In English translations of the Bible, unclean spirit is a common rendering of Greek pneuma akatharton(plural pneumata akatharta), which in its single occurrence in the Septuagint translates Hebrew ruaḥ tum'ah (רוח טומאה). Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P20 Battery
The Greek term appears 21 times in the New Testament in the context of demonic possession. It is also translated into English as spirit of impurity or more loosely as "evil spirit." The Latin equivalent isspiritus immundus. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P22 Battery
The association of physical and spiritual cleanliness is, if not universal, widespread and continues into the 21st century: "To be virtuous is to be physically clean and free from the impurity that is sin," notes an article in Scientific American published 10 March 2009. Some scholarship Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P28 Battery
seeks to differentiate between "unclean spirit" and "evil spirit" (pneuma ponêron) or "demon" (daimonion).
In the Christian scriptures, the word pneuma (plural pneumata) is used variously for the human soul, angelic or demonic spirits, and the Holy Spirit, depending on context or with a grammatical modifier. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P30 Battery
New Testament usage of the words pneuma and daimonion in relation to demons follows that of later Judaism; the two words are to be distinguished from daimon, which appears only once (at Matthew 8:31) and in classical antiquity has a neutral meaning of "spirit" or "god,demigod." Sony VAIO VGN-BZ560P34 Battery
For those who practiced the traditional religions of antiquity, possession by a pneuma could be a desired state of visionary trance.
In the New Testament, the Greek modifier akatharton, although sometimes translated in context as "evil," means more precisely "impure, not purified," Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561 Battery
and reflects a concern for ritual purification shared with or derived from Judaism, though reinterpreted. In early Christianity, the catechumen was routinely prepared for baptism by exorcism even when demonic possession was not suspected; in the case of adult converts, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561N20 Battery
the "unclean spirits" to be driven away might be identified with the gods of other religions.
The practice of insufflation and exsufflation, or the use of released breath in ritual, depends on conceptualizing a spiritual entity as air in motion, "invisible yet active": Sony VAIO VGN-BZ561P20 Battery
both Greek pneuma and Latin spiritus had an original meaning of "breath, mobile air."
References to a "spirit of impurity" or an "evil spirit" (ruaḥ tum'ah) are found in the Hebrew Bible, in Rabbinic literature, and in Pseudepigrapha. Sony VAIO VGN-BZ562P Battery
It can be difficult to distinguish between a demon and an unclean or evil spirit in Judaic theology or contemporary scholarship; both entities like to inhabit wild or desolate places, and both are often identified with gods of other religions. One of the Hebrew synonyms for "demon" is shedim, Sony VAIO VGN-BZ563P Battery
which appears only twice in the Tanakh; originally a loan-word from Akkadian for a protective, benevolent spirit (sedu), it was used pejoratively because the gods worshipped by others were viewed as false and thus evil. The se’irim or śa‘ir are goat-demons or "hairy demons"(sometimes translated as "satyrs")Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAFS Battery
associated with other harmful supernatural beings and with ruins, i.e., human structures that threaten to revert to the wild. The demonic figure Azazel, depicted with goat-like features and in one instance as an unclean bird, is consigned to desert places as impure. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAHS Battery
The Babylonian Talmud says that a person who wanted to attract an impure spirit might fast and spend the night in a cemetery; in the traditional religions of the Near East andEurope, one ritual mode for seeking a divinely inspired revelation or prophecy required incubation at the tomb of an ancestor or hero. Sony VAIO VGN-BZAANS Battery
A cemetery, already a locus of "unclean" spirits or a multiplicity of gods, was considered an appropriate dumpwhen biblical leaders destroy sacred objects of other religions or statues representing the gods. To pneuma to akathartonappears in the Septuagint at Zechariah 13:2, Sony VAIO VGN-BZAAPS Battery
where pseudoprophetai ("false prophets") speak in the name of Yahweh but are possessed by an unclean spirit. This occurrence of "unclean spirit" is unique in the Tanakh; the Hebrew is rûah hattum’â.
The syncretic magical practice of late antiquity drew on Hebraic elements, Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/Q Battery
and spells from the Greek Magical Papyri evoke and attempt to command Jewish angels, demons, and other beings regarded as spiritually powerful. At one point, a compiler of the magical text emphasizes the Jewish aspect of purity, insisting that "this spell is Hebraic and is preserved among pure men",Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/R Battery
advising that the practitioner should keep himself pure and refrain from eating pork. The spell concludes with a protracted insufflation. A tradition of Solomonic exorcism continued into medieval Europe; an example is recorded by Gregory the Thaumaturge: Sony VAIO VGN-CS118E/W Battery
"I adjure you all unclean spirits by Elohim, Adonai, Sabaoth, to come out and depart from the servant of God."
Exorcism is the most thoroughly attested Jewish magical practice of the Second Temple period. The exorcistic technique of fumigation by incense depends on the aerial conception of the unclean spirit: Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P Battery
the occupation of air by odor or smoke (i.e., airborne particulate matter) was supposed to drive off or displace an unclean spirit. Since either body or soul could be unclean, it can be difficult to distinguish exorcism from traditional magico-medical practice in which apersonified illness is adjured to depart from the patient's body Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q Battery
(for instance, "Flee, Fever!") by means of a charm, spoken or inscribed on an amulet or other ritual object. In some rabbinic literature, demons are viewed as inflicting evil on human beings in part through illness and disease, though Mishnah andTannaitic scholars in Palestine did not view demons as the cause of illness. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11S/W Battery
The exorcism of demons or unclean spirits is one of the major categories of miracles attributed to Jesus. In the Greek New Testament, 20 occurrences of pneuma akatharton (singular and plural) are found in the Synoptic Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the Book of Revelation. Sony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R Battery
The phrase may be used instead of daimonion (50 occurrences) or a verbal form of daimonizesthai, "to be possessed by a demon" or "to be or act as a demoniac," as indicated by usage in parallel versions of the same story. Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/P Battery
Throughout The Gospel of Mark, the terms pneuma (with a pejorative modifier) anddaimonion seem to be equivalent.
In the narratives pertaining to the ministry of Jesus, temptation to sin is not the primary role played by demons, but rather the causing of disease, disability, Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/Q Battery
mental illness, and antisocial behavior; they defile and compel their human hosts to suffer both physically and spiritually. Although healing and exorcism are distinguished, they often appear in close association, and some afflictions are caused by demonic possession: the inability to speak at Matthew 9:32, Sony VAIO VGN-CS120J/R Battery
blindess at Matthew 12:22, deafness at Mark 9:17–29, epilepsy at Matthew 17:18, and fever and other diseases atLuke 4:39 and Luke 8:2. Mental illness, however, was the most common result.
The exorcism of an unclean spirit was the first act of Jesus's public ministry: Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTB Battery
21They went to Capernaum, and when the Sabbath came, Jesus went into the synagogue and began to teach. 22The people were amazed at his teaching, because he taught them as one who had authority, not as the teachers of the law. 23Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTP Battery
Just then a man in their synagogue who was possessed by an unclean spirit cried out, 24"What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are — the Holy One of God!"25"Be quiet!" said Jesus sternly. "Come out of him!" 26Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTQ Battery
The unclean spirit shook the man violently and came out of him with a shriek. 27The people were all so amazed that they asked each other, "What is this? A new teaching — and with authority! He even gives orders to unclean spirits and they obey him." 28News about him spread quickly over the whole region of Galilee. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTR Battery
Although "clean" and "unclean" were categories that served as markers of identity for Jews, distinguishing them from other nations and expressing Israel'sspecial "vocation to holiness," Jesus dismissed Jewish purity laws and in Mark 7:1–23 told his disciples they could violate them. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190JTW Battery
He touched those who were in ritual terms "unclean," including lepers, and healed them.
Jesus is said to have directly granted his 12 disciples the power to cast out unclean spirits and to heal. At Luke 9:49–50, John the Apostle reports that he Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAB Battery
and his fellow disciples have asked a man to stop casting out demons in the name of Jesus "because he isn't one of us," but Jesus replies that the man should be allowed to continue, since "anyone who is not against you is for you." Elsewhere, Jesus appoints 72 missionaries who also have the power to cast out demons. Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAC Battery
The attribution of animal-like qualities to demons continues from the Jewish tradition; like demons, animals may be classified as "unclean." Revelation 16:13 describes "three unclean spirits like frogs" (pneumata tria akatharta hôsbatrachoi); Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NAD Battery
frogs are unclean as animals for food in the Jewish dietary code. The association of unclean spirits withliminal areas such as ruins, cemeteries, and deserts also continues from Judaic belief; Revelation 18:2 speaks of the future ruin of Babylon as "a dwelling place of every unclean spirit and a haunt of every unclean and hateful bird." Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NBB Battery
Both animalism and transitional, liminal sites (marked in bold following) are involved in perhaps the most famous manifestation of an unclean spirit in the New Testament, the Gerasene demon whose name is Legion:
And they [Jesus and his followers] came to the other side of the sea, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCA Battery
as into the country of the Gerasenes. 2 And when he was come out of the boat, straightway there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit (pneumati akathartoi), 3who had his dwelling in the tombs: and no man could any more bind him, no, not with a chain; Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCB Battery
4because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been rent asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: and no man had strength to tame him. 5And always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, Sony VAIO VGN-CS190NCC Battery
he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 6And when he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and worshipped him; 7and crying out with a loud voice, he saith, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the Most High God? I adjure thee by God, torment me not. Sony VAIO VGN-CS50B/W Battery
8For he said unto him, Come forth, thou unclean spirit (pneuma akatharton), out of the man. 9And he asked him, What is thy name? And he saith unto him, My name is Legion; for we are many. 10And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country. Sony VAIO VGN-CS51B/W Battery
1Now there was there on the mountain side a great herd of swine feeding. 12And they besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them. 13And he gave them leave. And the unclean spirits (ta pneumata ta akatharta) came out, and entered into the swine: Sony VAIO VGN-CS52JB/W Battery
and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea, in number about two thousand; and they were drowned in the sea. 14And they that fed them fled, and told it in the city, and in the country. And they came to see what it was that had come to pass. 1Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/P Battery
5And they come to Jesus, and behold him that was possessed with demons sitting, clothed and in his right mind, even him that had the legion: and they were afraid. 16And they that saw it declared unto them how it befell him that was possessed with demons, and concerning the swine. Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/Q Battery
17And they began to beseech him to depart from their borders. 18And as he was entering into the boat, he that had been possessed with demons besought him that he might be with him. 19And he suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go to thy house unto thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and how he had mercy on thee. 2Sony VAIO VGN-CS60B/R Battery
0And he went his way, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him: and all men marvelled.
The pig is a suitable recipient because it is an unclean animal. "It was certainly not very kind to the pigs," the philosopher Bertrand Russell remarked, "to put the devils into them and make them rush down the hill to the sea." Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/P Battery
The need for the demonic pneuma to transmigrate into another body is expressed also at Matthew 12:43, where desert is a haunt for the restless spirit:
When an unclean spirit comes out of a man, it goes through arid places seeking rest and does not find it. Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/Q Battery
Chrysostom uses the phrase pneuma poneron frequently in his writings; it is typically translated "evil spirit." The nature of the vapors that inspired the Pythia has been the subject of much debate; see Science and the Pythia. For the Greeks, the Pythia was characterized by sexual purity; Sony VAIO VGN-CS61B/R Battery
her virginity is asserted in some sources, but in others she is said only to have dressed as a virgin and to have lived chastely, and was either an old woman or a married woman who gave up her family andcarnal relations to serve the god. Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/P Battery
A spell invoking Apollo in the Greek Magical Papyri requires ritual purification in the form of dietary restrictions and sexual abstinence; the spell implies that a sexual union with the god will result.The vapors said to arise from the grotto at Delphi were a pneuma enthousiastikon, "inspiring exhalation," Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/Q Battery
according toPlutarch. Although the vaginal reception of the pneuma may strike the 21st-century reader as strange, fumigation was a not uncommon gynecological regimen throughout the Hippocratic Corpus and was employed as early as 1900–1500 BC in ancient Egyptian medicine. Sony VAIO VGN-CS62JB/R Battery
Gynecological fumigation was also a technique of traditional Jewish medicine. The intertwining of the medical and divinatory arts in Apollonian religion was characterized as demonic by Christian writers. As a form of ritual purification, Sony VAIO VGN-CS71B/W Battery
fumigation was intended to enhance the Pythia's receptivity to divine communication; to the men of the Church, the open vagina that served no reproductive purpose was an uncontrolled form of sexuality that invited demonic influence, necessarily rendering the Pythia's prophecies false. Sony VAIO VGN-CS72JB/W Battery
The phrase pneuma pythona (or puthona) means "Pythonian spirit" or "divinatory spirit," and occurs only once in the New Testament. In Acts 16:16–18, after Paul and Silas visit a woman of Thyatira, they are greeted on their way to synagogue by a "working girl" (paidiskê), Sony VAIO VGN-CS90HS Battery
a slave who has earned a reputation as a gifted diviner; she is said to have a pneuma pythona, not akatharton or poneron, though the spirit is presumed to be evil. Through her employment she earns significant income for her masters; although the Christian text omits the fact, Sony VAIO VGN-CS90NS Battery
slaves in the Imperial Roman era were also permitted to keep and amass earnings for themselves, and in some cases could buy their freedom. The adjective pythona indicates a connection to the cult of Apollo, regarded as the greatest of the Greek oracular gods; Sony VAIO VGN-CS90S Battery
she is nevertheless inspired to acknowledge out loud that the two missionaries of the "most high god" (theos hypsistos; see also Hypsistarians) know the way tosalvation. For several days, she repeatedly voices this praise of Christianity. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91HS Battery
Although it is unclear why a Christian would dispute the truth of the paidiskê's message, and although Jesus himself had said "anyone who is not against you is for you" (see above and Luke 9:49–50), Paul eventually grows annoyed and commands the pneuma to leave her. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91NS Battery
This encounter differs from other exorcisms in the New Testament. Unlike Jesus, who usually heals at first contact, Paul drives away the spirit only after several days. The girl is depicted as neither physically tormented nor insane. Sony VAIO VGN-CS91S Battery
Paul saw the competing gods of the Greeks as demons. There is no crowd to witness Paul's miracle and proclaim the deed, but later the masters of the paidiskêhaul Paul and Silas into court for depriving them of a profitable business. Sony VAIO VGN-CS92DS Battery
The message itself is composed of two patterns characteristic of Hellenistic oracle: a recognition ("These men are … "), and a commendation of their trustworthiness. The only divinely inspired speech by a woman recorded in the Acts is that of the paidiskê, Sony VAIO VGN-CS92JS Battery
but she is characterized as mantic rather than prophetic. Although both are forms of divination, Plato had distinguished the two: the mantis became the mouthpiece of the god through possession, but the "prophecy of interpretation" required specialized knowledge Sony VAIO VGN-CS92XS Battery
of how to read signs and omens and was considered a rational process. The '"prophet" (προφήτης), usually male, could interpret the divinely inspired speech of a mantic.
Plutarch gives Pythones as a synonym for engastrimythoi ("belly-talkers" or "ventriloquists"),Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Battery
a suspect type of mantic who employed trickery in projecting a voice, sometimes through a device such as a mechanical snake. The snake was probably the chosen medium because of its association in myth with Delphi, where Apollo killed the serpent (the Python) to establish his own oracle there. Sony VAIO VGN-FW11L Battery
Plutarch and other ancient authors scoff at the notion that the god himself enters the body of a paid mantic for use as a mouthpiece. The early Church fathers, however, attributed the behavior of engastrimythoi to demonic possession. Like Chrysostom, Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Battery
the early Christian theologian Origen finds the Pythia's receptive vagina disturbing and uses the gender of Apollo's oracle as a way to disparage the Delphic religion, saying that if Apollo were a true god, he would have chosen a male prophet: Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S Battery
If the Delphian Apollo were a god, as the Greeks suppose, would he not rather have chosen as his prophet some wise man? or if such an one was not to be found, then one who was endeavouring to become wise? How came he not to prefer a man to a woman for the utterance of his prophesies? Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
And if he preferred the latter sex, as though he could only find pleasure in the breast of a woman, why did he not choose among women a virgin to interpret his will?
The sexual purity of a male prophet is not at issue, but sexual activity renders a woman unfit. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H Battery
The implication of sexual union between the god and a mortal woman is again viewed as a dangerous deception.
In one of his epistles to Timothy, Paul defines apostates as those who are drawn to "deceiving" or "seductive" spirits (pneumasin planois) and demonic teachings (didaskaliais daimoniôn). Sony VAIO VGN-FW140AE Battery
1 John 4:6 refers to to pneuma tês planês, "the spirit of error."
These pneumata plana are also found frequently in the apocryphal Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, where they threaten to lead astray the Israelites into varieties of immorality. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140D Battery
The "seven spirits of deceit" are porneia (sexual sins), gluttony, anger, hypocrisy,arrogance, lying, and injustice; "besides all these, the spirit of sleep, the eighth spirit, is conjoined with error and fantasy."
Luke is the gospel writer who was a physician, and while his profession may have motivated his interest, nothing suggests a medical diagnosis. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery
Astheniathroughout the New Testament means "weakness" or "powerlessness" of any kind, including sickness. Some have seen the affliction as ankylosing spondylitis, but an alternative interpretation is that hard labor over the years had bent the woman's back. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/H Battery
The incident has been examined at length from the perspective offeminist theology by Francis Taylor Gench, who views it as both healing and liberating; Jesus goes on to say that the woman has been freed from a kind of bondage to Satan. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E/W Battery
The breaking of bonds or chains is often associated with freedom from an unclean spirit; in the case of the Gerasene demon (above), the demoniac had the physical power to break chains as a result of possession. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140FE Battery
The pneuma alalon is a speechless spirit who renders the possessed mute (Greek alalon, "without speech"). It thus differs from most possessing demons, who are given to taunts and mockery (diabolos, the origin of both "diabolic" and "Devil," means "slanderer" in Greek). Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N Battery
Mark 9:14–29 relates that a boy is brought to Jesus for healing because he cannot speak; verse 25 adds that he cannot hear. This demonic possession manifests itself through symptoms that resemble epilepsy, as is suggested also by Matthew 17:15, Sony VAIO VGN-FW140N/W Battery
who uses a form of the colloquial verb seleniazetai ("moonstruck") for the condition. Although traditionallyepilepsy was regarded as "the sacred disease," Jews and Christians attributed the affliction to a demon. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery
Before Jesus, exorcism had been conducted by a trained practitioner who offered a diagnosis and administered a ritual usually employing spoken formularies, amulets or other objects, or compounds of substances resembling pharmacological recipes of the time. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E/W Battery
Jesus's approach seemed radical because it depended on spiritual authority alone. Jesus casts out the pneuma alalon in front of a crowd who exclaim "Nothing like this has ever happened in Israel!" The Pharisees, also witnesses, Sony VAIO VGN-FW160AE Battery
counter that "the leader of the demons gives him power to force out demons." This accusation leads to the "Beelzebub controversy." Mark 3:29–30 warns that attributing the power of the Holy Spirit to possession by an "unclean spirit" is a sin that cannot be forgiven. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160D Battery
The theological concept is difficult and subject to varying interpretations.
In Mark 3:20–22, Jesus returns home from performing miracles, but a crowd gathers: "There were so many people that Jesus and his followers could not eat. When his family heard this, Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery
they went to get him because they thought he was out of his mind. But the teachers ofthe law from Jerusalem were saying, 'Beelzebul is living inside him! He uses his power from the ruler of demons to force demons out of people'." In his response to this accusation, Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E/H Battery
Jesus says that speaking out against the Holy Spirit is an unforgivable sin: "Jesus said this because the people were saying that he had an evil spirit in him." Luke 12:10 clarifies that "if you speak against the Son of Man, you can be forgiven, but if you speak against the Holy Spirit, you cannot be forgiven." Sony VAIO VGN-FW160F/E Battery
In the period of post-Apostolic Christianity, baptism and the Eucharist required the prior riddance of both unclean spirits and illness. Because the possessing demon was conceptualized as a pneuma or spiritus, each of which derives from a root meaning "breath," Sony VAIO VGN-FW170J/H Battery
one term for its expulsion was exsufflation, or a "blowing out."
Exorcistic texts with Christian content have been found in papyri along with syncretic magic spells; in one Greek example of a fragmentary leaf from a codex, an exorcism that alludes to the birth of Jesus and his miracles appears along with a spell for silencing opponents, Sony VAIO VGN-FW180AE Battery
an invocation of the Serpent, a spell against a thief, a spell to achieve an erection, a "sacred stele," and a series of magical letters (χαρακτῆρες). The exorcism is distinguished from other early Christian magic charms that quote Bible verses and Psalms by its use of liturgical antiphonies and references to Christian creed. Sony VAIO VGN-FW180D Battery
The unclean spirit associated with a particular possession, or feared possession, might be identified as an individual and named. Gyllou, a type of reproductive demon that appears on Aramaic amulets in late antiquity, is described in a Greek text as "abominable and unclean" Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery
(μιαρὰ καὶ ἀκάθαρτος, miara kai akathartos), and is the object of a prayer to the Virgin Mary asking for protection.
In his Decretum, Burchard of Worms asserts that "we know that unclean spirits (spiritus immundi) who fell from the heavens wander about between the sky and earth," Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E/H Battery
drawing on the view expressed in the Moralia in Job of Gregory I. In his penitential, Burchard says that some people wait until cock's crow — that is, dawn — to go outdoors because they feared spiritus immundi. The fear is not treated as groundless; rather, Sony VAIO VGN-FW180FU Battery
Burchard recommends Christ and the sign of the cross as protection, rather than reliance on the cock's crow. The exact nature of theseimmundi is unclear: they may have been demons, woodland beings such as imps, or ghosts of the unhallowed dead. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EBH Battery
Spiritus immundus is the term corresponding to pneuma akatharton to address the demon in Latin exorcisms; see Of Exorcisms and Certain Supplications for text from a modern solemn exorcism adjuring the "unclean spirit" to depart a possessed person. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190ECH Battery
In Celtic Rite, the unclean spirit is evoked and exorcized per deum patrem omnipotentem, "by God, All-powerful Father"; the same phrase is used in both Gallican(exorcidio te, spiritus immunde) and Milanese exorcism. The Milanese rite prescribes exsufflation: Sony VAIO VGN-FW190EDH Battery
Exsufflat in faciem ejus in similitudinem crucis dum dicit ("Breathe out onto [the subject's] face in the likeness of the cross while speaking").
Such exorcisms are performed rarely by the 21st-century Western church; the more common exorcism involves the ritual preparation of holy water(aquae). Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NAH Battery
The 9th-century Stowe Missal preserves an early Celtic formula as procul ergo hinc, iubente te, domine, omnis spiritus immundus abscedat ("Therefore at your bidding, Lord, let every unclean spirit depart far from here"). In a Latin version of The Blessing of the Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NBH Battery
Waters on the Eve of Epiphany performed in Rome and recorded at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries, the unclean spirit is commanded per Deum vivum ("by the Living God"). Sony VAIO VGN-FW190NCH Battery