Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Spiritism, or French spiritualism

Spiritism, or French spiritualism, is based on the five books of the Spiritist Codification written by French educator Hypolite Léon Denizard Rivail under Sony VAIO VGN-AW11Z/B Battery
thepseudonym Allan Kardec reporting séances in which he observed a series of phenomena that he attributed to incorporeal intelligence (spirits). His assumption of spirit communication was validated by many contemporaries, 
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among them many scientists and philosophers who attended séances and studied the phenomena. His work was later extended by writers like Leon Denis, Arthur Conan Doyle, Camille Flammarion, Ernesto Bozzano, Chico Xavier, Divaldo Pereira Franco, Waldo Vieira,Johannes Greber[52] and others. Sony VAIO VGN-AW150Y/H Battery
Spiritism has adherents in many countries throughout the world, including Spain, United States, Canada,[53] Japan, Germany, France, England, Argentina, Portugal and especially Brazil, which has the largest proportion and greatest number of followers. Sony VAIO VGN-AW160J/Q Battery
The physician John Ferriar wrote An essay towards a theory of apparitions in 1813 in which he argued that sightings of ghosts were the result of optical illusions. Later the French physician Alexandre Jacques François Brière de Boismont published On Hallucinations: Sony VAIO VGN-AW170Y/Q Battery
Or, the Rational History of Apparitions, Dreams, Ecstasy, Magnetism, and Somnambulism in 1845 in which he claimed sightings of ghosts were the result of hallucinations.[55][56]
Joe Nickell of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, wrote that there was no credible scientific evidence that Sony VAIO VGN-AW180Y/Q Battery
any location was inhabited by spirits of the dead.[57] Limitations of human perception and ordinary physical explanations can account for ghost sightings; for example, air pressure changes in a home causing doors to slam, or lights from a passing car reflected through a window at night. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190JAH Battery
 Pareidolia, an innate tendency to recognize patterns in random perceptions, is what some skeptics believe causes people to believe that they have 'seen ghosts'.[58] Reports of ghosts "seen out of the corner of the eye" may be accounted for by the sensitivity of human peripheral vision. Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NAB Battery
According to Nickell, peripheral vision can easily mislead, especially late at night when the brain is tired and more likely to misinterpret sights and sounds."[59]
According to research in anomalistic psychology visions of ghosts may arise from hypnagogic hallucinations Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NBB Battery
 ("waking dreams" which are experienced in the transitional states to and from sleep).[60] In a study of two experiments into alleged hauntings (Wiseman et al. 2003) came to the conclusion "that people consistently report unusual experiences in ‘haunted’ areas because of environmental factors, Sony VAIO VGN-AW190NCB Battery
which may differ across locations." Some of these factors included "the variance of local magnetic Žfields, size of location and lighting level stimuli of which witnesses may not be consciously aware".[61]
Some researchers, such as Michael Persinger of Laurentian University, Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YAB Battery
Canada, have speculated that changes in geomagnetic fields (created, e.g., by tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust or solar activity) could stimulate the brain's temporal lobes and produce many of the experiences associated with hauntings.[62] Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YBB Battery
Sound is thought to be another cause of supposed sightings. Richard Lord and Richard Wiseman have concluded that infrasound can cause humans to experience bizarre feelings in a room, such as anxiety, extreme sorrow, a feeling of being watched, or even the chills.[63] Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YCB Battery
Carbon monoxide poisoning, which can cause changes in perception of the visual and auditory systems,[64] was speculated upon as a possible explanation for haunted houses as early as 1921.
The Hebrew Torah and the Bible contain a few references to ghosts, associating spiritism with forbidden occult activities.[65] Sony VAIO VGN-AW190YDB Battery
The most notable reference is in the First Book of Samuel,[66] in which a disguised King Saul has the Witch of Endor summon the spirit/ghost of Samuel. In the New Testament, Jesus has to persuade the Disciples that He is not a ghost following the resurrection, Sony VAIO VGN-AW220J/B Battery
Luke 24:37–39 (some versions of the Bible, such as the KJV and NKJV, use the term "spirit"). Similarly, Jesus' followers at first believe Him to be a ghost (spirit) when they see him walking on water.[67]
Most of the Christian Church[ considers ghosts as beings who while tied to earth, no longer live on the material plane.[68] Sony VAIO VGN-AW230J/H Battery
 Some Christian denominations teach that ghosts are beings who linger in an interim state before continuing their journey to heaven. On occasion, Sony VAIO VGN-AW235J/B Battery
God would allow the souls in this state to return to earth to warn the living of the need for repentance.[72] Jews and Christians are taught that it is sinful to attempt toconjure or control spirits in accordance with Deuteronomy XVIII: 9–12.[73][74] Sony VAIO VGN-AW290JFQ Battery
Some ghosts are actually said to be demons in disguise,[75] who the Church teaches, in accordance with I Timothy 4:1, that they "come to deceive people and draw them away from God and into bondage."[76] As a result, attempts to contact the dead may lead to unwanted contact with a demon or an unclean spirit, Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF Battery
as was said to occur in the case of Robbie Mannheim, a fourteen-year-old Maryland youth.[77]. The Seventh-Day Adventist view is that a "soul" is not equivalent to "spirit" or "ghost" (depending on the Bible version), and that save for the Holy Spirit, all spirits/ghosts are demons in disguise. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H Battery
The Talmud[78] tells of a being called a shade שד that is similar to other creatures in that it lives and dies but consists only of a form but lacks matter that forms mass, thus rendering it invisible. Since it has no physical mass it is capable of transporting itself from one end of the world to the other. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF Battery
Belief in ghosts in European folklore is characterized by the recurring fear of "returning" or revenant deceased who may harm the living. This includes the Scandinavian gjenganger, the Romanian strigoi, the Serbian vampir, the Greek vrykolakas, etc. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H Battery
British folklore is particularly notable for its numerous haunted locations.
Belief in the soul and an afterlife remained near universal until the emergence of atheism in the 18th century. In the 19th century, spiritism resurrected "belief in ghosts" as the object of systematic inquiry, and popular opinion in Western culture remains divided. Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH Battery
bhoot or bhut (भूतભૂત, or بهوت) is a supernatural creature, usually the ghost of a deceased person, in the popular culture, literature and some ancient texts of the Indian subcontinent. Interpretations of how bhoots come into existence vary by region and community, Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery
but they are usually considered to be perturbed and restless due to some factor that prevents them from moving on (to transmigration, non-being, nirvana, or heaven or hell, depending on tradition). This could be a violent death, unsettled matters in their lives, or simply the failure of their survivors to perform proper funerals.[82] Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF Battery
In Central and Northern India, Aojha spirit guides play a central role. . It duly happens when in the night someone sleeps and decorates something on the wall and they say that if one sees the spirit the next thing in the morning he will become a spirit to and that to a skondho kata Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery
which means a spirit without a head and the soul of the body will remain the dark with the dark lord from the spirits who reside in the body of every human in Central and Northern India. It is also believed that if someone calls you from behind never Sony VAIO VGN-AW50DB/H Battery
turn back and see because the spirit may catch the human to make it a spirit. Other types of spirits in Hindu Mythology include Baital, an evil spirit who haunts cemeteries and takes demonic possession of corpses, and Pishacha, a type of flesh-eating demon. Sony VAIO VGN-AW51JGB Battery
There are many Malay ghost myths, remnants of old animist beliefs that have been shaped by later Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim influences in the modern states of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Some ghost concepts such as the female vampires Sony VAIO VGN-AW52JGB Battery
Pontianakand Penanggalan are shared throughout the region. Ghosts are a popular theme in modern Malaysian and Indonesian films. There are also many references to Ghosts in Filipino culture, ranging from ancient legendary creatures such as the Sony VAIO VGN-AW53FB Battery
Manananggal andTiyanak to more modern urban legends and horror films. The beliefs, legends and stories are as diverse as the people of thePhilippines.
There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture, some of which persists today. Sony VAIO VGN-AW70B/Q Battery
After death, a person's ghost normally traveled to the sky world or the underworld, but some could stay on earth. In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often actively involved in the affairs of the living. Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines. Sony VAIO VGN-AW71JB Battery
There are many references to ghosts in Chinese culture. Even Confucius said, "Respect ghosts and gods, but keep away from them."[84]
The ghosts take many forms, depending on how the person died, and are often harmful. Many Chinese ghost beliefs have been accepted by neighboring cultures, notably Japan and south-east Asia. Sony VAIO VGN-AW72JB Battery
Ghost beliefs are closely associated with traditional Chinese religion based on ancestor worship, many of which were incorporated in Taoism. Later beliefs were influenced byBuddhism, and in turn influenced and created uniquely Chinese Buddhist beliefs. Sony VAIO VGN-AW73FB Battery
Many Chinese today believe it possible to contact the spirits of their ancestors through a medium, and that ancestors can help descendants if properly respected and rewarded. The annual ghost festival is celebrated by Chinese around the world. Sony VAIO VGN-AW80NS Battery
On this day, ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. Ghosts are described in classical Chinese texts as well as modern literature and films. Sony VAIO VGN-AW80S Battery
A recent article in the China Post stated that nearly eighty seven percent of Chinese office workers believe in ghosts, and some fifty two percent of workers will wear hand art, necklaces, crosses, or even place a crystal ball on their desks to keep ghosts at bay, according to the poll. Sony VAIO VGN-AW80US Battery
Yūrei (幽霊?) are figures in Japanese folklore, analogous to Western legends of ghosts. The name consists of two kanji,  (), meaning "faint" or "dim" and  (rei), meaning "soul" or "spirit". Alternative names include 亡霊 (Bōrei) meaning ruined or departed spirit, Sony VAIO VGN-AW81DS Battery
死霊 (Shiryō) meaning dead spirit, or the more encompassing 妖怪 (Yōkai) or お化け (Obake).Like their Chinese and Western counterparts, they are thought to be spirits kept from a peaceful afterlife.Ghosts in Thailand are part of local folklore and have now become part of the popular culture of the country. Sony VAIO VGN-AW81JS Battery
Phraya Anuman Rajadhon was the first Thai scholar who seriously studied Thai folk beliefs and took notes on thenocturnal village spirits of Thailand. He established that, since such spirits were not represented in paintings or drawings, they were purely based on descriptions of popular traditional stories which were transmitted orally. Sony VAIO VGN-AW81YS Battery
Therefore most of the contemporaryiconography of ghosts such as Nang Tani, Nang Takian,[85] Krasue, Krahang,[86] Phi Hua Kat, Phi Pop, Phi Phong, Phi Phraya and Mae Nakhas its origins in Thai films that have now become classics.[87][88] Sony VAIO VGN-AW82DS Battery
The most feared spirit in Thailand is Phi Tai Hong, the ghost of a person who has died suddenly of a violent death.[89] The folklore of Thailand also includes the belief that sleep paralysis is caused by a ghost, Phi Am. Sony VAIO VGN-AW82JS Battery
There is widespread belief in ghosts in Tibetan culture. Ghosts are explicitly recognized in the Tibetan Buddhist religion as they were in Indian Buddhism,[90] occupying a distinct but overlapping world to the human one, and feature in many traditional legends. Sony VAIO VGN-AW82YS Battery
When a human dies, after a period of uncertainty they may enter the ghost world. A hungry ghost (Tibetan: yidagyi-dvags; Sanskrit: pretaप्रेत) has a tiny throat and huge stomach, and so can never be satisfied. Ghosts may be killed with a ritual dagger or caught in a spirit trap and burnt, thus releasing them to be reborn. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83FS Battery
Ghosts may also be exorcised, and an annual festival is held throughout Tibet for this purpose. Some say that Dorje Shugden, the ghost of a powerful 17th-century monk, is a deity, but the Dalai Lama asserts that he is an evil spirit, which has caused a split in the Tibetan exile community. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83GS Battery
There is extensive and varied belief in ghosts in Mexican culture. The modern state of Mexico before the Spanish conquest was inhabited by diverse peoples such as the Maya and Aztec, and their beliefs have survived and evolved, combined with the beliefs of the Spanish colonists. Sony VAIO VGN-AW83HS Battery
The Day of the Dead incorporates pre-Columbian beliefs with Christian elements. Mexican literature and films include many stories of ghosts interacting with the living.
One of the more recognizable ghosts in English literature is the shade of Hamlet's murdered father in Shakespeare’s The Tragical History of Hamlet, Sony VAIO VGN-AW90NS Battery
Prince of Denmark. In Hamlet, it is the ghost who demands that Prince Hamlet investigate his "murder most foul" and seek revenge upon his usurping uncle, King Claudius. In Shakespeare’sMacbeth, the murdered Banquo returns as a ghost to the dismay of the title character. Sony VAIO VGN-AW90S Battery
In English Renaissance theater, ghosts were often depicted in the garb of the living and even in armor, as with the ghost of Hamlet’s father. Armor, being out-of-date by the time of the Renaissance, gave the stage ghost a sense of antiquity.[93] Sony VAIO VGN-AW90US Battery
 But the sheeted ghost began to gain ground on stage in the 19th century because an armored ghost could not satisfactorily convey the requisite spookiness: it clanked and creaked, and had to be moved about by complicated pulley systems or elevators. Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CDS Battery
These clanking ghosts being hoisted about the stage became objects of ridicule as they became clichéd stage elements. Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass, in Renaissance Clothing and the Materials of Memory, point out, "In fact, it is as laughter increasingly threatens the Ghost that he starts to be staged not in armor but in some form of 'spirit drapery'." Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CJS Battery
An interesting observation by Jones and Stallybrass is that
...at the historical point at which ghosts themselves become increasingly implausible, at least to an educated elite, to believe in them at all it seems to be necessary to assert their immateriality, their invisibility. ... Sony VAIO VGN-AW91CYS Battery
The drapery of ghosts must now, indeed, be as spiritual as the ghosts themselves. This is a striking departure both from the ghosts of the Renaissance stage and from the Greek and Roman theatrical ghosts upon which that stage drew. The most prominent feature of Renaissance ghosts is precisely their gross materiality. They appear to us conspicuously clothed. Sony VAIO VGN-AW91DS Battery
Ghosts figured prominently in traditional British ballads of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly the “Border Ballads” of the turbulent border country between England and Scotland. Ballads of this type include The Unquiet Grave,The Wife of Usher's Well, and Sweet William's GhostSony VAIO VGN-AW91JS Battery
which feature the recurring theme of returning dead lovers or children. In the ballad King Henry, a particularly ravenous ghost devours the king’s horse and hounds before forcing the king into bed. The king then awakens to find the ghost transformed into a beautiful woman.[94] Sony VAIO VGN-AW91YS Battery
One of the key early appearances by ghosts in a gothic tale was The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole in 1764.[95]
Washington Irving's short story The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820), based on an earlier German folktale, features a Headless Horseman. Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CDS Battery
It has been adapted for film and television many times, such as Sleepy Hollow, a successful 1999 feature film.
The "classic" ghost story arose during the Victorian period, and included authors such as M. R. James, Sheridan Le Fanu,Violet Hunt, and Henry James. Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CJS Battery
Classic ghost stories were influenced by the gothic fiction tradition, and contain elements of folklore and psychology. M. R. James summed up the essential elements of a ghost story as, “Malevolence and terror, the glare of evil faces, ‘the stony grin of unearthly malice', Sony VAIO VGN-AW92CYS Battery
pursuing forms in darkness, and 'long-drawn, distant screams', are all in place, and so is a modicum of blood, shed with deliberation and carefully husbanded...”[97]
Famous literary apparitions from this period are the ghosts of A Christmas Carol, in which Ebenezer Scrooge is helped to see the error of his ways by the ghost of Sony VAIO VGN-AW92DS Battery
his former colleague Jacob Marley, and the ghosts of Christmas Past, Christmas Present and Christmas Yet to Come.
Oscar Wilde's comedy The Canterville Ghost has been adapted for film and television on several occasions. Henry James's The Turn of the Screw has also appeared in a number of adaptations, Sony VAIO VGN-AW92JS Battery
notably the film The Innocents and Benjamin Britten's operaThe Turn of the Screw.
Oscar Telgmann's opera Leo, the Royal Cadet (1885) includes Judge's Song about a ghost at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario.[98] Sony VAIO VGN-AW92YS Battery
Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things is a 1904 collection of Japanese ghost stories collected by Lafcadio Hearn, and later made into a film.
In the United States, prior to and during the First World War, folklorists Olive Dame Campbell and Cecil Sharp collected ballads from the people of the Appalachian Mountains, Sony VAIO VGN-AW93FS Battery
which included ghostly themes such as The Wife of Usher's WellThe Suffolk MiracleThe Unquiet Grave, and The Cruel Ship's Carpenter. The theme of these ballads was often the return of a dead lover. These songs were variants of traditional British ballads handed down by generations of mountaineers Sony VAIO VGN-AW93GS Battery
descended from the people of the Anglo-Scottish border region.
Professional parapsychologists and “ghosts hunters”, such as Harry Price, active in the 1920s and 1930s, and Peter Underwood, active in the 1940s and 1950s, Sony VAIO VGN-AW93HS Battery
published accounts of their experiences with ostensibly true ghost stories such as Price's The Most Haunted House in England, and Underwood's Ghosts of Borley (both recounting experiences at Borley Rectory). The writer Frank Edwards delved into ghost stories in his books of his, like "Stranger than Science." Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZFS Battery
Children’s benevolent ghost stories became popular, such as Casper the Friendly Ghost, created in the 1930s and appearing in comics, animated cartoons, and eventually a 1995 feature film.
Noël Coward's play Blithe Spirit, later made into a film, places a more humorous slant on the phenomenon of haunting of individuals and specific locations. Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZGS Battery
With the advent of motion pictures and television, screen depictions of ghosts became common, and spanned a variety of genres; the works of Shakespeare, Dickens and Wilde have all been made into cinematic versions. Novel-length tales have been difficult to adapt to cinema, Sony VAIO VGN-AW93ZHS Battery
although that of The Haunting of Hill House toThe Haunting in 1963 is an exception.[95]
Sentimental depictions during this period were more popular in cinema than horror, and include the 1947 film The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, which was later adapted to television with a successful 1968–70 TV series.[95] Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11EN Battery
 Genuine psychological horror films from this period include 1944's The Uninvited, and 1945's Dead of Night.
The 1970s saw screen depictions of ghosts diverge into distinct genres of the romantic and horror. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11MN Battery
A common theme in the romantic genre from this period is the ghost as a benign guide or messenger, often with unfinished business, such as 1989's Field of Dreams, the 1990 film Ghost, and the 1993 comedy Heart and Souls.[100] In the horror genre, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ11XN Battery
1980's The Fog, and the A Nightmare on Elm Street series of films from the 1980s and 1990s are notable examples of the trend for the merging of ghost stories with scenes of physical violence.[95]
Popularised in such films as the 1984 comedy GhostbustersSony VAIO VGN-BZ12VN Battery
ghost hunting became a hobby for many who formed ghost hunting societies to explore reportedly haunted places. The ghost hunting theme has been featured in reality television series, such as Ghost AdventuresGhost HuntersGhost Hunters International,Ghost LabSony VAIO VGN-BZ12XN Battery
Most Haunted and A Haunting. It is also represented in children's television by such programs as The Ghost Hunter and Ghost Trackers. Ghost hunting also gave rise to multiple guidebooks to haunted locations, and ghost hunting "how-to" manuals. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ31VT Battery
The 1990s saw a return to classic "gothic" ghosts, whose dangers were more psychological than physical. Examples of films from this period include 1999's The Sixth Sense and The OthersSony VAIO VGN-BZ31XT Battery
Asian cinema has also produced horror films about ghosts, such as the 1998 Japanese film Ringu (remade in the US as The Ring in 2002), and the Pang brothers' 2002 film The Eye.[101] Indian ghost movies are popular not just in India, but in the Middle East, Africa, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560 Battery
South East Asia and other parts of the world. Some Indian ghost movies such as the comedy / horror film Chandramukhi have been commercial successes, dubbed into several languages.[102] Generally the films are based on the experiences of modern people who are unexpectedly exposed to ghosts. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560N24 Battery
They usually draw on traditional Indian literature or folklore, but in some cases are remakes of western films, such as Anjaane, based on Alejandro Amenábar's ghost story The Others.[103]
In fictional television programming, ghosts have been explored in series such as SupernaturalGhost Whisperer and MediumSony VAIO VGN-BZ560N30 Battery
In animated fictional television programming, ghosts have served as the central element in series such as CasperDanny Phantom, and Scooby-Doo. Various other television shows have depicted ghosts as well. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P Battery

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