Monday, March 11, 2013

Central Intelligence Agency,, The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an independent civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence,[7] with responsibility for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery Intelligence-gathering is performed by non-military commissioned civilian intelligence agents, many of whom are trained to avoid tactical situations. The CIA also oversees and sometimes engages in tactical and covert activities at the request of the President of the United States.[8] Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery Often, when such field operations are organized, the U.S. military or other warfare tacticians carry these tactical operations out on behalf of the agency while the CIA oversees them.[9] Although intelligence-gathering is the agency's main agenda, Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery tactical divisions were established in the agency to carry out emergency field operations that require immediate suppression or dismantling of a threat or weapon.[10] The CIA's headquarters is located in Langley, McLean,Fairfax County, Virginia,[11] a few miles west of Washington, D.C.. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery The CIA succeeded the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), formed during World War II to coordinate espionage activities against the Axis Powers for the branches of the United States Armed Forces. The National Security Act of 1947 established the CIA, affording it "no police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad".Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery Through interagency cooperation, the CIA has Cooperative Security Locations at its disposal. These locations are called "lily pads" by the Air Force.[14][15] The primary function of the CIA is to collect information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and to advise public policymakers, Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery but it does conduct emergency tactical operations and carries out covert operations,[16][17] and exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division.[18] There has been considerable criticism of the CIA relating to: security and counterintelligence failures, failures in intelligence analysis, human rights concerns, Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery external investigations and document releases, influencing public opinion and law enforcement, drug trafficking, and lying to Congress.[19] Others, such asEastern bloc defector Ion Mihai Pacepa, have defended the CIA as "by far the world’s best intelligence organization," and argued that CIA activities are subjected to scrutiny unprecedented among the world's intelligence agencies. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI); in practice, he deals with the DNI, Congress (usually via the Office of Congressional Affairs), and the White House, while the Deputy Director is the internal executive. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery The CIA has varying amounts of Congressional oversight, although that is principally a guidance role. The Executive Office also facilitates the CIA's support of the U.S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperating on field activities. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery Two senior executives have responsibility, one CIA-wide and one for the National Clandestine Service. The Associate Director for Military Support, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence; Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery he is assisted by the Office of Military Affairs in providing support to all branches of the military.[21] In the National Clandestine Services, an Associate Deputy Director for Operations for Military Affairs[22] deals with specific clandestine human-source intelligence and covert action in support of military operations. Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery The CIA also makes national-level intelligence available to tactical organizations, usually to their all-source intelligence group. Staff offices with several general responsibilities report to the Executive Office. The staff also gather information and then report such information to the Executive Office. Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery The CIA's Center for the Study of Intelligence maintains the Agency's historical materials and promotes the study of intelligence as a legitimate discipline.[24] In 2002, the CIA's School for Intelligence Analysis began publishing the unclassified Kent Center Occasional Papers, Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery aiming to offer "an opportunity for intelligence professionals and interested colleagues—in an unofficial and unfettered vehicle—to debate and advance the theory and practice of intelligence analysis."[25] Two offices advise the Director on legality and proper operations. The Office of General Counsel advises the Director of the CIA on all legal matters relating to his role as CIA director and is the principal source of legal counsel for the CIA. Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery The Office of Inspector General promotes efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability in the administration of Agency activities, and seeks to prevent and detect fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. The Inspector General, whose activities are independent of those of any other component in the Agency, reports directly to the Director of the CIA. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery The Office of Public Affairs advises the Director of the CIA on all media, public policy, and employee communications issues relating to this person's role. This office, among other functions, works with the entertainment industry. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery At various times, under its own authority or in accordance with directives from the President of the United States or the National Security Council staff, theCentral Intelligence Agency has attempted to influence domestic and international public opinion, and sometimes law enforcement. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery This article does not address, other than incidental to influencing opinion or actions reasonably associated with CIA security, possibly illegal domestic surveillance. It also does not address narrowly focused psychological warfare in support of covert or military action. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery The focus of this article is on long-term influence on opinion leaders, including journalists, artists, labor leaders, etc., rather than starting rumors to assist in supporting a coup. This is an area with many shades of gray. There is little argument, for example, that the CIA acted inappropriately in providing technical support to Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery White House operatives conducting both political and security investigations, with no legal authority to do so. While there is an established history of assigning responsibilities for international psychological operations to various organizations, depending if the operation is overt or clandestine, there are also questions of the wisdom of a particular operation. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery Things become much more ambiguous when law enforcement may expose a clandestine operation, a problem not unique to intelligence but also seen among different law enforcement organizations, where one wants to prosecute and another to continue investigations, perhaps reaching higher levels in a conspiracy.[1] Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery Not all inappropriate activities were initiated or conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency, but by other members of the United States Intelligence Community. In particular, the Federal Bureau of Investigation took a very broad view of its mandate to collect information to protect the state from domesticsubversion. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery In other cases, the National Security Agency intercepted electronic communications without the warrants deemed necessary at the time. It has been suggested that a number of things assigned to the CIA really did not need to be clandestine, and having an overt organization support initiatives desired by the U.S. government has much less political risk. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery The United States Information Agency (USIA) has always been an overt white propaganda organization.Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, as distinct from the Voice of America (VOA), had been clandestinely funded through the CIA, but, with the VOA, now all come under the authority of a quasi-public corporation, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). BBG was part of USIA until 1999. Another overt organization, the National Endowment for Democracy, was created in 1983. William Blum, an author and critic of the CIA and U.S. foreign policy, suggests it was set up to legally continue the Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery CIA's prohibited activities of support to selected political parties abroad.[2] See additional discussion underUSA 1983. This was an issue even before the CIA was formed. "The vagueness of Congress's prohibitions of "internal security functions" by the CIA left room for the Agency's subsequent domestic activity. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery A restriction against "police, law enforcement or internal security functions" first appeared in President Truman's order establishing the Central Intelligence Group (CIG) in 1946.[3] General Hoyt Vandenberg testified in 1947 that this restriction was intended to "draw the lines very sharply between the CIG and the FBI" and to "assure that the Central Intelligence Group can never become a Gestapo or security police." Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal testified that the CIA would be "limited definitely to purposes outside of this country, except the collection of information gathered by other government agencies." The FBI would be relied upon "for domestic activities." The CIA, however, did receive information gleaned from the activities of other agencies, Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery and did not necessarily notify internal or external oversight of inappropriate activities of which it was witting. Consequently, the National Security Act of 1947 provided specifically that the CIA "shall have no police, subpoena, law-enforcement powers, or internal security functions." Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery However, the 1947 Act also contained a vague and undefined duty to protect intelligence "sources and methods" which later was used to justify domestic activities ranging from electronic surveillance and break-ins to penetration of protest groups. CIA, however, was under no restriction in sponsoring organizations outside the US. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery In 1967 it was revealed that the Congress of Cultural Freedom, founded in 1950, had been sponsored by the CIA. It published literary and political journals such as Encounter (as well as Der Monat in Germany and Preuves in France), and hosted dozens of conferences bringing together some of the most eminent Western thinkers; Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery it also gave some assistance to intellectuals behind the Iron Curtain. The CIA states that, "Somehow this organization of scholars and artists — egotistical, free-thinking, and even anti-American in their politics — managed to reach out from its Paris headquarters to demonstrate that Communism, despite its blandishments, was a deadly foe of art and thought".Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery Since psychological operations can involve many variants of truth, it is useful to know the formal definitions used in the Intelligence Community. These definitions come from the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB), which, in 1954, was the White House organization that approved or disapproved covert and clandestine activities.[6] Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery Policy-level control has always been under the Department of State. White is acknowledged as an official statement or act of the U.S. Government, or emanates from a source associated closely enough with the U.S. Government to reflect an official viewpoint. The information is true and factual. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery It also includes all output identified as coming from U.S. official sources. The activity engaged in appears to emanate from a source (government, party, group, organization, person) usually hostile in nature. The interest of the U.S. Government is concealed and the U.S. Government would deny responsibility. Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery The content may be partially or completely fabricated, but that which is fabricated is made to appear credible to the target audience. Black activity is also usually designed to cause embarrassment to the ostensible source or to force the ostensible source to take action against its will. Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery In 1947, the Soviet-dominated Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) was created by Joseph Stalin. The conference, at which it was created, was a response of Eastern European countries to invitations to attend the July 1947 Paris Conference on the Marshall Plan. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery The Cominform's stated purpose was to coordinate the work of Communist parties, under Soviet direction, so the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin called the conference in response to divergences among the eastern European governments on whether or not to attend the Paris Conference on Marshall Aid in July 1947. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery The initial seat of the Cominform was located in Belgrade (then the capital of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). After the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the group in June 1948, the seat was moved to Bucharest, Romania. The expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform for Titoism initiated the Informbiro period in that nation's history. Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery The intended purpose of the Cominform was to coordinate actions between Communist parties, and a scores of Communist-controlled professional, artistic and intellectual groups under Soviet direction. The Kremlin had set up the Cominform in the early years of the cold war to coordinate the activities of the Cominform acted as a tool of Soviet foreign policy and Stalinism.[8] Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery In response, CIA psychological operators decided that the Cominform-controlled groups could best be countered by Western groups not only of intensely anti-Communist right-wing groups, but groups across the ideological spectrum. Many of them were unaware of CIA subsidy, or only a few leaders knew of the subsidy, and were not expected to follow orders. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery Wilford cited, as examples, the small magazines Partisan Review and The New Leader, received C.I.A. funds in one way or another, owed nothing to the agency, either in their founding or in their operations, and were not "front" organizations.[9] Other groups formed by the CIA, however, were true fronts, although some of the individuals being sponsored were unaware of the source of funds. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery The Central Intelligence Agency has made use of mass media assets, both foreign and domestic, for its covert operations. It was first reported on in the late 1960s, when it became known that the Congress for Cultural Freedom was largely funded by the CIA. In 1973, Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery the Washington Star-News reported that CIA had enlisted more than thirty Americans working abroad as journalists, citing an internal CIA inquiry ordered by CIA director William E. Colby.[10] The Church Committee was the first congressional committee established in the 1970s to look specifically into the CIA's past activities. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery Some classified information in the (unpublished) report of the Pike Committee was leaked to The Village Voice, which showed more details on the CIA's media manipulation. The Committee mentioned that the: CIA, as no doubt every other major intelligence agency in the world, has manipulated the media. Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery Full-time foreign correspondents for major U.S. publications have worked concurrently for CIA, passing along information received in the normal course of their regular jobs and even, on occasion, travelling to otherwise non-newsworthy areas to acquire data. Far more prevalent is the Agency's practice of retaining free-lancers and "stringers" as informants... Sony VAIO VPCS13X9E/B battery CIA acknowledges that "stringers" and others with whom the Agency has a relationship are often directed to insert Agency-composed "news" articles into foreign publications and wire services. U.S. intelligence officials do not rule out the possibility that these planted stories may find their way into American newspapers from time to time, but insist that CIA does not intentionally propagandize in this country." Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery CIA employees and contractors do sign an agreement to submit their works for pre-publication review. In some cases, there was no major problem, but other security review took litigation to resolve. It has been argued that some of the deletions requested by CIA were more to cover embarrassments than actual sources and methods, Sony VAIO VPCS12V9E/B battery but various disclosures or subsequent declassifications, in other cases, might have been judgment calls, but the proposed deletion made some sense. Such review, of course, does not apply to books written by people who have left the country and declared enmity against the Agency, such as Philip Agee and the book Inside the Company. Sony VAIO VPCF13M8E/B battery Sam Adams' book War of Numbers was published posthumously, based on notes he had hidden while a Vietnam analyst. One book that wound up in court was The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, by Victor Marchetti and John Marks. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z0E/B battery In the mid-1990s, the CIA named Chase Brandon, an operations officer who was assigned to South America, as liaison to Hollywood.[12] Brandon's film credits include The Recruit, The Sum of All Fears, Enemy of the State, Bad Company and In the Company of Spies. He has consulted for television programs including The Agency, Alias and JAG. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/L battery He has appeared on Discovery, Learning Channel, History Channel, PBS, A&E, and has been interviewed on E! Entertainment, Access Hollywood, and Entertainment Tonight.[13] Patterson criticizes the CIA assistance as being only to complimentary productions, including not running material, such as "the original pilot episode of The Agency, which was pulled. Sony VAIO VPCM13M1E/W battery It featured the spymasters preventing a plot by a Bin Laden-backed terrorist cell to blow up a fictionalized Harrods. The airing of such an episode might have pointed up the real CIA's corresponding lack of success in foiling the World Trade Center attacks."[12] According to Brandon, the agency would not endorse Spy Game, starring Robert Redford and Brad Pitt. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery The final rewrite "showed our senior management in an insensitive light and we just wouldn't want to be a part of that kind of project", said Brandon, who also withheld approval from 24, a Fox series about a fictional intelligence agency, CTU, that also suggests all is not hunky-dory in the company's upper echelons. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery And The Bourne Identity, based on the 1984 novel by Robert Ludlum, was "so awful that I tossed it in the burn bag after page 25".[12] Patterson observed "It used to be the case that if a movie explicitly condemned CIA actions - such as Under Fire - the studios could be counted on to bury it. Sony VAIO VPCF13M0E/B battery That was no longer true after Costa-Gavras's Missing won Jack Lemmon an Oscar in 1982, and Iran-Contra slimed the CIA in the late 1980s. Since then, "CIA renegade" has become a dependable staple not just of big-budget movies like Enemy of the State, but also of a million straight-to-cable action-schlockfests starring Chuck Norris or Steven Seagal."[12] Sony VAIO VPCYB2M1E battery In 2012, Tricia Jenkins released a book, The CIA in Hollywood: How the Agency Shapes Film and Television, which further documents the CIA's efforts at manipulating its public image through entertainment media from the 1990s to the present. The book explains that the CIA has used motion pictures to boost recruitment, Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E battery mitigate public affairs disasters (like Aldrich Ames), bolster its own image, and even intimidate terrorists through disinformation campaigns. Philip Agee suggested that funding from the CIA to the National Student Association, which had been formed in 1947, may have begun in 1950. Sony VAIO VPCY11M1E battery Tom Braden, head of the CIA International Organizations Division, is not clear, in an article, whether it was 1950 or 1951, but it clearly began in the 1950s and continued until 1967. Braden said that the Division was established in 1950, when Director of Central Intelligence Allen W. Sony VAIO VPCS12L9E/B battery Dulles overruled Frank Wisner, who headed the quasi-autonomous Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). Until 1952, OPC was the covert action branch of the U.S. government, loosely part of CIA but also with direct access and appeal to the Secretaries of Defense and State.[14] Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery Agee cites a New York Times interview with Frederic Delano Houghteling, then NSA secretary, as saying that the CIA gave him several thousand dollars to pay traveling expenses for a delegation of 12 representatives to a European international student conference.[15] Sony VAIO VPCYB3V1E/R Battery 1950 marked the beginning of the ten-year Crusade for Freedom, an operation to generate American support for Radio Free Europe that was covertly backed by the CIA. Under Frank Wisner and the Office of Policy Coordination, Operation Mockingbird was set up to put anticommunist messages into US news media. Sony VAIO VPCF23P1E Battery Wisner recruited Philip Graham, publisher of the Washington Post, to run the news aspects of the operation.[16] Columbia Broadcasting System began co-operating with the CIA. "To understand the role of most journalist‑operatives, it is necessary to dismiss some myths about undercover work for American intelligence services. Sony VAIO VPCF23N1E Battery Few American agents are “spies” in the popularly accepted sense of the term. “Spying” — the acquisition of secrets from a foreign government—is almost always done by foreign nationals who have been recruited by the CIA and are under CIA control in their own countries. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/L Battery Thus the primary role of an American working undercover abroad is often to aid in the recruitment and “handling” of foreign nationals who are channels of secret information reaching American intelligence. "Many journalists were used by the CIA to assist in this process and they had the reputation of being among the best in the business. Sony VAIO VPCY21S1E/G battery The peculiar nature of the job of the foreign correspondent is ideal for such work: he is accorded unusual access by his host country, permitted to travel in areas often off‑limits to other Americans, spends much of his time cultivating sources in governments, academic institutions, the military establishment and the scientific communities. Sony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery He has the opportunity to form long‑term personal relationships with sources and—perhaps more than any other category of American operative—is in a position to make correct judgments about the susceptibility and availability of foreign nationals for recruitment as spies."[17] Sony PCG-31211T Battery Formal recruitment of reporters was generally handled at high levels—after the journalist had undergone a thorough background check. The actual approach might even be made by a deputy director or division chief. On some occasions, no discussion would he entered into until the journalist had signed a pledge of secrecy. Sony PCG-31311T Battery “The secrecy agreement was the sort of ritual that got you into the tabernacle,” said a former assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence. “After that you had to play by the rules.” David Attlee Phillips, former Western Hemisphere chief of clandestine services and a former journalist himself, estimated in an interview that at least 200 journalists signed secrecy Sony PCG-51111T Battery agreements or employment contracts with the Agency in the past twenty‑five years. Phillips, who owned a small English‑language newspaper in Santiago, Chile, when he was recruited by the CIA in 1950, described the approach: “Somebody from the Agency says, ‘I want you to help me. Sony PCG-81111T Battery 1 know you are a true‑blue American, but I want you to sign a piece of paper before I tell you what it’s about.’ I didn’t hesitate to sign, and a lot of newsmen didn’t hesitate over the next twenty years.” This function, run by the Domestic Contact Service (also called the Domestic Contact Division) of the CIA, Sony PCG-81311T Battery was legal, as it did not violate the CIA prohibitions of police power or spying on Americans. It was a voluntary debriefing of Americans with useful information. It is now considered part of Open Source Intelligence OSINT. As Tom Braden, who headed the agency's International Organization Division between 1951 and 1954, wrote in 1967, when the subsidies were disclosed,[14] Sony VPCF138FC Battery Agee wrote that the CIA, in 1952, funded then NSA president William Dentzer, who later went on to become [ United States Agency for International Development ] (AID) director in Peru. The New York Times also identified Cord Meyer, Jr. as having headed the NSA operation.[15] Sony VPCF219FC Battery NSA leaders knew of the CIA sponsorship, although members, including those representing the organization internationally, may have had no more direction than persuasion from the leadership. The former were members, not employees, and could not be directed with threats of expulsion. Sony VPCS135EC Battery In addition to representation as a form of psychological operation, some of the leadership, according to Agee, provided intelligence reports to CIA.[15] Another organization set up on 26 June 1950,[5] as the cultural arm of the International Organizations Division, was the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Sony VPCS136EC Battery According to, which describes itself as "libertarian communist," it was intended to be anti-communist without necessarily pro-Western or pro-American. The Congress intended to build up the reputation of artists in the West whose work could in some way be viewed as supportive or at least uncritical of American foreign policy and free trade, Sony VPCS138EC Battery and to show Western Europe as somewhere where the arts were both supported and allowed to flourish uninhibited by the ruling elite. Due to its secrecy (any detection of state intervention in the Arts on this scale would have made a mockery of the idea that the West allowed more cultural freedom than the Soviets), Sony VPCS139GC Battery it managed to fund artistic activity which would never have received US State Department funding – the abstract impressionists, serialist composers, and many other “progressive” artists loosely aligned to the Non-Communist Left (NCL). “The CIA estimated the NCL as a reliably anti-Communist force which in action would be, Sony VPCYA15EC Battery if not pro-Western and pro-American, at any rate not anti-Western and anti-American.” Yet more complex is the clandestine support of perfectly legal organizations and individuals, especially with no interference with their expression, when it is believed that their beliefs, perhaps expressed in other places in the world, advance American policies.[19] Sony VPCYA16EC Battery In 1967, a number of clandestine subsidies to associations and journals became public. Given the CIA's prohibition from domestic activities, support of US groups with worldwide presence, such as theNational Student Association, were especially problematic.[21] The exposure, by Ramparts magazine, of CIA subsidies to the National Association, Sony VPCYA25EC Battery according toTime, led to the term "orphans", referring to nearly 100 private agencies that had been getting CIA money, and were affected by a Presidential order that support must end by the end of 1967. Time succinctly summarized the issue with "the question is whether, Sony VPCYA26EC Battery in a free society, it is right, wise—or necessary—for supposedly independent organizations to receive secret subsidies." Whatever the merits or demerits of the CIA's methods, most of these groups served the U.S. well in its contest for the faith and understanding of the world's workers and thinkers, students and teachers, refugees from yesterday and leaders of tomorrow. Sony VPCYB15JC Battery This led to the appointment of a presidential commission, headed by Under Secretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach, to figure out how the gap left by the CIA should be filled. ... a politically ambitious former California newspaper publisher who served with the CIA between 1950 and 1954, added further details. Sony VPCYA17GH/R Battery In an article in the Saturday Evening Post, Braden indignantly defended the CIA against charges that it had been "immoral" by recording some of the extremely useful things it accomplished early in the cold war. Sony VPCCW2S8E/W Battery The Robertson Panel was a committee commissioned by CIA in 1952 in response to widespread Unidentified Flying Object reports, especially in the Washington, D.C.area. The panel was briefed on U.S. military activities and intelligence; hence the report was originally classified Secret. Sony VPCCW2Z1E/B Battery Later declassified, the Robertson Panel's report concluded that UFOs were not a direct threat to national security, but could pose an indirect threat by overwhelming standard military communications due to public interest in the subject. Most UFO reports, they concluded, could be explained as misidentification of mundane aerial objects, Sony VPCY11S1E Battery and the remaining minority could, in all likelihood, be similarly explained with further study.[22] The Robertson Panel concluded that a public relations campaign should be undertaken in order to "debunk" UFOs, and reduce public interest in the subject, and that civilian UFO groups should be monitored. Sony VPCY11S1E/S Battery See the more recent article Arthur C. Lundahl#Unidentified Flying Objects, which addresses discussions in 1967. By 1953 we were operating or influencing international organizations in every field where Communist fronts had previously seized ground, and in some where they had not even begun to operate. The money we spent was very little by Soviet standards. Sony VPCW1 Battery But that was reflected in the first rule of our operational plan: "Limit the money to amounts private organizations can credibly spend." The other rules were equally obvious: "Use legitimate, existing organizations; disguise the extent of American interest: protect the integrity of the organization by not requiring it to support every aspect of official American policy." Sony VPCW1E8R/BU Battery A front organization organized in 1959 was the Independent Service for Information, set up at Harvard specifically for the purpose of getting some young anti-Communist Americans to attend a huge youth festival being organized by the Communists in Vienna. Sony VPCY11AGJ Battery Among those sponsored were Gloria Steinem who had just spent a year and half in India, where, we are told, she befriended Indira Gandhi and the widow of the “revolutionary humanist” M. N. Roy, and had met a researcher who seems to have been a C.I.A. agent or contact. Attractive and progressive, Sony VPCY11AHJ Battery Steinem was hired to run the I.S.I. and to recruit knowledgeable young Americans who could debate effectively with the Communist organizers of the festival, defending the United States against Communist criticism of segregation and other American failings. Sony VPCY11AVJ Battery In February 1967, Ramparts magazine reported that the CIA had been funding the National Student Association through a series of foundation cutouts. Resulting journalistic and other investigations led to the cessation of most CIA subsidies.[15] After reading of the disclosures, Tom Braden wrote about looking at "a creased and faded yellow paper. It bears the following inscription in pencil: Sony VPCY11M1E Battery Relationships with organized labor are not surprising, given the World War II activity of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) Labor Branch under Arthur Goldberg. European labor groups often provided OSS with volunteers to penetrate occupied Europe, and, with greatest danger, into Nazi Germany.[23] " Sony VPCY11S1E Battery [Arthur] Goldberg, head of the Labor Division of the OSS clandestine intelligence unit, later appointed to the US Supreme Court by President John F. Kennedy—was known at the time for his defense of the Chicago Newspaper Guild during its 1938 strike against the Hearst Corporation. Sony VPCY11V9E Battery Joining OSS/London in 1943, Goldberg convinced colleagues and OSS director, Gen. William J. Donovan, of the need to establish contact with underground labor groups in occupied and Axis countries. ... Because such groups were already major forces of internal resistance behind enemy lines, they constituted a readymade source of valuable military and political intelligence." Sony VPCY11V9E/S Battery Philip Agee left CIA employment, taking notes for his book, Inside the Company. In that book, he stated that he left with a good reputation. John Barron reports his resignation was forced "for a variety of reasons, including his irresponsible drinking, continuous and vulgar propositioning of embassy wives, and inability to manage his finances".Sony VPCY219FJ/S Battery Phillip Agee's book, Inside the Company, was published without CIA approval.[27] Agee, an avowed CIA opponent who moved to Cuba, disclosed a large number of the names and cryptonyms of personnel and operations. In 1991, Agee told Swiss journalist Peter Studer that “The CIA is plainly on the wrong side, that is, the capitalistic side. Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery I approve KGB activities, communist activities in general. Between the overdone activities that the CIA initiates and the more modest activities of the KGB, there is absolutely no comparison.” "After Colby left the Agency on January 28, 1976, and was succeeded by George H.W. Bush, Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery the CIA announced a new policy: “Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contractual relationship with any full‑time or part‑time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station” At the time of the announcement, Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery the Agency acknowledged that the policy would result in termination of less than half of the relationships with the 50 U.S. journalists it said were still affiliated with the Agency. The text of the announcement noted that the CIA would continue to “welcome” the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. Thus, many relationships were permitted to remain intact." Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery The National Endowment for Democracy was established as an overt quasi-public corporation, primarily funded by the U.S. government. In his doctoral dissertation, Hale cites a widespread opinion that NED provides, overtly, political assistance previously provided clandestinely by the CIA. Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery "This has led most observers – including many NED supporters – to conclude that NED is attempting to do overtly what was done covertly by the CIA in the past....NED has been careful to avoid any links with the CIA."[29] NED's own history cites the problems created by CIA clandestine approaches to affecting opinion related to U.S. goals: Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery "When it was revealed in the late 1960s that some American PVO's were receiving covert funding from the CIA to wage the battle of ideas at international forums, the Johnson Administration concluded that such funding should cease, recommending establishment of "a public-private mechanism" to fund overseas activities openly." Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery The NED recognizes the somewhat controversial inclusion of institutes for the main American political parties as "Even some who favored the Endowment's program questioned why—contrary to American political tradition—organizations affiliated with America's two political parties should receive federal funding... Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery As for their being favored over other entities, these four Institutes represent large public American institutions with substantial nationwide constituencies. This sets them apart from NGOs that work in the areas of democracy and human rights." Notre Dame law professor G. Robert Blakey, counsel for the House Select Committee on Assassinations, Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery states that the CIA withheld information from the Warren Commission and frustrated the efforts of the Congressional Committee he represented.[34] According to a 1997 New York Times article, the CIA conducted a covert propaganda campaign to squelch criticism of the Warren Report. Sony  VGP-BPS13 Battery The CIA urged its field stations to use their "propaganda assets" to attack those who didn't agree with the Warren Report. Another movie, The Recruit, received CIA assistance. Director Roger Donaldson said " When the Agency commits to providing their support to a project, Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery that can include letting a photographer shoot stills to help in designing sets, or, in certain instances, having the actors spend time in the building. By visiting Langley, the director says, he came to “understand how the space worked and looked. I needed a real sense of how a new person would feel when they saw the place for the first time." Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery The National Clandestine Service (NCS; formerly the Directorate of Operations) is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, mainly from clandestine HUMINT sources, and covert action. The new name reflects its having absorbed some Department of Defense HUMINT assets. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery The NCS was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service,[38] under the Defense Intelligence Agency. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery The National Clandestine Service (NCS) (known as the Directorate of Plans from 1951 to 1973 and as the Directorate of Operations from 1973 to 2005) is one of the Central Intelligence Agency's four main components. Created in 2005, the NCS "serves as the clandestine arm of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the national authority for the coordination, Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery de-confliction, and evaluation of clandestine operations across the Intelligence Community of the United States".[1] The NCS' current Director is John D. Bennett.

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