Tuesday, March 19, 2013

The first vice president was allowed

The first vice president was allowed to craft legislation and participate in debates, but those rights were taken away relatively quickly. John Adams seldom missed a session, but later vice presidents made Senate attendance a rarity. Interestingly, although the founders intended the Senate to be the slower legislative body, in the early years of the Republic, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery it was the House that took its time passing legislation. Alexander Hamilton’s Bank of the United States and Assumption Bill (he was then Treasury Secretary), both of which were controversial, easily passed the Senate, only to meet opposition from the House. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery In 1797, Thomas Jefferson began the vice presidential tradition of only attending Senate sessions on special occasions. Despite his frequent absences, Jefferson did make his mark on the body with the Senate book of parliamentary procedure, one that is still used to this day. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery The decades before the American Civil War are thought of as the "Golden Age" of the Senate. Backed by public opinion and President Jefferson, in 1804, the House voted to impeach Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase 73–32. The Senate voted against conviction 18–16. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery The Senate seemed to bring out the best in Aaron Burr, who as vice president presided over the impeachment trial. At the conclusion of the trial Burr said: This House is a sanctuary; a citadel of law, of order, and of liberty; and it is here–in this exalted refuge; here if anywhere, will resistance be made to the storms of political phrensy and the silent arts of corruption. (Master of the Senate, 14). Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery Even Burr's many critics conceded that he handled himself with great dignity, and the trial with fairness. Over the next few decades the Senate rose in reputation in the United States and the world. John C. Calhoun, Daniel Webster, Thomas Hart Benton, Stephen A. Douglas, and Henry Clay overshadowed several presidents. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery Sir Henry Maine called the Senate "the only thoroughly successful institution which has been established since the tide of modern democracy began to run." William Ewart Gladstone said the Senate was "the most remarkable of all the inventions of modern politics." (Ibid, 23) Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery Among the greatest of debates in Senate history was the Webster-Hayne debate of January 1830, pitting the sectional interests of Daniel Webster's New England against Robert Y. Hayne's South. During the pre-Civil War decades, the nation had two contentious arguments over the North-South balance in the Senate. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery Since the banning of slavery north of theMason-Dixon line there had always been equal numbers of slave and free states. In the Missouri Compromise of 1820, brokered by Henry Clay, Maine was admitted to the Union as a free state to counterbalance Missouri. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery The Compromise of 1850, brokered by Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas, helped postpone the Civil War. In the post-Civil War era, the Senate dealt with great national issues such as Reconstruction and monetary policy. Given the strong political parties of theThird Party System, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery the leading politicians controlled enough support in state legislatures to be elected Senators. In an age of unparalled industrial expansion, entrepreneurs had the prestige previously reserved to victorious generals, and many were elected to the Senate. In 1890-1910 a handful of Republicans controlled the chamber, led by Nelson Aldrich (Rhode Island), Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery Orville H. Platt (Connecticut), John Coit Spooner(Wisconsin), William Boyd Allison (Iowa), along with national party leader Mark Hanna (Ohio). Aldrich designed all the major tax and tariff laws of the early 20th century, including the Federal reserve system. Among the Democrats Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland stood out. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery From 1871 to 1898, the Senate did not approve any treaties. The Senate scuttled a long series of reciprocal trade agreements, blocked deals to annex theDominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands, defeated an arbitration deal with Britain, and forced the renegotiation of the pact to build the Panama Canal. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery Finally, in 1898, the Senate nearly refused to ratify the treaty that ended the Spanish-American War.The Senate underwent several significant changes during the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, the most profound of which was the ratification of the 17th Amendmentin 1913, which provided for election of senators by popular vote rather than appointment by the state legislatures. Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery Another change that occurred during the presidency of Woodrow Wilson was the limitation of the filibuster through the cloture vote. The filibuster was first used in the early Republic, but was seldom seen during most of the 19th century. It was limited as a response to the filibuster of the arming of merchant ships in World War I. Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery At that time, the public, the House, the great majority of the Senate, and the president wanted merchant ships armed, but less than 20 Senators, led by William Jennings Bryan fought to keep US ships unarmed. Wilson denounced the group as a "group of willful men".Sony VPCW11S1E/T Battery The post of Senate Majority Leader was also created during the Wilson presidency. Before this time, a Senate leader was usually a committee chairman, or a person of great eloquence, seniority, or wealth, such as Daniel Webster and Nelson Aldrich. However, despite this new, Sony VPCW11S1E/W Battery formal leadership structure, the Senate leader initially had virtually no power, other than priority of recognition from the presiding officer. Since the Democrats were fatally divided into northern liberal and southern conservative blocs, the Democratic leader had even less power than his title suggested. Sony VPCW12S1E/P Battery Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas, the Democratic leader for many years, saw it as his responsibility not to lead the Democrats, but to work the Senate for the president’s benefit, no matter who the president was. When Coolidge and Hoover were president, he assisted them in passing Republican legislation. Sony VPCW12S1E/T Battery Robinson helped end government operation of Muscle Shoals, helped pass the Hoover Tariff, and stymied a Senate investigation of the Power Trust. Robinson switched his own position on a drought relief program for farmers when Hoover made a proposal for a more modest measure. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery Alben Barkley called Robinson’s cave-in “the most humiliating spectacle that could be brought about in an intelligent legislative body.” When Franklin Roosevelt became president, Robinson followed the new president as loyally as he had followed Coolidge and Hoover. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery Robinson passed bills in the Hundred Days so quickly that Will Rogers joked “Congress doesn’t pass legislation any more, they just wave at the bills as they go by.” (Master of the Senate, 354–5) In 1937 the Senate opposed Roosevelt’s “court packing” plan and successfully called for reduced deficits. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery The popular Senate drama of the early 1950s was Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations of alleged communists. After years of unchallenged power, McCarthy fell as a result of producing little hard evidence for his claims while the claims themselves became more elaborate, even questioning the leadership of the United States Army. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery McCarthy was censured by the Senate in 1954. Prior to World War II, Senate majority leader had few formal powers. But in 1937, the rule giving majority leader right of first recognition was created. With the addition of this rule, the Senate majority leader enjoyed far greater control over the agenda of which bills to be considered on the floor. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery During Lyndon Baines Johnson’s tenure as Senate leader, the leader gained new powers over committee assignments. The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at the federal (national), state and local levels. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery On a national level, the head of state, the President, is elected indirectly by the people, through anElectoral College. Today, the electors virtually always vote with the popular vote of their state. All members of the federal legislature, the Congress, are directly elected. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery There are many elected offices at state level, each state having at least an elective governor and legislature. There are also elected offices at the local level, in counties and cities. It is estimated that across the whole country, over one million offices are filled in every electoral cycle. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery State law regulates most aspects of the election, including primaries, the eligibility of voters (beyond the basic constitutional definition), the running of each state's electoral college, and the running of state and local elections. The United States Constitution defines (to a basic extent) how federal elections are held, Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery inArticle One and Article Two and various amendments. The federal government has also been involved in attempts to increase voter turnout, by measures such as the National Voter Registration Act of 1993. The financing of elections has always been controversial, because private sources make up substantial amounts of campaign contributions, especially in federal elections. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery Voluntary public funding for candidates willing to accept spending limits was introduced in 1974 for presidential primaries and elections. The Federal Elections Commission, created in 1975 by an amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act has the responsibility to disclose campaign finance information, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, and to oversee the public funding of U.S. presidential elections. The eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the constitution and also regulated at state level.Sony VPCCW1S1R Battery The constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color, sex or age for citizens eighteen years or older. Beyond these basic qualifications, it is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate voter eligibility. Some states ban convicted criminals, especially felons, from voting for a fixed period of time or indefinitely. Sony VPCCW1S1T Battery The number of American adults who are currently or permanently ineligible to vote due to felony convictions is estimated to be 5.3 million.[1] Some states also have legacy constitutional statements barring the "insane" or "idiots" from voting; such references are generally considered obsolete and are being considered for review or removal where they appear. Sony VPCCW1S1T/R Battery Every state except North Dakota requires that citizens who wish to vote be registered. Some states allow citizens to register to vote on the same day of the election, see below. Traditionally, voters had to register at state offices to vote, but in the mid-1990s efforts were made by the federal government to make registering easier, in an attempt to increase turnout. Sony VPCCW1S1T/W Battery The National Voter Registration Act of 1993 (the "Motor Voter" law) required state governments that receive certain types of federal funding to make the voter registration process easier by providing uniform registration services through drivers' license registration centers, disability centers, schools, libraries, and mail-in registration. Sony VPCCW1Z4E Battery States with same-day registration are exempt from Motor Voter; namely: Idaho, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Voters unable or unwilling to vote at polling stations on Election Day can vote via absentee ballots. Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery Absentee ballots are most commonly sent and received via the United States Postal Service. Despite their name, absentee ballots are often requested and submitted in person. About half of all states and U.S. territories allow "no excuse absentee," where no reason is required to request an absentee ballot. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E Battery Others require a valid reason, such as infirmity or travel, be given before a voter can participate using an absentee ballot. Some states, including California,[3] and Washington[4][5] allow citizens to apply for permanent absentee voter status, which will automatically receive an absentee ballot for each election. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139N Battery Typically a voter must request an absentee ballot before the election occurs. A significant source of absentee ballots is the population of Americans living outside the United States. In 1986 Congress enacted the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA). Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery UOCAVA requires that the states and territories allow members of the United States Uniformed Services and merchant marine, their family members, and United States citizens residing outside the United States to register and vote absentee in elections for Federal offices. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery Though many states had pre-existing statutes in place UOCAVA made it mandatory and nationally uniform. "Generally, all U.S. citizens 18 years or older who are or will be residing outside the United States during an election period are eligible to vote absentee in any election for Federal office. In addition, Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery all members of the Uniformed Services, their family members and members of the Merchant Marine and their family members, who are U.S. citizens, may vote absentee in Federal, state and local elections."[6]Absentee ballots from these voters can often be transmitted private delivery services, fax, or email. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery Mail ballots are similar in many respects to an absentee ballot. However they are used for Mailing Precincts where on Election Day no polling place is opened for a specific precinct.[8] In Oregon and Washington, all ballots are delivered through the mail. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190E Battery Voters casting their ballots in polling places record their votes most commonly with optical scan voting machines or DRE voting machines. Voting machine selection is typically done through a state's local election jurisdiction including counties, cities, and townships. Sony VAIO VPCS11B7E Battery Many of these local jurisdictions have changed their voting equipment since 2000 due to the passage of the Help America Vote Act (HAVA), which allocated funds for the replacement of lever machine andpunch card voting equipment. The United States has a presidential system of government, which means that the executive and legislature are elected separately. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery Article One of the United States Constitution requires that any election for the U.S. President must occur on a single day throughout the country; elections for Congressional offices, however, can be held at different times. Congressional and presidential elections take place simultaneously every four years, Sony VAIO VPCS11M9R/B Battery and the intervening Congressional elections, which take place every two years, are called Midterm elections. The constitution states that members of the United States House of Representatives must be at least 25 years old, a citizen of the United States for at least seven years, and be a (legal) inhabitant of the state they represent. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery Senators must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for at least nine years, and be a (legal) inhabitant of the state they represent. The President must be at least 35 years old, a natural born citizen of the United States and a resident in the United States for at least fourteen years. Sony VAIO VPCS12A7E Battery It is the responsibility of state legislatures to regulate the qualifications for a candidate appearing on a ballot paper, although in order to get onto the ballot, a candidate must often collect a legally defined number of signatures. The President and the Vice President are elected together in a Presidential election.[9] Sony VAIO VPCS12A7R Battery The election is indirect, the winner being determined by votes cast by electors of the Electoral College. In modern times, voters in each state select a slate of electors from a list of several slates designated by different parties or candidates, and the electors typically promise in advance to vote for the candidates of their party (whose names usually appear on the ballot rather than those of the individual electors). Sony VAIO VPCS12B7E Battery The winner of the election is the candidate with at least 270 Electoral College votes. It is possible for a candidate to win the electoral vote, and lose the (nationwide) popular vote (receive fewer votes nationwide than the second ranked candidate). Sony VAIO VPCS12C5E Battery Until the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution of 1804, the runner-up in a Presidential election[10] became the Vice President. Electoral College votes are cast by individual states by a group of electors, each elector casts one electoral college vote. Sony VAIO VPCS12D7E Battery Until the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution of 1961 the District of Columbia citizens did not have representation and/or electors in the electoral college. In modern times, with electors usually committed to vote for a party candidate in advance, Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery electors that vote against the popular vote in their state are called faithless electors, and occurrences are rare. State law regulates how states cast their electoral college votes. In all states except Maine and Nebraska, the candidate that wins the most votes in the state receives all its electoral college votes (a "winner takes all" system). Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E Battery From 1969 in Maine, and from 1991 in Nebraska, two electoral votes are awarded based on the winner of the statewide election, and the rest (two in Maine, three in Nebraska) go to the highest vote-winner in each of the state's congressional districts. Incumbent Presidents and challengers usually seek to have a "balanced ticket", Dell 312-0749 Battery so that the Presidential candidate and the Vice Presidential candidates have complementary political support and political roles, allowing them to do well among different constituencies. Usually, there is some kind of balance, for example geographical, ideological, or in terms of (especially federal) government experience. Dell FU571 Battery The nominated Vice Presidential candidate is called the "running mate". Although incumbent Presidents can be challenged in the primaries, none have lost their party's nomination in recent times (although Gerald Ford in 1976 came close). The last incumbent President to not seek a second term was Lyndon B. Johnson, Dell KY265 Battery who stepped down after serving the remainder of John F. Kennedy's term and another full term (he was eligible for another term). The electoral college has long been criticized, for several reasons. It has been criticized[by whom?]for being undemocratic compared to a direct system of election. Dell KY285 Battery Another criticism is that creates inequality between voters in different states during the presidential election. Usually, only voters in swing statesdetermine the outcome of the election and as a result, it is claimed[by whom?] that the vast majority of Americans, who live in non-competitive states, are largely ignored by political campaigns. Dell MN631 Battery If the electoral college were abolished and if the whole country were treated as one district for Presidential elections, then the result would not depend on crucial swing states. The US Constitution deliberately created an inequality in the votes of very low population states, which are given a minimum of 3 Electoral college (EC) votes, Dell PT434 Battery and are therefore overrepresented compared with voters from larger states. For example, Wyoming has a population of 493,782 and 3 EC votes, 164,594 people per EC vote. California has a population of 33,871,648 and 55 EC votes, 615,848 people per EC vote. Abolishing the college and replacing it with a national direct system would also prevent a candidate from receiving fewer votes nationwide than their opponent, Dell Studio 17 Battery but still winning more electoral votes, which last occurred in the 2000 Presidential election. Also, the EC deliberately magnifies the vote for those receiving a higher percentage of the vote, thereby discriminating against candidates who do not have support concentrated in several states. Dell Studio 1735 Battery In 1992, Ross Perot won 18.9% of the national vote, but received no electoral college votes. The electoral college would require a constitutional amendment to be abolished, and since three-quarters of state legislatures would be required to ratify an amendment that would effectively redistribute voting power from many small states to numerically fewer large states, it is thought[by whom?]that an amendment would fail. Dell Studio 1737 Battery The House of Representatives has 435 members, elected for a two year term in single-seat constituencies. House of Representatives elections are held every two years on the first Tuesday after November 1 in even years. House elections are first-past-the-post elections that elect a Representative from each of 435 House districts which cover the United States. Dell Studio 15 Battery Special House elections can occur between if a member dies or resigns during a term. The delegates of the territories of American Samoa, District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands are also elected. House elections occur every two years, correlated with presidential elections or halfway through a President's term. Dell Studio 1537 Battery Typically, when a House election occurs in the same year as a presidential election, the party of the presidential winner will gain seats. On the other hand, there is a historical pattern that the incumbent president's party loses seats in elections that are held in the middle of a presidential term. Dell Studio 1536 Battery This may be because the President's popularity has slipped since election, or because the President's popularity encouraged supporters to come out to vote for him in the presidential election, but these supporters are less likely to vote when the President is not up for election. Dell Studio 1555 Battery As the redistricting commissions of states are often partisan, districts are often drawn which benefit incumbents. An increasing trend has been for incumbents to have an overwhelming advantage in House elections, and since the 1994 election, an unusually low number of seats has changed hands in each electionDell Studio 1557 Battery Due to gerrymandering, fewer than 10% of all House seats are contested in each election cycle. Over 90% of House members are reelected every two years, due to lack of electoral competition. Gerrymandering of the House, combined with the divisions inherent in the design of the Senate and of the Electoral College, Dell LATITUDE D600 Battery result in a discrepancy between the percentage of popular support for various political parties and the actual level of the parties' representation. State law and state constitutions, controlled by state legislatures regulate elections at state level and local level. Various officials at state level are elected. Dell Latitude D610 Battery Since the separation of powers applies to states as well as the federal government, state legislatures and the executive (the governor) are elected separately. Governors and lieutenant governor are elected in all states, in some states on a joint ticket and in some states separately, some separately in different electoral cycles. Dell Latitude D620 Battery The governors of the territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands are also elected. In some states, executive positions such as Attorney General and Secretary of State are also elected offices. Dell Latitude D630 Battery All members of state legislatures and territorial jurisdiction legislatures are elected, state senators and state representatives/assembly members. Nebraska's legislature is unicameral, so only senators are elected. In some states, members of the state supreme court and other members of the state judiciary are elected. Dell LATITUDE D800 Battery Proposals to amend the state constitution are also placed on the ballot in some states. As a matter of convenience and cost saving, elections for many of these state and local offices are held at the same time as either the federal presidential or midterm elections. Dell Latitude D820 Battery There are a handful of states, however, that instead hold their elections during odd-numbered "off years." Dell Latitude D830 Battery,Dell Latitude E5410 Battery,Dell Latitude E5420 Battery

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