Wednesday, February 27, 2013

The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay

The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay andHollywood.[281] The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation.[282] Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets.[283] The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies. Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery which in some cases receive financial aid from the government.[284] The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE), The all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or theCentral Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards.[285] Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.[286] The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.[287] Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in junior college, Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science.[288] This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine.[289] Most colleges in the city are affiliated with theUniversity of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.[290] Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay),[291] Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI),[292] University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)[293] which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai.[294] Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research and several other management schools.[295] Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.[296][297] The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.[298] Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).[299] The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery Cricket is one of the most popular sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India(BCCI)[301] and Indian Premier League (IPL).[302] Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 39 titles, the most by any team.[303] The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League. The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana.[304] The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the finalof the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in2006.[305] Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely.[306] In the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC,[307] Mahindra United[308] and Air-India.[309] Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively . When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery Named the Mumbai Gladiators, the team's first season will be played in Pune in late 2012,[310] and it will be Mumbai's first professionalAmerican football franchise.[311] Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf club in Mumbai.[312] Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship.[313] and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008.[314] The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over 400 to 500 acres (202 ha).[315] In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as a part of "The Greatest Race on Earth". Mumbai has also played host to theKingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.Sony  VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. It is also the world's top 10 centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow,[1] Mumbai accounts for slightly more than 6% of India's economy contributing 10% of factory employment, Sony Vaio VGN-FZ19VN Battery 30% of income tax collections, 60% of customs dutycollections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of foreign trade and rupees 40,000 crore (US $10 billion) in corporate taxes to the Indian economy.[2] Headquarters of a number of Indian financial institutions such as the Bombay Stock Exchange, Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery Reserve Bank of India, National Stock Exchange, the Mint, as well as numerous Indian companies such as the Tata Group, Essel Group and Reliance Industries are located in Mumbai. Most of these offices are located in downtown South Mumbai which is the nerve centre of the Indian economy. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery Many foreign establishments also have their branches in the South Bombay area. Mumbai is the world's 29th largest city by GDP.[3] Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in India for business startup in 2009.[4] As of 2009-10, Mumbai enjoys a Per Capita Income of $ 2,845. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ZR Battery This is 16.6% higher than 2008-09 levels of $ 2,440. In PPP dollars, Mumbai had a Per Capita Income of $ 7,050 as of 2009-10 fiscal. In the recent years Mumbai is experiencing rapid growth. By 2020-21 fiscal, Mumbai's GDP Per capita at PPP is expected to reach US$ 23,000, making it South Asia's richest city. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31SR Battery Mumbai has traditionally owed its prosperity largely to its textile mills and its seaport till the 1980s. These are now increasingly being replaced by industries employing more skilled labour such as engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology. Mumbai is also the primary financial centre for India, Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery hosting both the major Indian stock exchanges (BSE and The National Stock Exchange), brokerages, asset management companies (including majority of the mutual fund companies), headquarters of most Indian state-owned and commercial banks, as well as the financial & monetary regulatory authorities of India (SEBI and RBI among other institutions). Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery As Mumbai is the state capital, government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such proletarian professions. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery The port and shipping industry too employs many residents directly and indirectly. Like most metropolitan cities, Mumbai also has a large influx of people from rural areas looking for employment.The entertainment industry is the other major employer in Mumbai. Most of India's television and satellite networks are located in Mumbai, as well as the major publishing houses. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery A large number of the Hindi and English television shows are produced in Mumbai. The Hindi movie industry, known by some as Bollywood, is also located in Mumbai, along with the largest studios and production houses. To add to this, most major advertising companies operating in India also have their primary office in Mumbai. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery Mumbai is home to the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and most of India's specialized, technical industries, having a modern industrial infrastructure and vast, skilled human resources. Rising venture capital firms, start-ups and established brands work in aerospace, optical engineering, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery medical research, information technology, computers and electronic equipment of all varieties, shipbuilding and salvaging, renewable energy and power. Mumbai is also home to the Western fleet of the Indian Navy, key to India's maritime security. Public transport in Mumbai involves the transport of millions of its citizens by train, road and water. Over 88%[1] of the commuters in Mumbai use public transport (suburban trains or buses). Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery It is the most convenient, efficient and cheap form of transport to a population which is dense to such an extent. Mumbai has the largest organised bus transport network among major Indian cities. But the train network is constantly struggling to cope with the growing population. A train compartment is usually filled with over three times its designed capacity. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was formally set up in 1873. After a contract was entered into between the Bombay Tramway Company and the municipality, the Bombay Presidency enacted the Bombay Tramways Act, 1874, under which the Company was licensed to run a tramway service in the city. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery The tram-cars were of two kinds—those drawn by one horse and those drawn by two. In 1905, a newly formed concern, The Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company Limited, bought the Bombay Tramway Company and the first electrically operated tram-car appeared on Bombay's roads in 1907. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery The passing years aggravated the problem of rush-hour traffic and to ease the situation, double decker trams were introduced in September, 1920. Bombay saw its first bus run on 15 July 1926 between Afghan Church and Crawford Market. The people of Bombay received the bus with enthusiasm, but it took quite some time before this means of conveyance really established itself. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery For several years, it was looked upon as transport for the upper middle class. Those were the days when the tram was the poor man's transport; it carried one all the way from Sassoon Dock to Dadar for a mere anna and a half, that was nine paise. The bus fare for the same journey was four annas, that is 25 paise. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery In response to the pleas made by the Government and the Bombay Municipal Corporation, the Company extended its services to the northern part of the city in 1934. Double deck buses were introduced in 1937 in order to cope better with the growing traffic. The first Limited Bus service in Bombay, and probably the first in the country as well, started running in 1940 between Colaba and Mahim. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery Pursuant to the option given to it under the Deed of Concession granted to the Bombay Electric Supply and Tramways Co. Ltd, the Bombay Municipal Corporation acquired on 7 August 1947, the assets of the combined Undertaking, namely the operation of tramways and distribution of electricity in the city of Bombay as a going concern. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery By mutual agreement, the Corporation also took over the operation of the bus services, which was run by the B.E.S. & T. Company Ltd.Thus, the Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Company was municipalised and came to be known as Bombay Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking.When the corporation took over the Company in 1947, there were 242 buses in operation on 23 routes and these buses carried 238,000 passengers per day. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery At present, there are 4,680 buses[2] carrying 480,000 passengers[3] daily on 400+ routes. With the change in the name of the city from Bombay to Mumbai, the organisation is now known as The Brihanmumbai Electric Supply & Transport Undertaking. Some interesting facts of present-day BEST BusSony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
  • BEST has introduced semi deluxe and Air-conditioned services on certain routes.
  • From 19 November 2004, Route Special 8 plying from Churchgate to World Trade Centre started accepting cashless smart cards for Automatic Fare Collection in BEST buses.
BEST currently has 1500+ environment friendly CNG (compressed natural gas) buses on its fleet and plans to increase the number of buses. Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery
  • On August 18, 2005, BEST introduced the first lot of disabled-friendly buses(five buses with special wheel chair-accessible low floors) into its service.
Due to the 7/11 bombings, BEST installed an audio-visual surveillance system (CCTV) on each of its buses to monitor suspicious behaviour aboard its vehicles. Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery
  • Almost all buses have two LCD TV's per bus. BEST Buses are most maintained buses.
The AC Buses - AS series are very popular with Office goers. AC Bus "AS4" from Oshiwara to Cuffe Parade, is the highest Income grosser for BEST. "AS4" is the most popular bus with morning office goers, as it covers a distance of abour 30 km from Andheri to Mantralaya in about 1.20 hrs only. Sony VPCW11S1E/T Battery The Mumbai Suburban Railway is the oldest in Asia, it was founded in 1867. It is owned by Indian Railways and is operated byWestern Railways and Central Railways. With a length of 303 km, It has highest passenger density in the world, 6.3 million people daily.[5] Which is more than half of Indian Railways daily carrying capacity utilized by Mumbai. It has three lines: the Western Line, the Central Line, and the Harbour Line. Sony VPCW11S1E/W Battery These suburban trains are popularly known as Locals and they run from 4 AM till 1 AM. Mumbai suburban services have various such designations (not all of them official, but in wide use). A 'fast' train or 'fast local' is essentially one that is fast (runs express, skipping stops) until a certain station, Sony VPCW12S1E/P Battery and from that station onward runs like a local, e.g., the Virar Fast runs express to Borivli, and then from there on is a local. The Karjat Fast is an express until Kalyan. The Ambarnath Fast Local goes CST - Dadar - Thane and thereafter stops at all stations on its route. The Borivli Fast Local used to run (1980s) from Jogeshwari to Mumbai Central non-stop. Sony VPCW12S1E/T Battery The term 'superfast local' is sometimes used too, e.g., for trains that skip stations to reach Virar early in the down direction so they are available earlier to carry more passengers in the up direction later. On WR (Western Railway) lines, the term 'fast' train is often applied to one that runs as an express until Bandra or Andheri. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery A 'double-fast' is one that runs as an express for an even longer stretch compared to the 'fast' services. On CR (Central Railway) lines, the term 'fast' train is often applied to any train that runs as an express to Kalyan, or until its terminus. There used to be a Kalyan Fast that ran non-stop from Ghatkopar to Bombay VT (now CST). Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery The term 'semi-fast' is sometimes applied to trains that run express until Thane. The term 'bada-fast' (Hindi 'bada'= big) was used for services running express between Borivli - Bandra - Marine Lines, and is sometimes synonymous with 'double-fast'. The term 'triple-fast' has been reported (from a long time back) for express services between Dahisar and Marine Lines. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery In 1992, Mumbai's WR and CR introduced 'Ladies Special' trains. A 'Complete Ladies Special' train has all its coaches reserved for women passengers. A 'Semi-Ladies Special' is a train with a few (e.g., 3) coaches reserved for women. These designations can be combined with 'fast', 'slow', etc., so you have terms such as 'Slow Complete Ladies Special', 'Semi-Fast Semi-Ladies', etc. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery Mumbai currently has an extensive commuter rail system (the Mumbai Suburban Railway). However, it is not built to rapid transit specifications. In May 2003, the original Mumbai rapid-transit plan was updated to include an elevated 10-km LRT system, to be built between Andheri and Ghatkopar via Asalpha, Marol, Chakala and Saki Naka. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery In January 2004, a master transit plan, including a 146 kilometer metro, was unveiled by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). The plan integrated a 146 kilometer-long metro system, of which 32 km is underground. In June 2004, government approval was given for a 13-station elevated light rail line between Ghatkopar and Versova. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery The foundation stone-laying ceremony was held on 21 June 2006. The line was initially expected to open in 2008. However, work on the 11-km Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, which comes under Phase-I, has begun on February 8, 2008 itself. Construction of the route is expected to be completed in three years. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery The Taxis arrived in 1911 to complement horse wagons. The black and yellow Fiat taxis in Mumbai, are integral part of the city's heritage and have been depicted in numerous Bollywood movies. These metered taxis ply throughout Mumbai and have monopoly from Bandra to Churchgate on the Western line and Sion to Chatrapati Shivaji Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery Terminus on the Central line. Beyond Sion and Bandra auto rickshaws are not allowed and one has to hire a taxi. However, between Sion to Thane and Bandra toBhayandar, Taxis and autorickshaws ply. A mechanical meter decides the fare and is proportional to the distance traveled. Number of taxis (cabs): About 58,000 In Greater Mumbai and 98,566 In Mumbai MMR.[8] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery Only 20,000 old black and yellow taxis on Greater Mumbai road[9] and 35,000 New taxis like Maruti Alto, WagonR, Omni, Tata Indica, Santro etc. Recently Radio cab services have been introduced by some private companies. These taxis are brand new air-conditioned cars fitted with GPS and electronic metres. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery Fare is same as that of Cool Cabs. Presently operated by the following companies: Meru (Green Silver), Gold cabs (Yellow Red), Easy Cabs, Star Taxis (White & Purple), Forsche Taxi and Mega cabs (Black). However these taxis need to be booked in advance by calling their call centre number. Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery It is convenient to call AC cabs in just 5–30 minutes depending on the place & time. Recently the police revealed that the law requires the driver of an unengaged taxi to take you to wherever you want to go, regardless of distance or time, in case the fare meter of the unengaged rickshaw/taxi is in a 'For Hire' mode.Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery The modes were denoted by older mechanical meters in this manner: a) upright - for hire b) half mast - not doing business c) currently hired. If the driver does not comply, one simply needs to call the police on 1800-22-0110, a toll free number and mention the taxi's license number and the driver's name. Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery The act of calling the police on your cell phone usually makes the driver comply with your request to be taken to your destination. Mumbai Transport commissioner Dilip Jadhav recently announced direct email id for complaints could be about anything: refusal to ply short distance, excess fare charged/tampered meters, Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery fake tariff cards, misconduct by drivers or any other complaint.[10][11][12][13] Other methods of complaining against the auto rickshaws and taxis is available on the Mumbai RTO website, here. Some taxis now use an electronic meter, and soon are taxis are expected to use new electronic meters, Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery which directly display the actual fare, not requiring a conversion, as required in the current mechanical taxi meters. The conversion of the mechanical meter reading to the actual fare, payable in INR is published on the Mumbai RTO's website here. The fare is applicable for yellow/black non air-conditioned taxis only. Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery It is important to understand that the meter reading actually denotes the miles traveled, with the initial minimum set to 01.00. Thereafter the meter increases by 00.10 for each one tenth mile traveled. There are total 246,458 auto rickshaws in Mumbai MMR as of 2008,[8] Auto Rickshaws are three-wheeler scooters, Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery having a wheel in the front and 2 wheels in the rear, which can accommodate three people in the rear section, apart from the driver in the front section. Apart from Buses, Trains and Taxis, Auto rickshaws play an important role of public transport in Mumbai. As per the ruling of the Bombay High Court having 2002 as a deadline, all auto rickshaws use CNG as the fuel. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/S Battery Auto rickshaws are not permitted to enter Old Mumbai. The southmost points accessible to them are Bandra Fire Station in Western Mumbai and Sion Bus Depot in Central Mumbai. Auto rickshaws registered in Mumbai are not allowed travel beyond the municipal limits of Mumbai. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery They have been allowed to ply between Sion to Mulund in the Central Suburbs and up to Mankhurd on the Harbour line. People who wish to travel beyond Mumbai to suburbs like Vashi, Airoli have to board/flag down/catch another rickshaw. In the western suburbs they are allowed to ply between Bandra and Bhayandar only. Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery Recently the police revealed that the law requires the driver of an unengaged taxi to take you to wherever you want to go, regardless of distance or time, in case the fare meter of the unengaged rickshaw/taxi is in a 'For Hire' mode. The modes were denoted by older mechanical meters in this manner: Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery a) upright - for hire b) half mast - not doing business c) upturned mast - currently hired. If the driver does not comply, one simply needs to call the police on 1800-22-0110, a toll free number and mention the cab's license number and the driver's name. The act of calling the police on your cell phone usually makes the driver comply with your request to be taken to your destination. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/W Battery Other methods of complaining against the auto rickshaws and taxis is available on the Mumbai RTO website, here. A mechanical meter decides the fare and is proportional to distance traveled. The fare is available on the Mumbai RTO's webpage here in pdf format. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/R Battery,Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/T Battery,Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/P Battery

No comments:

Post a Comment