Wednesday, February 27, 2013

The Mumbai Suburban Railway

The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly known as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system.[178] It consists of three rail networks: Central, Western, and Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the north-south direction.[179] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/P Battery Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007,[180] which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours.[181] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/W Battery The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes (ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the city.[182] The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro are under construction and expected to be partially operational in late 2012 or early 2013, relieving overcrowding on the existing network. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/R Battery Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate.[183] Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11Z/T Battery Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008.[177] Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane.[185] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/P Battery The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses[186]with CCTV Camera installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily[177] over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and Compressed Natural Gas powered buses.[187] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/R Battery Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India.[188][189] Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operates its Volvobuses in Mumbai, from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi and Borivali.[190] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.[191] The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai.[192] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/R Battery Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009.[193] Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion.[194] Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system.[196] The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India,[197] while the Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway,[198] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery Western Freeway and Eastern Freeway is under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs.[199] The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Borivali. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.[201] Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas,[202] and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.[201] Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008,[203] 56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 102,224 auto rickshaws, as of 2005. The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic.[205] Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery It handled 30.74 million passengers and 656,369 tonnes of cargo during FY 2011-12.[206] An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually. .[207] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/W Battery The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.[208] The Juhu Aerodrome was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/T Battery Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek inNavi Mumbai.[210] Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities.[211] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/P Battery Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India.[212] It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo.[213] Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.[214] The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy. Sony Vaio VGN-CS31S/V Battery Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMCsupplies potable water to the city from six lakes,[215][216] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.[217] Sony Vaio VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery The water is filtered atBhandup,[217] which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.[218] India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.[219] About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai.[220] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/W Battery Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste,[221] is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to theDeonar dumping ground in the east.[222] Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.11 mi) and 3.7 km (2.30 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.[223] Sony Vaio VGN-CS21S/T Battery Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Mahavitaran(Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs.[224] Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity.[225] Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services.[226] Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city.[227] Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. Mumbai has highest number of internet users in India with 14.3 million users. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.[229] Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features.[230] There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India.[231] Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of theOval Maidan. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009. Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/T Battery The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves.[232] Sony Vaio VGN-CS11S/Q Battery Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point, Girgaum Chowpatti, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach,[233] and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.[234] In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era buildings and Soviet-style offices.[235] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11EN Battery In the east are factories and some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller than 100m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York. According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,479,608. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ11XN Battery The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5sq metre per person.[237] As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the BMC, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%.Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12EN Battery The sex ratio was 838 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.[238] Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery Residents of Mumbai call themselves MumbaikarMumbaiite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any othermetropolitan city of India. Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra state, of which Mumbai is the capital, is widely spoken and understood in the city. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ12XN Battery Sixteen major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English.[239] English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Marathi, Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21VN Battery Hindi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian English and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.[240] Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. Sony Vaio VGN-BZ21XN Battery With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district.[241] Sony  VGP-BPS13 Battery Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum[242] is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people.[243] With a literacy rate of 69%, the slums in Mumbai are the most literate in India.[244] The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.[245] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 42 lakh in 2008 to 66 lakh in 2020. However, the number of households with incomes of Rs 20lakh/year will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, i.e., 6.6 lakh families. The number of households with incomes from Rs 10-20lakh/year is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%),Christians (4.2%),[248] Sikhs (0.58%), with Parsis and Jews making up the rest of the population.[249] The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India.[250] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery Native Christians include East Indians (ethnic group) Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 18th & 19th century.[251] The city also has a small native Bene Israeli Jewish community, who migrated from the Persian Gulf or Yemen, probably 1600 years ago.[252] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery Mumbai is also home to the largest population of ParsiZoroastrians in the world, with about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) following the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century AD.[253] The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period. Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema[255]—Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century.[256] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The Mumbai International Film Festival[257] and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.[258] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.[259][260] Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. Sony  VGP-BPS21 Battery The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombayis one of the oldest public libraries in the city.[261] The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.[262] Sony  VGP-BPS21A Battery Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Sony  VGP-BPS21B Battery Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.[263] Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Sony  VGP-BPS21/S Battery Dussera,Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films.[264] A week long annual fair known as Bandra FairSony  VGP-BPS21A/b Battery , starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.[265] The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai.[266] Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country.[267] Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960,[268][269] and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people. Sony VGP-BPL26 Battery Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra TimesNavakaalLokmatLoksattaMumbai ChauferSaamana and Sakaal.[271] Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik SakaalGrihashobhikaLokrajya,Lokprabha & Chitralekha.[272] Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of IndiaMid-dayHindustan TimesDNA India, and The Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.[273] Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822.[274] Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832. Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.[275] Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as Star Majha, Lokmat IBN, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN,Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony Zee TV and STAR Plus. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai.Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai.Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs.[276] Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.[277] Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.[278] Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as WorldSpace, Sirius and XM. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.[279] Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year.[280] Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery

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