Byzantine naval dominance and Greek fire resulted in a major victory at the Battle of Akroinon (739); one of a series of military failures of the Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik across the empire that checked the expansion of the Umayyads and hastened their fall.In the reign of Yazdgerd III, the last Sassanid ruler of the Persian Empire, Sony VPCY21AFJ Battery a Muslim army secured the conquest of Persia after their decisive defeats of the Sassanid army at the Battle of Walaja in 633 and Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in 636, but the final military victory didn't come until 642 when the Persian army was defeated at theBattle of Nahāvand. Sony VPCY21AGJ Battery
Then, in 651, Yazdgerd III was murdered at Merv, ending the dynasty. His son Peroz II escaped through the Pamir Mountains in what is now Tajikistan and arrived in Tang China.Following the First Fitna, the Umayyads resumed the push to capture Sassanid lands and began to move towards the conquest of lands east and north of the plateau towards Greater Khorasan and the Silk Road along Transoxiana. Sony VPCY21AHJ Battery Following the collapse of the Sassanids, these regions had fallen under the sway of local Iranian and Turkic tribes as well as the Tang Dynasty. The conquest ofTransoxiana (Ar. Ma wara' al-nahr) was chiefly the work of Qutayba ibn Muslim, who between 705 and 715 expanded Muslim control over Sogdiana, Khwarezm and theJaxartes valley up to Ferghana. Sony VPCY21AVJ Battery Following Qutayba's death in 715, local revolts and the defeats at the hands of the Chinese-sponsored Turgesh (chiefly the "Day of Thirst" in 724 and the Battle of the Defile in 731) led to a gradual loss of the province: by 738, the Turgesh and their Sogdian allies were raiding Khurasan south of the Oxus. Sony VPCY21S1E/L Battery However, the murder of the Turgesh khagan, Su-lu, and the conciliatory policies of Nasr ibn Sayyar towards the native population opened the way for a swift, albeit not total, restoration of Muslim control over Transoxiana in 739–741. Muslim control over the region was consolidated with the defeat of the armies of Tang China in the Battle of Talas in 751.. Sony VPCY21S1E/P Battery During the period of early Rajput supremacy in North and North-West India(modern day Pakistan) (7th century), the first Muslim invasions were carried out simultaneously with the expansion towards Central Asia. In 664, forces led by Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah began launching raids from Persia, striking Multan in the southern Punjab, in what is today Pakistan. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI Battery
In 711, an expedition led by Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir at what is now Hyderabad in Sindh, and established the Umayyad domination in the area by 712.The west of Indian sub-continent was then divided into many states. Their relation between each other were very weak. Al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf the ruler of Iraq knew this and waited for the best moment to strike. Sony VPCCW1E8R/WU Battery
As Muslim Empire and Dahir's kingdom were contiguous to each other, frequent border clashes took place. As a result relation between the two got worse.The King of Ceylon, the present Sri Lanka sent many 8 ships full of gifts for the Calipf Al-Walid and the ruler of present Iraq, Hajjaj Bin Yosuf. But the pirates plundered the ships at the Debal of Sindh, which is now known as "Karachi". Sony VPCCW1S1E Battery Same Pirates were also involved in plundering the innocent merchants and cities near the coast. A woman was also victim of those Pirates acts. In response to the letter sent by her to Hajjaj Bin yousaf in early 711 AD, he demanded to take action against Pirates from Raja Dahir. But Raja Dahir denied to take responsibility for the crimes committed by the pirates. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery
For all these reasons. Hajjaj Bin yousaf sent soldiers against Dahir. But first two expeditions failed. Then in 712 CE Hajjaj sent the third expedition. The commander-in-chief of this expedition was Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi the nephew and son-in-law of Hajjaj.
Qasim subdued the whole of what is modern Pakistan, from Karachi to Multan. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1T Battery
After his recall, however, the region devolved into the semi-independent states ofMansura and Multan ruled by local Muslim converts. The Arabs were effectively driven out after the defeats inflicted on them by the Gurjara Pratiharas[ The emir of Sindh paid tribute to the Rashtrakuta king of Southern India[citation Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery
Further Muslim conquests in India were halted after the defeat of Arabs in Battle of Rajasthan at the hands of Hindu kings.The conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania commenced when the Moors (Black Africans, Berbers and Arabs) invaded Visigothic Christian Iberia (modernSpain, Portugal, Andorra, Septimania) in the year 711. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery
Under their Moorish leader, Tariq ibn Ziyad, they landed at Gibraltar on April 30 and worked their way northward. Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa bin Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsula was brought under Islamic rule—save for small areas in the northwest (Asturias, Cantabria) and largely Basque regions in the western Pyrenees. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery
This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalus, became first an Emirate and then an independent Umayyad Caliphate, the Caliphate of Córdoba, after the overthrowing of the dynasty in Damascus by the Abbasids. When the Caliphate dissolved in 1031 due to the effects of the Fitna of al-Ándalus, Sony VAIO PCG-7141M Battery
the territory split into small Taifas, and gradually the Christian kingdoms started the Reconquest up to 1492, when Granada, the last kingdom of Al-Andalus fell under the Catholic Monarchs.
The success of the Bulgarian Empire and the Byzantine Empire in dispelling the second Umayyad siege of Constantinople halted further conquests of Asia Minor in 718. Sony VAIO PCG-7143M Battery
In 716 Khan Tervel signed an important agreement with Byzantium. During the siege of Constantinople in 717–718 he sent 50,000 troops to help the besieged city. In the decisive battle the Bulgarians massacred around 30,000 Arabs and Khan Tervel was called The saviour of Europe by his contemporaries. Sony VAIO PCG-7151M Battery
After their success in overrunning the Iberian peninsula, the Umayyads had moved northeast over the Pyrenees where they were defeated in 721 at the Battle of Toulouse and then at the Battle of Covadonga. A second invasion was stopped by the Frankish Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours in 732 and then at theBattle of the River Berre checking the Umayyad expansion at Narbonne. Sony VAIO PCG-7154M Battery
The Türgesh Kaganate, a Turkic dynasty of the 700s, saw significant initial success fighting against the Umayyads. In 717, the Kara Turgesh elected Suluk as their Khaghan. The new ruler moved his capital to Balasagun in the Chuy valley, receiving the homage of several chieftains formerly bond to the service Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery
of BilgeKhaghan of the Türküt. Suluk acted as a bulwark against further Umayyad encroachment from the south: the Arabs had indeed become a major player in recent times, despite the fact that Islam had yet to make many converts in central Asia. Suluk's aim was to reconquer all of Transoxiana from the Arab invaders - his series of conquests was paralleled to the west by the activity of the Khazar empire. Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery
In 721 Turgesh forces, led by Kül Chor, defated the Caliphal army commanded by Sa'id ibn Abdu'l-Aziz near Samarkand. Sa'id's successor, Al-Kharashi, massacred Turks and Sogdian refugees in Khujand, causing an influx of refugees towards the Turgesh. In 724 Caliph Hisham sent a new governor to Khorasan, Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery
Muslim ibn Sa'id, with orders to crush the "Turks" once and for all. Confronted by Suluk on the way, however, Muslim reached Samarkand with only a handful of survivors, and the Turgesh were enabled to raid freely. A string of subsequent appointees of Hisham were soundly defeated by Suluk, who in 728 even managed to take Bukhara and later on destroyed a large part of the Caliphate's army in Khurasan, Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery
discrediting Umayyad rule and maybe putting the foundations for the Abbasid revolution. The Turgesh state was at its apex of glory, controlling Sogdiana, theFerghana Valley. It was only in 732, that two powerful Arab expeditions to Samarkand managed, if with embarrassing losses, to reestablish Caliphal authority in the area; Sony VAIO PCG-71312M Battery
Suluk renounced his ambitions over Samarkand and abandoned Bukhara, withdrawing north. In 734 an early Abbasid follower, al-Harith ibn Surayj, rose in revolt against Umayyad rule and took Balkh and Marv before defecting to the Turgesh three years later, defeated. In 738 Suluk, along with his allies Ibn Surayj, Sony VAIO PCG-7144M Battery
Gurak (a Turco-Sogdian leader) and men from Usrushana, Tashkent and Khuttal to launch a final offensive. He entered Jowzjan but was defeated by the Umayyad governor Asad at the Battle of Sa'n or Kharistan.
In 738, the Umayyad armies were defeated by the Indian Hindu kings at the Battle of Rajasthan, checking the eastern expansion of the empire. Sony VAIO PCG-7191L Battery
In 740, the Berber Revolt weakened Umayyad ability to launch any further expeditions and, after the Abbasid overthrow in 756 at Cordoba, a separate Arab state was established on the Iberian peninsula, even as the Muhallabids were unable to keep Ifriqiya from political fragmentation. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M Battery
In the east, internal revolts and local dissent led to the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty. The Khariji and Zaidi revolts coupled with mawali dissatisfaction as second class citizens in respect to Arabs created the support base necessary for the Abbasid revolt in 748. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M Battery
The Abbasids were soon involved in numerous Shiarevolts and the breakaway of Ifriqiya from the Caliph's authority completely in the case of the Idrisids and Rustamids and nominally under the Aghlabids, under whom Muslim rule was extended temporarily to Sicily and mainland Italy before being overrun by the competing Fatimids. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M Battery
The Abbasid caliph, even as he competed for authority with the Fatimid Caliph, also had to devolve greater power to the increasing power of regional rulers. This began the process of fragmentation that soon gave rise to numerous local ruling dynasties who would contend for territory with each other and eventually establish kingdoms and empires Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M Battery
and push the boundaries of the Muslim world on their own authority, giving rise to Mamluk and Turkic dynasties such as theSeljuks, Khwarezmshahs and the Ayyubids who fought the crusades, as well as the Ghaznavids and Ghorids who conquered India.
In Iberia, Charles Martel's son, Pippin the Younger, retook Narbonne, Sony VAIO PCG-8141M Battery
and his grandson Charlemagne actually established the Marca Hispanica across the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Girona in 785 and Barcelona in 801. This formed a permanent buffer zone against Muslims, with Frankish strongholds in Iberia (the Carolingian Empire Spanish Marches), Sony VAIO PCG-8161M Battery
which became the basis, along with the King of Asturias for the Reconquista, spanning 700 years which after the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba contested with both the successor taifas as well as the African-based Muslim empires, such as the Almoravidsand Almohads, until all of the Muslims were expelled from the Iberian peninsula. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M Battery
After 2 attempts at military conquest of Nubia failed (see First Battle of Dongola), the Arab commander in Egypt concluded the first in a series of regularly renewed treaties known as AlBaqt (pactum) with the Nubians, this governed the relations between the two peoples for more than six hundred years. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M Battery
Thereafter Islam progressed peacefully in the area through intermarriages with Nubians and contact with Arab merchants and settlers. It should be noted that according to some Muslim sources the second invasion of Nubia by the Muslims was actually a victory which led to the AlBaqt treaty. In one Muslim source the leader of the second invasion, Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M Battery
Abdullah ibn Sad ibn Abi Sarh, is actually called the conqueror of Nubia
In 1171 AD the Nubians invaded Egypt, but were defeated by the Muslim Ayyubids. From 1172 - 1173 AD the Muslim Ayyubids fought and defeated another Nubian invasion force from Makuria which had penetrated Egypt. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M Battery
This time the Muslim Ayyubids not only repelled the invasion, but actually conquered some parts of northern Nubia in retaliation.
In the late 13th century the Muslim Sultan of Egypt,Sultan Baybar, defeated and subjugated the kingdom of Nubia(Makuria) . Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1M Battery
Sultan Baybar made the Kingdom of Nubia(Makuria) a vassal state of Egypt. Decades later In 1315 the Christian kingdom of Makuria was conquered by the Muslim Mamelukes, and a Muslim prince of Nubian royal blood was placed on the throne of Dongola as king.
During the 15th century, the Funj, an indigenous people appeared in southern Nubia and established the Kingdom of Sinnar, Sony VAIO PCG-7171M Battery
also known as As-Saltana az-Zarqa (the Blue Sultanate). The kingdom officially converted to Islam in 1523 and by 1606 it had supplanted the old Christian Nubian kingdom of Alwa (Alodia) and controlled an area spreading over the northern and central regions of modern day Sudan thereby becoming the first Islamic Kingdom in Sudan. Their kingdom lasted until 1821. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M Battery
The Aghlabids rulers of Ifriqiya under the Abbasids, using present-day Tunisia as their launching pad conquered Palermo in 831, Messina in 842, Enna in 859,Syracuse in 878, Catania in 900 and the final Byzantine stronghold, the fortress of Taormina, in 902 setting up emirates in Sicily. In 846 the Aghlabids sacked Rome. Sony VAIO PCG-81112M Battery
Berber and Tulunid rebellions quickly led to the rise of the Fatimids taking over Aghlabid territory . The Kalbid dynasty administered the Emirate of Sicily for the Fatimids by proxy from 948. By 1053 the dynasty died out in a dynastic struggle and interference from the Berber Zirids of Ifriqiya led to its breakdown into small fiefdoms which were captured by the Italo-Normans by 1091. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M Battery
The Abbasid period saw initial expansion and the capture of Crete (840). The Abbasids soon shifted their attention towards the east. During the later fragmentation of the Abbasid rule and the rise of their Shiite rivals the Fatimids and Buyids, a resurgent Byzantium recaptured Crete and Cilicia in 961, Cyprusin 965, and pushed into the Levant by 975. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M Battery
The Byzantines successfully contested with the Fatimids for influence in the region until the arrival of the Seljuq Turks who first allied with the Abbasids and then ruled as the de facto rulers.
In 1068 Alp Arslan and allied Turkmen tribes recaptured many Abbasid lands and even invaded Byzantine regions, pushing further into eastern and central Anatolia after a major victory at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M Battery
The disintegration of the Seljuk dynasty, the first unified Turkic dynasty, resulted in the rise of subsequent, smaller, rival Turkic kingdoms such as the Danishmends, the Sultanate of Rûm, and various Atabegs who contested the control of the region during theCrusades and incrementally expanded across Anatolia until the rise of the Ottoman Empire. Sony VAIO PCG-61111M Battery
After the Mongol Empire destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate, rampaged through most of the Muslim world following the Battle of Baghdad (1258), they soon converted to Islam, beginning an era of Turkic and Mongol expansions of Muslim rule into Eastern Europe Central Asia and India. Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. Sony VAIO PCG-51112M Battery
Unlike his predecessors Timur was also a devout Muslim (As he converted after the conquest of Damascus) and referred to himself as theSword of Islam. His armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and multicultural. During his lifetime Timur would emerge as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the formidable Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, Sony VAIO PCG-51211M Battery
the emerging Ottoman Empire and the declining Sultanate of Delhi; Timur had also decisively defeated the Knights Hospitaler at Smyrna and since then referred to himself as a Ghazi. By the end of his reign Timur had also gained complete suzerainty over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, Ilkhanate, Sony VAIO PCG-51212M Battery
Golden Horde and even the Yuan Khanate. However the ruins of his huge and massive empire would carve out three of the worlds most powerful empires to pick up the ruins. The Ottoman Empire in the west would fill up the power to the west of his empire, gradually taking up most of the middle east. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M Battery
The Saffavids would occupy Persia and Central Asia whilst a descendant of Tamerlane would invade Kabul and from here would carve out an empire stretching from the borders of Persia in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east. This empire would be known later as the Mughal Empire. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V Battery
The Safavid Empire ended with the death of its last ruler Ismail III who ruled from 1750 until his death in 1760. The last surviving Muslim empire, the Ottoman Empire, collapsed in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. On March 3, 1924, the institution of the Caliphate was abolished by President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as part of his reforms in creating Turkey from the remnants of the collapsed Ottoman Empire. Sony VAIO PCG-61412V Battery
Babylonia was absorbed into the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC.
A year before Cyrus' death, in 529 BC, he elevated his son Cambyses II in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of "king of the (other) provinces" of the empire. It was only when Darius Hystaspis acquired the Persian throne and ruled it as a representative of theZoroastrian religion, Sony VAIO PCG-71112M Battery
that the old tradition was broken and the claim of Babylon to confer legitimacy on the rulers of western Asia ceased to be acknowledged.
Immediately after Darius seized Persia, Babylonia briefly recovered its independence under a native ruler, Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of Nebuchadnezzar III, Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
and reigned from October 522 BC to August 520 BC, when Darius took the city by storm, during this period Assyria to the north also rebelled. A few years later, probably 514 BC, Babylon again revolted under the Armenian King Arakha; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed. Sony VAIO PCG-81212M Battery
E-Saggila, the great temple of Bel, however, still continued to be kept in repair and to be a center of Babylonian religious feelings.
Alexander the Great conquered Babylon in 333 BC for the Greeks, and died there in 323 BC. Babylonia and Assyria then became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire. Sony VAIO PCG-81212V Battery
It has long been maintained that the foundation of Seleucia diverted the population to the new capital of Babylonia, and that the ruins of the old city became a quarry for the builders of the new seat of government, but the recent publication of the Babylonian Chronicles of the Hellenistic Period has shown that urban life was still very much the same well into the Parthian age (150 BC to 226 AD). Sony VAIO PCG-51111M Battery
The Parthian king Mithridates conquered the region into the Arsacid Empire in 150 BC, and the region became something of a battleground between Greeks and Parthians.
There was a brief interlude of Roman conquest (Roman Assyria, Roman Mesopotamia; AD 116 to 118) under Trajan, after which the Parthians reasserted control. Sony VAIO PCG-81111V Battery
The name of the satrapy was changed to Asuristan (Assyria) in the Sassanid period, which began in 226 AD, and by this time Eastern Rite Christianity (which emerged in the 1st century AD) had become the dominant religion among the native populace, who had never adopted the Zoroastrian or Hellenic religions of their rulers. HP Compaq HSTNN-IB05 Battery
Apart from the independent Assyrian state of Adiabene in the north, Mesopotamia remained under largely Persian control until the Arab Islamic conquestin the 7th century AD. After this Asuristan-Assyria was also dissolved as a geopolitical entity, and the native Aramaic speaking and largely Christian populace gradually underwent a process of Arabisation and Islamification, HP Compaq HSTNN-105C Battery
with only the Assyriansof the north (known as Ashuriyun by the Arabs) and Mandeans of the south retaining their religions and a distinct Mesopotamian identity and language, which they still do to this day. HP Compaq HSTNN-C12C Battery,HP Compaq HSTNN-C66C Battery,HP Compaq HSTNN-C66C-4 Battery