in recent years, from 21% of the total in 1990 to 28% in 2004.[30] EU policies include the voluntary ACEA agreement, signed in 1998, to cut carbon dioxide emissions for new cars sold in Europe to an average of 140 grams of CO2/km by 2008, a 25% cut from the 1995 level. IBM ThinkPad T43 1871 CPU Fan Because the target was unlikely to be met, the European Commission published new proposals in February 2007, requiring a mandatory limit of 130 grams of CO2/km for new cars by 2012, with 'complementary measures' being proposed to achieve the target of 120 grams of CO2/km that had originally been expected.[31][32] ACER Travelmate 8104WLMI CPU Fan In the area of fuels, the 2001 Biofuels Directive requires that 5,75% of all transport fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) should be replaced by biofuels by 31 December 2010, with an intermediate target of 2% by the end of 2005. In February 2007 the European Commission proposed that, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan from 2011, suppliers will have to reduce carbon emissions per unit of energy by 1% a year from 2010 levels, to result in a cut of 10% by 2020 Stricter fuel standards to combat climate change and reduce air pollution. Beyond the bounds of the European Union, EU energy policy has included negotiating and developing wider international agreements, ASUS F80S CPU Fan such as the Energy Charter Treaty, the Kyoto Protocol, the post-Kyoto regime and a framework agreement on energy efficiency; extension of the EC energy regulatory framework or principles to neighbours (Energy Community, Baku Initiative, Euro-Med energy cooperation) and the emission trading scheme to global partners; the promotion of research and the use of renewable energy.[37] HP Pavilion dv5-1058eo CPU Fan The EU-Russia energy cooperation will be based on a new comprehensive framework agreement within the post-Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), which will be negotiated in 2007. The energy cooperation with other third energy producer and transit countries is facilitated with different tools, such as the PCAs, IBM 13N5182 CPU Fan the existing and foreseen Memorandums of Understanding on Energy Cooperation (with Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Algeria), the Association Agreements with Mediterranean countries, theEuropean Neighbourhood Policy Action Plans; Euromed energy cooperation; the Baku initiative; IBM Thinkpad T30 2366-AA3 CPU Fan and the EU-Norway energy dialogue.[37]For the cooperation with African countries, a comprehensive Africa-Europe Energy partnership would be launched at the highest level, with the integration of Europe's Energy and Development Policies.[6] For ensuring efficient follow-up and coherence in pursuing the initiatives and processes, IBM Thinkpad T30 CPU Fan for sharing information in case of an external energy crisis, and for assisting the EU's early response and reactions in case of energy security threats, the network of energy correspondents in the Member States was established in early 2007. After the Russian-Ukrainian Gas Crisis of 2009 the EU decided that the existing external measures regarding gas supply security should be HP 535438-001 CPU Fan supplemented by internal provisions for emergency prevention and response, such as enhancing gas storage and network capacity or the development of the technical prerequisites for reverse flow in transit pipelines The European Union is also active in the areas of energy research, development and promotion, via initiatives such as CEPHEUS (ultra-low energy housing), DELL Inspiron N3010 CPU Fan and programs under the umbrella titles of SAVE (energy saving) ALTENER (new and renewable energy sources), STEER (transport) and COOPENER (developing countries).[40]Through Fusion for Energy, the EU is participating in the ITER project The European Commission imposed anti-dumping levies on Chinese solar panel imports in June 2013.[39] HP Pavilion dv6-3070tx CPU Fan As reported earlier China was selling solar panels under production costs that made the operation without return also for the Chinese solar power companies. Chinese government guaranteed the operation of Chinese solar power companies. In a poll carried out for the European Commission in October and November 2005, IBM 41W5269 CPU Fan 47% of the citizens questioned in the 27 countries of the EU (including the 2 states that joined in 2007) were in favour of taking decisions on key energy policy issues at a European level. 37% favoured national decisions and 8% that they be tackled locally.[42] A similar survey of 29 220 people in March and May 2006 indicated that the balance had changed in favour of national decisions in these areas (42% in favour), ASUS A8H CPU Fan with 39% backing EU policy making and 12% preferring local decisions. There was significant national variation with this, with 55% in favour in the Netherlands, but only 15% in Finland The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) (/dʒini/) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents. SONY UDQFRZH13CF0 CPU Fan It was developed by theItalian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper "Variability and Mutability" (Italian: Variabilità e mutabilità).[1][2] The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example levels ofincome). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, HP COMPAQ 2510P CPU Fan where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has an exactly equal income). A Gini coefficient of one (or 100%) expresses maximal inequality among values (for example where only one person has all the income).[3][4] However, a value greater than one may occur if some persons have negative income or wealth. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan For larger groups, values close to or above 1 are very unlikely in practice. Gini coefficient is commonly used as a measure of inequality of income or wealth.[5] For OECD countries, in the late 2000s, considering the effect of taxes and transfer payments, the income Gini coefficient ranged between 0.24 to 0.49, with Slovenia the lowest and Chile the highest.[6] HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca CPU Fan The countries in Africa had the highest pre-tax Gini coefficients in 2008–2009, with South Africa the world's highest at 0.7.[7][8] The global income inequality Gini coefficient in 2005, for all human beings taken together, has been estimated to be between 0.61 and 0.68 by various sources.[9][10] There are some issues in interpreting a Gini coefficient. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan The same value may result from many different distribution curves. The demographic structure should be taken into account. Countries with an aging population, or with a baby boom, experience an increasing pre The Gini coefficient is usually defined mathematically based on the Lorenz curve, Compaq Presario C556CA CPU Fan which plots the proportion of the total income of the population (y axis) that is cumulatively earned by the bottom x% of the population (see diagram). The line at 45 degrees thus represents perfect equality of incomes. The Gini coefficient can then be thought of as the ratio of the area that lies between the line of equality and the Lorenz curve (marked A in the diagram) SONY Vaio VGN-NR360E CPU Fan over the total area under the line of equality (marked A and B in the diagram); i.e., G = A / (A + B). If all people have non-negative income (or wealth, as the case may be), the Gini coefficient can theoretically range from 0 to 1; it is sometimes expressed as a percentage ranging between 0 and 100. In practice, both extreme values are not quite reached. HP Pavilion dv5170us CPU Fan If negative values are possible (such as the negative wealth of people with debts), then the Gini coefficient could theoretically be more than 1. Normally the mean (or total) is assumed positive, which rules out a Gini coefficient less than zero. A low Gini coefficient indicates a more equal distribution, with 0 corresponding to complete equality, SONY Vaio VPC-EE3WFX/WI CPU Fan while higher Gini coefficients indicate more unequal distribution, with 1 corresponding to complete inequality. When used as a measure of income inequality, the most unequal society (assuming no negative incomes) will be one in which a single person receives 100% of the total income and the remaining people receive none (G = 1−1/N); HP G56-126NR CPU Fan and the most equal society will be one in which every person receives the same income (G = 0). An alternative approach would be to consider the Gini coefficient as half of the relative mean difference, which is a mathematical equivalence. The mean difference is the average absolute difference between two items selected randomly from a population, HP 3MLX8TATP20 CPU Fan and the relative mean difference is the mean difference divided by the average, to normalize for scale. Given the normalization of both the cumulative population and the cumulative share of income used to calculate the Gini coefficient, the measure is not overly sensitive to the specifics of the income distribution, but rather only on how incomes vary relative to the other members of a population. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240F/S CPU Fan The exception to this is in the redistribution of wealth resulting in a minimum income for all people. When the population is sorted, if their income distribution were to approximate a well known function, then some representative values could be calculated. Some representative values of the Gini coefficient for income distributions approximated by some simple functions are tabulated below. SONY Vaio VPC-EB1Z0E/B CPU Fan While the income distribution of any particular country need not follow such simple functions, these functions give a qualitative understanding of the income distribution in a nation given the Gini coefficient. The effects of minimum income policy due to redistribution can be seen in the linear relationships above. Compaq Presario CQ60-514NR CPU Fan Gini coefficients of income are calculated on market income as well as disposable income basis. The Gini coefficient on market income – sometimes referred to as pre-tax Gini index – is calculated on income before taxes and transfers, and it measures inequality in income without considering the effect of taxes and social spending already in place in a country. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9800 CPU Fan The Gini coefficient on disposable income – sometimes referred to as after-tax Gini index – is calculated on income after taxes and transfers, and it measures inequality in income after considering the effect of taxes and social spending already in place in a country.[6][16][17] The difference in Gini indices between OECD countries, on after-taxes and transfers basis, ASUS G2P CPU Fan is significantly narrower.[ For OECD countries, over 2008–2009 period, Gini coefficient on pre-taxes and transfers basis for total population ranged between 0.34 to 0.53, with South Korea the lowest and Italy the highest. Gini coefficient on after-taxes and transfers basis for total population ranged between 0.25 to 0.48, with Denmark the lowest and Mexico the highest. Compaq Presario CQ60-430SA CPU Fan For United States, the country with the largest population in OECD countries, the pre-tax Gini index was 0.49, and after-tax Gini index was 0.38, in 2008–2009. The OECD averages for total population in OECD countries was 0.46 for pre-tax income Gini index and 0.31 for after-tax income Gini Index.[6][18] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan Taxes and social spending that were in place in 2008–2009 period in OECD countries significantly lowered effective income inequality, and in general, "European countries — especially Nordic and Continental welfare states — achieve lower levels of income inequality than other countries."[19] HP Pavilion dv5-1272et CPU Fan Using the Gini can help quantify differences in welfare and compensation policies and philosophies. However it should be borne in mind that the Gini coefficient can be misleading when used to make political comparisons between large and small countries or those with different immigration policies (see limitations of Gini coefficient section). Toshiba AB7005HX-SB3 CPU Fan The Gini index for the entire world has been estimated by various parties to be between 0.61 and 0.68.The graph shows the values expressed as a percentage, in their historical development for a number of countries.For the late 2000s, the United States had the 4th highest measure of income inequality out of the 34 OECD countries measured, after taxes and transfers had been taken into account.[21] Toshiba Satellite A500-18T CPU Fan The table below presents the Gini indices for household income, without including the effect of taxes and transfers, for the United Statesat various times, according to the US Census Bureau.[22][23][24][25]The Gini values are a national composite, with significantvariations in Gini between the states. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx CPU Fan The states of Utah, Alaska and Wyoming have a pre-tax income inequality Gini coefficient that is 10% lower than the U.S. average, while Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico 10% higher. After including the effects of federal and state taxes, the U.S. Federal Reserve estimates 34 states in the USA have a Gini coefficient between 0.30 and 0.35, with the state of Maine the lowest.[26] ASUS EEE PC 1201NL CPU Fan At the county and municipality levels, the pre-tax Gini index ranged from 0.21 to 0.65 in 2010 across the United States, according to Census Bureau estimates. According to UNICEF, Latin America and the Caribbean region had the highest net income Gini index in the world at 48.3, on unweighted average basis in 2008. SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D/T CPU Fan The remaining regional averages were: sub-Saharan Africa (44.2), Asia (40.4), Middle East and North Africa (39.2), Eastern Europe and Central Asia (35.4), and High-income Countries (30.9). Using the same method, the United States is claimed to have a Gini index of 36, while South Africa had the highest income Gini index score of 67.8. Compaq Presario CQ60-418DX CPU Fan The table below presents the estimated world income Gini index over the last 200 years, as calculated by Milanovic.[30] Taking income distribution of all human beings, the worldwide income inequality has been constantly increasing since the early 19th century. There was a steady increase in global income inequality Gini score from 1820 to 2002, SONY Vaio VGN-NW240D CPU Fan with a significant increase between 1980 and 2002. This trend appears to have peaked and begun a reversal with rapid economic growth in emerging economies, particularly in the large populations ofBRIC countries. Education Gini index estimates the inequality in education for a given population.[34] SONY VGN-BX197XP CPU Fan It is used to discern trends in social development through educational attainment over time. From a study of 85 countries, Thomas et al. estimate Mali had the highest education Gini index of 0.92 in 1990 (implying very high inequality in education attainment across the population), while the United States had the lowest education inequality Gini index of 0.14. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan Between 1960 and 1990, South Korea, China and India had the fastest drop in education inequality Gini Index. They also claim education Gini index for the United States slightly increased over the 1980 – 1990 period. Similar in concept to income Gini coefficient, opportunity Gini coefficient measures inequality of opportunity.[35Toshiba AB7805HX-GB3 CPU Fan The concept builds on Amartya Sen's suggestion[38] that inequality coefficients of social development should be premised on the process of enlarging people’s choices and enhancing their capabilities, rather than process of reducing income inequality. Toshiba Satellite L500-208 CPU Fan Kovacevic in a review of opportunity Gini coefficient explains that the coefficient estimates how well a society enables its citizens to achieve success in life where the success is based on a person’s choices, efforts and talents, not his background defined by a set of predetermined circumstances at birth, such as, gender, race, place of birth, parent's income and circumstances beyond the control of that individual. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan In 2003, Roemer reported Italy and Spain exhibited the largest opportunity inequality Gini index amongst advanced economies. In 1978, A. Shorrocks introduced a measure based on income Gini coefficients to estimate income mobility.[40] This measure, generalized by Maasoumi and Zandvakili,[41] Toshiba Satellite P100-444 CPU Fan is now generally referred to as Shorrocks index, sometimes as Shorrocks mobility index or Shorrocks rigidity index. It attempts to estimate whether the income inequality Gini coefficient is permanent or temporary, and to what extent a country or region enables economic mobility to its people so that they can move from one (e.g. bottom 20%) income quantile to another HP Pavilion dv7-3114eo CPU Fan (e.g. middle 20%) over time. In other words, Shorrocks index compares inequality of short-term earnings such as annual income of households, to inequality of long-term earnings such as 5-year or 10-year total income for same households. Shorrocks index is calculated in number of different ways, a common approach being from the ratio of income Gini coefficients between short-term and long-term for the same region or country.[42] HP Mini 110-1125SA CPU Fan A 2010 study using social security income data for the United States since 1937 and Gini-based Shorrocks indexes concludes that its income mobility has had a complicated history, primarily due to mass influx of women into the country's labor force after World War II. Income inequality and income mobility trends have been different for men and women workers between 1937 and the 2000s. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan When men and women are considered together, the Gini coefficient-based Shorrocks Index trends imply long-term income inequality has been substantially reduced among all workers, in recent decades for the United States.[42] Other scholars, using just 1990s data or other short periods have come to different conclusions.[43] Compaq Presario CQ60-210eo CPU Fan

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