Thursday, April 4, 2013

Gorbachev calls for a kind of perestroika

Gorbachev calls for a kind of perestroika or restructuring of societies around the world, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery starting in particular with that of the United States, because he is of the view that the late-2000s financial crisis shows that the Washington Consensus economic model is a failure that will sooner or later have to be replaced. According to Gorbachev, countries that have rejected the Washington consensus and the InternationalSony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery Monetary Fund approach to economic development, such as Brazil and China, have done far better economically on the whole and achieved far more fair results for the average citizen, than countries that have accepted it.[57] Gorbachev is also a member of the Club de Madrid, a group of more than 80 former leaders of democratic countries, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery which works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership. At the end of a November 1996 interview on CSPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books. He made the following reference to God: "I don't know how many years God will be giving me, [or] what His plans are." Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery In 2005, he said that Pope John Paul II's "devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us" following the pontiff's death. "What can I say—it must have been the will of God. He acted really courageously."[64] In a 1989 meeting, he had told him "We appreciate your mission on this high pulpit, we are convinced that it will leave a great mark on history." Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery Gorbachev was the recipient of the Athenagoras Humanitarian Award of the Order of St. Andrew Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 20 November 2005.[66] On 19 March 2008, during a surprise visit to pray at the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi, Italy, Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery Gorbachev made an announcement which has been interpreted to the effect that he was a Christian. Gorbachev stated that "St Francis is, for me, the alter Christus, another Christ. His story fascinates me and has played a fundamental role in my life." He added, "It was through St Francis that I arrived at the Church, so it was important that I came to visit his tomb." Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery However, a few days later, he reportedly told the Russian news agency Interfax, "Over the last few days some media have been disseminating fantasies—I can't use any other word—about my secret Catholicism, [...] To sum up and avoid any misunderstandings, let me say that I have been and remain an atheist." Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery Perestroika (Russian: перестро́йка; IPA: [pʲɪrʲɪˈstrojkə] ( listen))[1] was a political movement for reformation within theCommunist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery The literal meaning of perestroika is "restructuring", referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system. Perestroika is often argued to be the cause of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, and the end of the Cold War. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q Battery Perestroika allowed more independent actions from various ministries and introduced some market-like reforms. The goal of the perestroika, however, was not to end the command economy but rather to make socialism work more efficiently to better meet the needs of Soviet consumers.[3] Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/W Battery The process of implementing perestroika arguably exacerbated already existing political, social and economic tensions within the Soviet Union and no doubt helped to further nationalism in the constituent republics. Perestroika and resistance to it are often cited as major catalysts leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R Battery Although perestroika did, in fact, cause social unrest, it also gave the Soviet Union a new direction of foreign policy that led to achieving greater political power than ever before. Gorbachev changed the meaning of freedom for the people of the USSR. Previously, freedom had meant recognition of theMarxist–Leninist regime. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/P Battery Now, however, freedom meant escaping all constraints. He also ceased the persecution of religion under perestroika and allowed the publishing of previously banned books, such as Nineteen Eighty-FourAnimal Farm, and Doctor Zhivago. Although Gorbachev's attempts at Perestroika ultimately failed, he drastically changed the perceptions of the outside world towards Russia. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/Q Battery After Mikhail Gorbachev took the office of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in March 1985, he began a series of political reforms that were resisted by many established members of the Communist Party. However, Gorbachev appealed over the heads of the party to the people and called fordemokratizatsiya (democratisation). Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/R Battery For Gorbachev, demokratizatsiya originally meant the introduction of multi-candidate (but not multiparty) elections for local Communist Party (CPSU) positions and Soviets. In this way, he hoped to rejuvenate the party with progressive personnel who would carry out his institutional and policy reforms. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTB Battery The CPSU would retain sole custody of the ballot box. In May 1987 the unauthorized landing of German amateur aviator Mathias Rust next to the Kremlin enabled Gorbachev to remove many hardline opponents of his reforms, including Defense Minister Marshal Sergei Sokolov, from their positions in the military, and to consolidate his authority.[6] Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTP Battery Gorbachev increasingly found himself caught between criticism by conservatives who wanted to stop reform and liberals who wanted to accelerate it. Meanwhile, despite his intention to maintain a one-party system, the elements of a multiparty system were already crystallizing. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTQ Battery Despite some setbacks, he continued his policy of demokratizatsiya, and he enjoyed his worldwide perception as the reformer. In June 1988, at the CPSU's Nineteenth Party Conference, the first held since 1941, Gorbachev and his supporters launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTR Battery He again called for multi-candidate elections for regional and local legislatures and party first secretaries and insisted on the separation of the government apparatus from party bodies at the regional level, as well. He managed, in the face of an overwhelming majority of conservatives (i.e., higher authorities), to force through acceptance of his reform proposals. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTW Battery It would seem that the conference was a successful step in promoting party-directed change from above.At an unprecedented emergency Central Committee plenum called by Gorbachev in September 1988, three stalwart old-guard members left the Politburo or lost positions of power. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAB Battery Andrey Gromyko retired from the Politburo, Yegor Ligachev was relieved of the ideology portfolio within the Politburo's Secretariat, andBoris Pugo replaced Politburo member Mikhail Solomentsev as chairman of the powerful CPSU Party Control Committee. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAC Battery The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union then elected Gorbachev chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, giving Gorbachev the attributes of power that previously Leonid Brezhnev had. These changes meant that the Secretariat, until that time solely responsible for the development and implementation of state policies, had lost much of its power. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAD Battery Meaningful changes also occurred in governmental structures. In December 1988, the Supreme Soviet approved formation of a Congress of People's Deputies, which constitutional amendments had established as the Soviet Union's new legislative body. The Supreme Soviet then dissolved itself. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NBB Battery The amendments called for a smaller working body of 542 members, also called the Supreme Soviet, to be elected from the 2,250-member Congress of People's Deputies. To ensure a communist majority in the new parliament, Gorbachev reserved one-third of the seats for the CPSU and other public organizations. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCA Battery The March 1989 election of the Congress of People's Deputies marked the first time that voters of the Soviet Union ever chose the membership of a national legislative body. The results of the election stunned the ruling elite. Throughout the country, voters crossed offthe ballot unopposed communist candidates, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCB Battery many of them prominent party officials, taking advantage of the nominal privilege of withholding approval of the listed candidates. However, the Congress of People's Deputies that emerged still contained 87 percent CPSU members because of the previous seat-packing (one-third reserved for Communists). Genuine reformists won only some 300 seats. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCC Battery In May the initial session of the Congress of People's Deputies electrified the country. For two weeks on live television, deputies from around the country railed against every scandal and shortcoming of the Soviet system that could be identified. Speakers spared neither Gorbachev, the KGB, nor the military. Sony VAIO VGN-CS50B/W Battery Nevertheless, a conservative majority maintained control of the congress. Gorbachev was elected without opposition to the chairmanship of the new Supreme Soviet; then the Congress of People's Deputies elected a large majority of old-style party apparatchiks to fill the membership of its new legislative body. Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery Outspoken opposition leader Yeltsin obtained a seat in the Supreme Soviet only when another deputy relinquished his position. The first Congress of People's Deputies was the last moment of real control for Gorbachev over the political life of the Soviet Union. In the summer of 1989, Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery the first opposition bloc in the Congress of People's Deputies formed under the name of the Interregional Group of Deputies. The members of this body included almost all of the liberal and Russian nationalist members of the opposition led by Boris Yeltsin. A primary issue for the opposition was the repeal of Article 6 of the constitution, Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/P Battery which prescribed the supremacy of the CPSU over all the institutions in society. Faced with opposition pressure for the repeal of Article 6 and needing allies against hard-liners in the CPSU, Gorbachev obtained the repeal of Article 6 by the February, 1990 Central Committee plenum. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/Q Battery Later that month, before the Supreme Soviet, he proposed the creation of a new office of President of the Soviet Union, for himself to be elected by the Congress of People's Deputies rather than the popular elections. Accordingly, in March 1990 Gorbachev was elected for the third time in eighteen months to a position of Soviet head of state. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/R Battery Former first deputy chairman of the Supreme Soviet Anatoliy Luk'yanov became chairman of the Supreme Soviet, but for the first time in the history of the USSR this position was stripped of powers of the head of state. The Supreme Soviet became similar to Western parliaments. Its debates were televised daily. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/P Battery By the time of the Twenty-Eighth Party Congress in July 1990, the CPSU was regarded by liberals and nationalists of the constituent republics as anachronistic and unable to lead the country. The CPSU branches in many of the fifteen Soviet republics began to split into large pro-sovereignty and pro-union factions, further weakening central party control. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/Q Battery In a series of humiliations, the CPSU had been separated from the government and stripped of its leading role in society and its function in overseeing the national economy. However, the majority of its apparatchiks were successful in obtaining leading positions in the newly formed democratic institutions. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/R Battery For seventy years, the CPSU had been the cohesive force that kept the union together; without the authority of the party in the Soviet center, the nationalities of the constituent republics pulled harder than ever to break away from the union. Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/P Battery In May 1985, Gorbachev gave a speech in Leningrad which he admitted the slowing down of the economic development and inadequate living standards. This was the first time in Soviet history that a Soviet leader had done so. The program was furthered at the 27th Congress of the Communist Party in Gorbachev's report to the congress, Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery in which he spoke about "perestroika", "uskoreniye", "human factor", "glasnost", and "expansion of the khozraschyot" (commercialization). During the initial period (1985–87) of Mikhail Gorbachev's time in power, he talked about modifying central planning, but did not make any truly fundamental changes (uskoreniye, acceleration). Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/R Battery Gorbachev and his team of economic advisers then introduced more fundamental reforms, which became known as perestroika(economic restructuring). At the June 1987 plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), Gorbachev presented his "basic theses," Sony VAIO VGN-CS71B/W Battery which laid the political foundation of economic reform for the remainder of the existence of the Soviet Union. In July 1987, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union passed the Law on State Enterprise. The law stipulated that state enterprises were free to determine output levels based on demand from consumers and other enterprises. Sony VAIO VGN-CS72JB/W Battery Enterprises had to fulfill state orders, but they could dispose of the remaining output as they saw fit. However, at the same time the state still held control over the means of production for these enterprises, thus limiting their ability to enact full-cost accountability. Enterprises bought input from suppliers at negotiated contract prices. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90HS Battery Under the law, enterprises became self-financing; that is, they had to cover expenses (wages, taxes, supplies, and debt service) through revenues. No longer was the government to rescue unprofitable enterprises that could face bankruptcy. Finally, the law shifted control over the enterprise operations from ministries to elected workers' collectives. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90NS Battery Gosplan's (Russian: Государственный комитет по планированию, State Committee for Planning) responsibilities were to supply general guidelines and national investment priorities, not to formulate detailed production plans. The Law on Cooperatives, enacted in May 1988,was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. Sony VAIO VGN-CS90S Battery For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but it later revised these to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91HS Battery Under this provision, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. Gorbachev brought perestroika to the Soviet Union's foreign economic sector with measures that Soviet economists considered bold at that time. His program virtually eliminated the monopoly that the Ministry of Foreign Trade had once held on most trade operations. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91NS Battery It permitted the ministries of the various industrial and agricultural branches to conduct foreign trade in sectors under their responsibility rather than having to operate indirectly through the bureaucracy of trade ministry organizations. In addition, regional and local organizations and individual state enterprises were permitted to conduct foreign trade. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91S Battery This change was an attempt to redress a major imperfection in the Soviet foreign trade regime: the lack of contact between Soviet end users and suppliers and their foreign partners. The most significant of Gorbachev's reforms in the foreign economic sector allowed foreigners to invest in the Soviet Union in the form of joint ventures with Soviet ministries, Sony VAIO VGN-CS92DS Battery state enterprises, and cooperatives. The original version of the Soviet Joint Venture Law, which went into effect in June 1987, limited foreign shares of a Soviet venture to 49 percent and required that Soviet citizens occupy the positions of chairman and general manager. After potential Western partners complained, Sony VAIO VGN-CS92JS Battery the government revised the regulations to allow majority foreign ownership and control. Under the terms of the Joint Venture Law, the Soviet partner supplied labor, infrastructure, and a potentially large domestic market. The foreign partner supplied capital, technology, entrepreneurial expertise, and, in many cases, products and services of world competitive quality. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92XS Battery Gorbachev's economic changes did not do much to restart the country's sluggish economy in the late 1980s. The reforms decentralized things to some extent, although price controls remained, as did the ruble's inconvertibility and most government controls over the means of production. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Battery By 1990 the government had virtually lost control over economic conditions. Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies continued. Tax revenues declined because republic and local governments withheld tax revenues from the central government under the growing spirit of regional autonomy. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11L Battery The elimination of central control over production decisions, especially in the consumer goods sector, led to the breakdown in traditional supply-demand relationships without contributing to the formation of new ones. Thus, instead of streamlining the system, Gorbachev's decentralization caused new production bottlenecks. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery erestroika and Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms have similar origins but very different effects on their respective countries' economies. Both efforts occurred in large communist countries attempting to modernize their economies, but while China's GDP has grown consistently since the late 1980s (albeit from a much lower level), Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery national GDP in the USSR and in many of its successor states fell precipitously throughout the 1990s. Gorbachev's reforms were largely a top-down attempt at reform, and maintained many of the macroeconomic aspects of the command economy (including price controls, inconvertibility of the ruble, exclusion of private property ownership, and the government monopoly over most means of production). Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery Reform was largely focused on industry and on cooperatives, and a limited role was given to the development of foreign investment and international trade. Factory managers were expected to meet state demands for goods, but to find their own funding. Perestroika reforms went far enough to create new bottlenecks in the Soviet economy, but arguably did not go far enough to effectively streamline it. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H Battery Chinese economic reform was, by contrast, a bottom-up attempt at reform, focusing on light industry and agriculture (namely allowing peasants to sell produce grown on private holdings at market prices). Economic reforms were fostered through the development of "Special Economic Zones",Sony VAIO VGN-FW140AE Battery designed for export and to attract foreign investment, municipally managed Township and Village Enterprises and a "dual pricing" system leading to the steady phasing out of state-dictated prices. Greater latitude was given to managers of state-owned factories, Sony VAIO VGN-FW140D Battery while capital was made available to them through a reformed banking system and through fiscal policies (in contrast to the fiscal anarchy and fall in revenue experienced by the Soviet government during perestroika). Another fundamental difference is that where perestroika was accompanied by greater political freedoms under Gorbachev's glasnost policies, Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery Chinese economic reform has been accompanied by continued authoritarian rule and a suppression of political dissidents, most notably at Tiananmen Square. Another difference is that Soviet Union faced strong secession threats from their ethnic regions, Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/H Battery while China faced arguably less. Gorbachev's extension of regional autonomy only fueled existing ethnic/regional tension, while Deng's reforms did not alter the tight grip of the central government on any autonomous regions. In the 70 years preceding Perestroika, Russian individuals were categorized by scientific and cultural approaches. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/W Battery It was believed that the thought process of a person was strictly designated toward one particular social class. In reality, there were two different classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariats. This categorization system did not affect everyone, of course, but the general population belonged to one set of minds aside from others. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140FE Battery This approach was used due to its simplicity and ease of enforcement. The task of differentiating a friend from a foe was a remarkably easy thing to do, only in accordance to the “touchstone of class affiliation”.[9] The only way to take out these two conflicting mindsets battled over the liquidation of the opposing power –Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N Battery hidden undertones of the term liquidation were exile, confinement in a labour camp or physical extermination were the. According to Stalin, peasants at the time have been liquidated. At the same time, civilians of Russia didn’t just see deaths as just the physical take on, they saw it as a death of an idea or a new ideology. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N/W Battery This destruction of ideas lead to the belief that achievements, artworks or unpublished writings were all intellectual significances that were simply deleted from the face of the earth. This death penalty was a result of refusal to conform to the stated ideal of proletarian culture, science, painting and education along with many other factors. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery This resulted in an overload of ideologies by the end of the 1920s in the areas of science and education in the Soviet educational system. Russian individuals came up with rather new ideologies: “Everything that was progressive, was considered to be a proletariat way of thinking, Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E/W Battery and everything “reactionary” were deemed as capitalist ideas and were in need of re-instatement, or even worse, deletion.” At the time, there was no such idea that belonged to the general human value that rose above class boundaries. It was as simple as a community being “our people” or “our enemies”; same goes for individuals. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160AE Battery Before teachers were trained for the job, they were taught the history of ideas from both “progressive” and “reactionary” thinker’s points of view. The information that was learned by these teachers was believed to be the “most progressive” and “scientifically based”. But of course there is also a less successful side to this type of educational teaching: Sony VAIO VGN-FW160D Battery a turn on the situation occurred with the introduction of computers. By this time, any ideas that were present during the perestroika were shaved down. That lead to the beginning of self-criticism of Soviet education by educationalists, which further lead to newspaper articles and journals describing: “never had there been a worse thing than Soviet education.” Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery On January 27, 1987, a meeting of the central committee members occurred. The CPSU have Gorbachev present his criticism that justifying his policies of perestroika and glasnost as the only solutions to the problems of the Soviet Union. Over Gorbachev’s time in power, perestroika and glasnost were his most important goals. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E/H Battery Economic, social and political aspects of the Soviet Union have been partly implemented due to these two elements which heighten his seriousness of pushing toward his current objective. Also, Gorbachev’s vigorous campaign for perestroika and glasnost motivated him to move from Moscow to Vladivostok in order to propose his revolutionary changes in the Soviet society. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160F/E Battery One of the final important measures taken on the continuation of the movement, was a report that was at the central committee meeting of the CPSU titled: “On Reorganization and the Party’s Personnel Policy”.[10] This report was in such high demand in Prague and Berlin, that many people could not get a copy, Sony VAIO VGN-FW170J/H Battery as well as a sudden demand for Russian dictionaries in order to understand the content of Gorbachev’s report. Women were well armed with knowledge and abilities: there were women with the alphabet teaching the younger children how to read and write, there were women constructing both industrial plants and factories in their thirties, Sony VAIO VGN-FW180AE Battery and of course, there were women defending the Soviet Motherland all across the front and rear of the country during the occurrence of Perestroika. Women’s activism played a key part in the success of stabilizing the speed at which Perestroika took its toll on the country. Previously named positions were only few of their active roles of contribution. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180D Battery To women, their equality was granted as early as 1918. In the later years, organizations focused on the implementation of women into public life. They were allowed to teach, work and even arrange boarding schools and orphan homes for abandoned children.[11] But unfortunately, at the turn of the century, Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery these deemed necessary and fair integrations were never acted upon and never re-established. In the following years, the Soviet Women’s Committee was established and had successfully broadened their network across the country. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E/H Battery This committee brought their focus upon the assistance of employment and gain in professionalism with the community of women and battle against fascism in the Soviet Union. During the first years of perestroika, the women’s councils were granted independence and cast varying levels of political significance. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180FU Battery Unfortunately, not all of the women’s councils survived the post-perestroika years, but others managed to pull through, independently leading themselves forward – which signifies the success of the council. During the time of perestroika, women were given the ability to voice the concerns and difficulties of what they are currently facing with gender inequality. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EBH Battery The activism of women may be broken down into two general sections: one of which were during perestroika (1985–1991) and the other being post-perestroika: 1991–1993. During the first section of activism, the number or councils expanded in numbers so quickly, that by the end of the event, there were a total of 300 registers women’s organizations in Russia. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190ECH Battery Until this day, five of these organizations have international status, two of them have a national status and as many as fourteen have a republican status. All of these organizations around the country focused on very similar functions, but emphasized on the general equalization of rights between women and men. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EDH Battery Throughout these different councils, a vast amount of activities were established to enhance the amount and types of information a woman can learn in the Soviet Union. For example, the activities ranged from economic focus like providing services, running small businesses and training to more general employment jobs that may be sustained: Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NAH Battery like political lobbying and raising women’s advocacy. It is important to note that some female political leaders like Larisa Bogoraz, Valeria Novodvorskaya and Elena Bonner all established their power with the assistance of these organizations. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NBH Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NCH Battery,Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NDH Battery

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