Tuesday, February 26, 2013

American white pelican, sandhill

American white pelican, sandhill crane and on rare occasions it's endangered relative, the whooping crane. The Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout (or Snake River cutthroat trout) is the only native trout species in Grand Teton National Park.[102] It is also the only subspecies ofcutthroat trout that is exclusively native to large streams and rivers. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery Various researchers have not been able to identify any genetic differences between the Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout and the Yellowstone cutthroat trout, though in terms of appearances, the Snake River subspecies has much smaller spots which cover a greater portion of the body, and the two subspecies inhabit different ecological niches.[103] Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery The Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout was identified by some researchers as a separate subspecies by the mid-1990s, and is managed as a distinct subspecies by the state of Wyoming, but is not yet recognized as such by the neighboring states of Idaho and Montana.[ Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout is found only in the Snake River and tributaries below the Jackson Lake dam to the Palisades Reservoir in Idaho. Other non-native species of trout such as the rainbow trout and lake trout were introduced by the Wyoming Fish and Game Department or migrated out of Yellowstone.[105] Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery Today five trout species inhabit park waters.[102] Native species of fish include the mountain whitefish, longnose dace, mountain sucker and non-native species include the Utah chub and Arctic grayling. Only four species of reptiles are documented in the park: Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery three species of snakes which are the wandering garter snake, the less commonly seen valley garter snake and rubber boa, as well as one lizard species, the northern sagebrush lizard, that was first reported in 1992. None of the species are poisonous.[106] Six amphibian species have been documented including theColumbia spotted frog, boreal chorus frog, tiger salamander and the increasingly rare boreal toad and northern leopard frog. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery A sixth amphibian species, the bullfrog, was introduced.[107] An estimated 10,000 insect species frequent the park; they pollinate plants, provide a food source for birds, fish, mammals and other animals, and help in the decomposition of wood.[109] In one example of the importance of insects to the ecosystem, swarms of Army cutworm moths die in huge numbers after mating and provide a high fat and protein diet for bears and other predators.[109] Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery One study concluded that when this moth species is most available, bears consume 40,000 moths per day which is roughly 20,000 kcal/day.[110] Grand Teton National Park is the only U.S. National Park that permits hunting, but only of elk in an effort to keep the populations of that species regulated. Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery This provision was included in the legislation that combined Jackson Hole National Monument and Grand Teton National Park in 1950.[111] While some National Parks in Alaska permit subsistence hunting by indigenous natives and a few other National Park Service managed areas allow hunting under highly regulated circumstances, hunting in U.S. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery National Parks is not generally allowed.[111][112] In Grand Teton National Park, hunters are required to obtain Wyoming hunting licenses and be deputized as park rangers. Hunting is restricted to areas east of the Snake River and north of Moran, Wyoming, the hunt is permitted only east of U.S. Route 89.[111] Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery Proponents of continuing the elk hunt, which occurs in the fall, argue that the elk herd would become overpopulated without it, leading to vegetation degradation from overgrazing elk herds.[111][113] Opponents cite that there has been an increase of predators such as the wolf and grizzly bear in Grand Teton National Park, rendering the annual hunt unnecessary and exposing hunters to attacks by grizzly bears as they become accustomed to feeding on remains left behind from the hunt. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery The role of wildfire is an important one for plant and animal species diversity.[115] Many tree species have evolved to mainly germinate after a wildfire. Regions of the park that have experienced wildfire in historical times have greater species diversity after reestablishment than those regions that have not been influenced by fire.[115][116] Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery Though theYellowstone fires of 1988 had minimal impact on Grand Teton National Park, studies conducted before and reaffirmed after that event concluded than the suppression of natural wildfires during the middle part of the 20th century decreased plant species diversity and natural regeneration of plant communities. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery One study conducted 15 years before the 1988 Yellowstone National Park fires concluded that human suppression of wildfire had adversely impacted Aspen tree groves and other forest types.[117]The majority of conifer species in Grand Teton National Park are heavily dependent on wildfire and this is particularly true of the Lodgepole Pine.[118] Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery Though extremely hot canopy or crown fires tend to kill Lodgepole Pine seeds, lower severity surface fires usually result in a higher post wildfire regeneration of this species.[119] In accordance with a better understanding of the role wildfire plays in the environment, Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery the National Park Service and other land management agencies have developed Fire Management Plans which provide a strategy for wildfire management and are expected to best enhance the natural ecosystem. Grand Teton National Park has a semi-arid climate with the wettest months between November and January, mostly in the form of snow. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery The park averages 450 inches (1,100 cm) of snow in the mountains and 191 inches (490 cm) in the valley annually. In January, the daily temperature range averages between 26 °F (−3 °C)during the day to 1 °F (−17 °C) at night. During the month of July, the daily temperature range is 80 °F (27 °C) and 41 °F (5 °C). Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery The record high is93 °F (34 °C) and the record low is −66 °F (−54 °C). Temperatures above the valley in the mountains during the summer average 1 degree cooler for every 1,000 ft (300 m) of altitude gained, so high altitude passes may remain snow covered until mid-July.[121] Thunderstorms are common during the summer, especially over the mountains; by contrast, no tornados have ever been reported within the park. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery The F4 Teton-Yellowstone tornado was a high altitude tornado which touched down northeast of the park on the border of the Teton Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest and Yellowstone National Park. Grand Teton National Park is more than 100 mi (160 km) air distance from any major urban or industrial area, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery and localized human activities have generally had a very low environmental impact on the surrounding region. However, levels of ammonium and nitrogen have been trending slightly upwards due to deposition from rain and snow that is believed to originate from regional agricultural activities.[123] Sony PCG-31211T Battery Additionally, there has also been a slight increase in mercury and pesticides that have been detected in snow and some alpine lakes.[123] Ozone and haze may be impacting overall visibility levels.[123] Grand Teton National Park, in partnership with other agencies, erected the first air quality monitoring station in the park in 2011. Sony PCG-31311T Battery The station is designed to check for various pollutants as well as ozone levels and weather.[124] A 2005 study of the water of Jackson, Jenny and Taggart Lakes indicated that all three of these lakes had virtually pristine water quality.[125] Of the three lakes, only on Taggart Lake are motorized boats prohibited, yet little difference in water quality was detected in the three lakes.[125] Sony PCG-51111T Battery In a study published in 2002, the Snake River was found to have better overall water quality than other river systems in Wyoming, and low levels of pollution from anthropogenicsources. Grand Teton National Park is a popular destination for mountain and rock climbers partly because the mountains are easily accessible by road.[127] Sony PCG-81111T Battery Trails are well marked and routes to the summits of most peaks are long established, and for the experienced and fit, most peaks can be climbed in one day.[128] The highest maintained trails climb from the floor of Jackson Hole over 4,000 ft (1,200 m) to mountain passes that are sometimes called saddles or divides.[71] Sony PCG-81311T Battery From these passes, the climbs follow routes that require varying skill levels. Climbers do not need a permit but are encouraged to voluntarily register their climbing plans with the National Park Service and inform associates of their itinerary.[129] Any climb requiring an overnight stay in the backcountry does require a permit.[130] Sony VPCF138FC Battery Climbers are essentially on their own to determine their own skill levels and are encouraged to not take unnecessary risks.[129] The Exum Mountain Guides, which is considered one of the finest mountaineering guide services in the U.S., as well as the Jackson Hole Mountain Guides, offer instruction and climbing escorts for those who are less experienced or unfamiliar with various routes.[131][132] Sony VPCF219FC Battery An average of 4,000 climbers per year make an attempt to summit Grand Teton and most ascend up Garnet Canyon to a mountain pass called the Lower Saddle, which is between Grand Teton and Middle Teton.[133][134] From the Lower Saddle, climbers oftentimes follow the Owen-Spalding or Exum Ridge routes to the top of Grand Teton though there are 38 distinct routes to the summit.[127] Sony VPCS135EC Battery The North Face route to the summit of Grand Teton is a world renowned climb involving a dozen distinct pitches and is rated at grade 5.8 in difficulty for the 3,000-foot (910 m) vertical ascent. On a connecting ridge and just north of Grand Teton lies Mount Owen, and though lower in altitude, this peak is considered more difficult to ascend. Sony VPCS136EC Battery Middle Teton is another popular climb that is most easily summited from a saddle between it and South Teton. Well north of Grand Teton lies Mount Moran, which is further from trailheads and more difficult to access and ascend. The Direct South Buttress of Mount Moran provides a vertical mile of climbing that was considered the most difficult climb in the U.S. Sony VPCS138EC Battery when first accomplished in 1953.[135] Other popular climbing destinations include Buck Mountain, Symmetry Spire, Mount Saint John, Mount Wister, Teewinot Mountain and Nez Perce Peak and each mountain has at least six established routes to their summits. Sony VPCS139GC Battery Grand Teton National Park has five front-country vehicular access campgrounds. The largest are the Colter Bay and Gros Ventre campgrounds, and each has 350 campsites which can accommodate large recreational vehicles.[136] Lizard Creek and Signal Mountain campgrounds have 60 and 86 campsites respectively, Sony VPCYA15EC Battery while the smaller Jenny Lake campground has only 49 sites for tent use only. Additionally, full hookups for recreational vehicles are at the concessionaire managed 112 campsites at Colter Bay Village and another 100 at Flagg Ranch in the John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway.[136] Sony VPCYA16EC Battery Though all front-country campgrounds are only open from late spring to late fall, primitive winter camping is permitted at Colter Bay near the visitor center.[136] All campsites accessible only on foot or by horseback are considered backcountry campsites and they are available by permit only, but camping is allowed in most of these backcountry zones year-round. Sony VPCYA25EC Battery The National Park Service has a combination of specific sites and zones for backcountry camping with a set carrying capacity of overnight stays per zone to protect the resources from overcrowding.[130] Open fires are not permitted in the backcountry and all food must be stored in an Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee approved bear-resistant container.[130] Sony VPCYA26EC Battery As of 2012, only four brands of bear-resistant containers had been approved for use in the Grand Teton National Park backcountry.[137] Additionally, hikers may use an approved bear spray to elude aggressive bears.[138] The park has 200 mi (320 km) of hiking trails, ranging in difficulty from easy to strenuous.[139] Sony VPCYB15JC Battery The easiest hiking trails are located in the valley, where the altitude changes are generally minimal. In the vicinity of Colter Bay Village, the Hermitage Point Trail is 9.4 mi (15.1 km) long and considered easy.[140]Several other trails link Hermitage Point with Emma Matilda Lake and Two Ocean Lake Trails, also considered to be relatively easy hikes in the Jackson Lake Lodge area.[141] Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery Other easy hikes include the Valley Trail which runs from Trapper Lake in the north to the south park boundary near Teton Village and the Jenny Lake Trail which circles the lake. Ranging from moderate to strenuous in difficulty, trails leading into the canyons are rated based on distance and more importantly on the amount of elevation change. Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery The greatest elevation change is found on the Paintbrush Canyon, Alaska Basin and Garnet Canyon Trails, where elevation increases of over 4,000 ft (1,200 m) are typical.[71] Horses and pack animals are permitted on almost all trails in the park, however there are only five designated backcountry camping locations for pack animals and these campsites are far from the high mountain passes.[142] Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery Bicycles are limited to vehicle roadways only and the park has widened some roads to provide a safer biking experience.[143] A paved multi-use pathway opened in 2009 and provides non-motorized biking access from the town of Jackson to South Jenny Lake. Sony VPCY11S1E Battery Grand Teton National Park allows boating on all the lakes in Jackson Hole, but motorized boats can only be used on Jackson and Jenny Lakes. While there is no maximum horsepower limit on Jackson Lake (though there is a noise restriction), Jenny Lake is restricted to 10 horsepower.[144] Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery Only non–motorized boats are permitted on Bearpaw, Bradley, Emma Matilda, Leigh, Phelps, String, Taggart and Two Ocean Lakes. There are four designated boat launches located on Jackson Lake and one on Jenny Lake. Additionally, sailboats, windsurfers and water skiing are only allowed on Jackson Lake and no jet skis are permitted on any of the park waterways.[144] Sony VPCW1 Battery All boats are required to comply with various safety regulations including personal flotation devices for each passenger.[145] Only non–motorized watercraft are permitted on the Snake River.[146] All other waterways in the park are off limits to boating, and this includes all alpine lakes and tributary streams of the Snake River.[145] Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery In 2010, Grand Teton National Park started requiring all boats to display an Aquatic Invasive Species decal issued by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department or a Yellowstone National Park boat permit.[145] Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery In an effort to keep the park waterways free of various invasive species such as the Zebra mussel and whirling disease, boaters are expected to abide by certain regulations including displaying a self-certification of compliance on the dashboard of any vehicle attached to an empty boat trailer.[147][148] Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery Grand Teton National Park fisheries are managed by the Wyoming Fish and Game Department and a Wyoming state fishing license is required to fish all waterways in Grand Teton National Park.[105][149] The creel limit for trout is restricted to six per day, including no more than three cutthroat trout with none longer than 12 in (300 mm), Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery while the maximum length of other trout species may not exceed 20 in (510 mm), except those taken from Jackson Lake, where the maximum allowable length is 24 in (610 mm). There are also restrictions as to the seasonal accessibility to certain areas as well as the types of bait and fishing tacklepermitted. Sony VPCY11M1E Battery Visitors are allowed to snowshoe and do cross-country skiing and are not restricted to trails.[150] The Teton Park Road between the Taggart Lake trailhead to Signal Mountain Campground is closed to vehicular traffic during the winter and this section of the road is groomed for skiing and snowshoeing traffic.[151] Sony VPCY11S1E Battery The park service offers guided snowshoe tours daily from the main headquarters located in Moose, Wyoming.[150] Overnight camping is allowed in the winter in the backcountry with a permit and visitors should inquire about avalanche dangers.[150] The only location in Grand Teton National Park where snowmobiles are permitted is on Jackson Lake.[152] Sony VPCY11V9E Battery The National Park Service requires that all snowmobiles use "Best Available Technology" (BAT) and lists various models of snowmobiles that are permitted, all of which are deemed to provide the least amount of air pollution and maximize noise abatement. All snowmobiles must be less than 10 years old and have odometer readings of less than 6,000 mi (9,700 km).[152] Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery Additionally, snowmobile use is for the purposes of accessing ice fishing locations only.[153] Snowmobile access was permitted between Moran Junction andFlagg Ranch adjacent to the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway so that travelers using the Continental Divide Snowmobile Trail could traverse between Bridger-Teton National Forest and Yellowstone National Park. Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery However in 2009, winter use planners closed this since unguided snowmobile access into Yellowstone National Park was also discontinued. The Craig Thomas Discovery and Visitor Center adjacent to the park headquarters at Moose, Wyoming, is open year round. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery Opened in 2007 to replace an old, inadequate visitor center, the facility is named for the late U.S. Senator Craig Thomas. It was financed with a combination of federal grants and private donations.[154] An adjoining 154-seat auditorium was opened to the public in April 2011.[155] Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery To the north at Colter Bay Village on Jackson Lake, the Colter Bay Visitor Center & Indian Arts Museum is open from the beginning of May to the early October. The Colter Bay Visitor Center & Indian Arts Museum has housed the David T. Vernon Indian Arts Exhibit since 1972. Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery The Colter Bay Visitor Center was built in 1956 and was determined in 2005 to be substandard for the proper care and display of the Indian arts collection.[156][157] During the winter of 2011–2012, a $150,000 renovation project was completed at the center and a portion of the arts collection was made available for viewing when the center opened for the season in May 2012.[158] Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery South of Moose on the Moose–Wilson Road, the Laurance S. Rockefeller Preserve Center is located on land that was privately owned by Laurance S. Rockefeller and is situated on Phelps Lake. Donated to Grand Teton National Park and opened to the public in 2008, the property was once part of the JY Ranch, the first dude ranch in Jackson Hole.[159] Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery At Jenny Lake, the Jenny Lake Visitor Center is open from mid–May to mid–September. This visitor center is within the Jenny Lake Ranger Station Historic District and is the same structure photographer Harrison Crandall had constructed as an art studio in the 1920s. Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery Contracted through the National Park Service, various concessionaire entities manage lodging facilities inside the park.[161]The largest such facility is the Jackson Lake Lodge, which is managed by the Grand Teton Lodge Company. Located near Jackson Lake Dam, the Jackson Lake Lodge has a total of 385 rooms, meeting facilities, a retail shop and a restaurant. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery The Grand Teton Lodge Company also manages the Jenny Lake Lodge, which consists of cabins and a restaurant and Colter Bay Village, which has cabins, a restaurant, a grocery store, a laundry and a marina.[162] South of Jackson Lake Dam, the Signal Mountain Lodge is managed by Forever Resorts and provides cabins, a marina, a gas station and a restaurant.[163] Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery The American Alpine Club has hostel dormitory style accommodations primarily reserved for mountain climbers at the Grand Teton Climber's Ranch.[164] Adjacent to the Snake River in Moose, Wyoming, Dornans is an inholding on private land which has year round cabin accommodations and related facilities.[165] Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery Lodging is also available at the Triangle X Ranch, another private inholding in the park and the last remaining dude ranch within park boundaries.Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery,Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery,Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery

No comments:

Post a Comment