Thursday, September 12, 2013

Hurricane Ike

Hurricane Ike /ˈaɪk/ was the costliest hurricane ever to impact Cuba, the third-costliest hurricane ever to makelandfall in the United States, the costliest hurricane in Texas history, and the last hurricane to make landfall in the United States until Hurricane Irene in 2011. It was the ninth named storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season.[1HP Pavilion dv6-3217cl laptop keyboard
 It was a Cape Verde-type hurricane, as it started as a tropical disturbance near Africa at the end of August. On September 1, 2008, it became a tropical storm west of the Cape Verde islands.[2][3] By the early morning hours of September 4, Ike was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) and a pressure of 935 mbar (27.61 inHg).[4] SONY VAIO VGN-NW15G/S laptop keyboard
 That made it the most intense Atlantic storm of 2008. Ike passed over theTurks and Caicos Islands as Category 4, with winds 135 mph (215 km/h) on September 7. Moving west along Cuba, it made two landfalls – as a Category 4 hurricane on September 7 and as a Category 1 hurricane two days later. DELL PK130CW1A08 laptop keyboard
Ike made its final landfall near Galveston, Texas as a strong Category 2 hurricane, on September 13, 2008, at 2:10 am CDT. Hurricane-force winds extended 120 miles (195 km) from the center and tropical storm-force winds extended far beyond that. ASUS A6J laptop keyboard
Ike was blamed for at least 195 deaths. Of these, 74 were in Haiti, which was already trying to recover from the impact of three storms earlier that year: Fay, Gustav, and Hanna. In the United States, 112 people were killed, and 23 are still missing.[1] Due to its immense size, SONY VAIO VGN-CR21SR laptop keyboard
Ike caused devastation from the Louisiana coastline all the way to the Kenedy Countyregion near Corpus Christi, Texas.[5] In addition, Ike caused flooding and significant damage along the Mississippicoastline and the Florida Panhandle[6] Damages from Ike in U.S. coastal and inland areas are estimated at $29.5 billion (2008 USD),[ ACER TravelMate 8210 laptop keyboard
1] with additional damage of $7.3 billion in Cuba (the costliest storm ever in that country), $200 million in the Bahamas, and $500 million in the Turks and Caicos, amounting to a total of at least $37.5 billion in damage. Ike was (at the time) the second costliest Atlantic hurricane of all time (now the third costliest), only surpassed by Hurricane Katrina of 2005 and later by Hurricane Sandy of 2012.[7] TOSHIBA Satellite L775D-S7340 laptop keyboard
 It became the largest search-and-rescue operation in U.S. history.[8] It also resulted in millions leaving the Houston/Galveston area and other parts of Texas. However, Hurricane Rita still holds the designation as the largest U.S. evacuation in history.[9] At one point, Ike was over 600 miles in diameter. SONY VAIO PCG-FR130 laptop keyboard
Hurricane Ike can be traced to a westerly wave leaving western Sudan on August 19, which moved westward through Nigeria andMali and reached the coastal country of Senegal on August 28.[11] Moving into the Atlantic Ocean, the wave slowly intensified over subsequent days while moving generally toward the west-northwest. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9520D laptop keyboard
On September 1, the wave developed a sufficient amount of convection and was designated Tropical Depression Nine. The depression had developed a large amount of convection as well as cyclonically curved bands. Satellite estimates were already indicating that the depression was a tropical storm;  HP Pavilion DV7-3060us laptop keyboard
theNational Hurricane Center did not classify it as such, however, because the convection was newly formed.[12] The depression continued to intensify as it became better organized, and at 5:00 pm EDT (21:00 UTC), it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ike.[13][14] Ike was located in an environment that was supportive of intensification, and the forecast showed Ike becoming a hurricane within 36 hours of its upgrade.  HP G62-b12SL laptop keyboard
During the overnight hours of September 1, Ike stopped intensifying, as a part of the eastern band began to erode as northerly wind shear began to impact the system.[17] By late morning on September 2, Ike began to intensify again as shear relaxed a little on the system.[18] Throughout the day, TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard
deep convection developed around the center of Ike indicating that the storm was still strengthening. Ike also quickened its movement to 18 mph (29 km/h) due to a strengthening mid-level high located to the north-northeast of Ike.[19] Again intensification stopped during the overnight hours as the structure of Ike remained mostly unchanged.[20] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard
Ike remained at the same intensity and structure through the early morning hours of September 3. However, by the late morning, Ike began to intensify again. Microwave satellites depicted an eye beginning to form and Ike strengthened just below hurricane status.[21] The eye continued to become better defined and by mid-afternoon Ike was upgraded to a hurricane.[22] Lenovo 0A62075 laptop keyboard
Ike was in an area that lacked vertical wind shear and intensification was likely.[23] Due to the lack of wind shear, Ike began to undergo explosive intensification and was upgraded to a major hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) only three hours after being upgraded to a hurricane. During the three hour span, it is estimated that the pressure dropped 24 mbar (0.71 inHg).[ TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard
Ike continued to intensify and was further upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale three hours later with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) and an estimated pressure of 948 mbar (27.99 inHg).[26]These were satellite estimates, not actual measurements (as it was still too far from land for reconnaissance aircraft to reach).[1HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard
By the early morning hours on September 4, Ike had reached its peak intensity of 145 mph (230 km/h) with an estimated pressure of 935 mbar (27.61 inHg), making it the most intense storm of the season.Ike was now forecast to weaken as the upper-level high to the north of the system continued to strengthen resulting in stronger northerly wind shear affecting Ike.[27] SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard
The explosive intensification lasted roughly 24 hours as Ike intensified from a tropical storm to a Category 4 hurricane with a pressure drop of 61 mbar (1.80 inHg). By the late morning, Ike began to weaken as the cloud tops around the eye began to warm. Models were forecasting Ike to encounter strong wind shear and slowly weaken but maintain major hurricane status.[28]  HP G72-a10SV Laptop Keyboard
This trend of the clouds warming continued through the afternoon and Ike continued to weaken slowly. By mid-afternoon, Ike was barely a Category 4 hurricane with winds of 135 mph (215 km/h).[29]Ike began to show signs of intensification once more during the late night hours. The eye became more clear and better defined and the clouds around the eye began to deepen and become colder.[30] DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard
The show of possible strengthening did not last long, however, and by the morning of September 5, northerly wind shear began to erode the northern part of the system, and the cloud tops around the eye began to warm once more. The structure of the eye became less prominent as microwave satellite imagery showed that the inner structure of Ike was not deteriorating or beginning to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle.[31] SONY VAIO VGN-N31S/W Laptop Keyboard
A later pass made by the satellite found that the northern eye wall had eroded and most of the convection was in the southern semicircle of the storm. This indicated that Ike was continuing to weaken as it remained in a hostile environment.[32] Ike slowly weakened to a low-end Category Three by the afternoon hours. SONY VAIO VGN-CR150F Laptop Keyboard
A ridge to the north of Ike continued to push the storm towards the southwest, into an area more favorable for intensification.[33]
Ike maintained its intensity throughout the night as its eye briefly reappeared around 8 pm EDT, leading the NHC to forecast a slow strengthening trend.[34]Overnight, DELL Inspiron 9300 Laptop Keyboard
Ike reformed a 24 nmi (48 km) wide eye, however, it was cloud covered.[35] However, during the late morning hours on September 6, wind shear weakened Ike to a Category Two hurricane.[36] This weakening was short lived and Ike began to undergo another round of rapid intensification, DELL Latitude D505 Laptop Keyboard
though not as significant as the first. Ike's eye began to clear out again and the system became better organized and based on an Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft measurement, Ike had intensified into a Category Four six hours after being downgraded to a Category Two. During the afternoon and overnight, HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard
Ike had winds sustained at 135 mph (217 km/h) as it approached and passed over the Turks and Caicos Islands by the early morning hours of September 7.
Ike made landfall as a Category 4 hurricane in Holguín Province, Cuba on the evening of September 7, near Cabo Lucrecia on the northern coast.[1][38] Lenovo 0A62075 Laptop Keyboard
It passed across the central provinces of Holguín, Las Tunas, and Camagüey, emerging south of Cuba on September 8. It made landfall a second time as a Category 1 hurricane in Pinar del Río before entering the Gulf in the afternoon of September 9.
During the night of September 10, Ike exhibited a rapid drop in central pressure, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard
falling from 963 mbar (28.44 inHg) to 944 mbar (27.88 inHg) as it passed over the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico. This drop was not reflected by wind speed, however, which only increased to 100 mph (160 km/h) from 85 mph (140 km/h). Multiple wind maxima were noted by the National Hurricane Center, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ19VN laptop keyboard
indicating the structure was absorbing and distributing energy over a large area, rather than concentrating it near the center. The pressure was significantly lower than normal for a low-end Category 2 hurricane, as 944 mbar (27.88 inHg) is more typical of a strong Category 3 or a Category 4 hurricane.SONY Vaio PCG-K215S laptop keyboard
Over the next two days, Ike maintained a steady course towards Galveston and Houston. It increased only slightly in intensity to 110 mph (175 km/h) – the high end of Category 2 – but exhibited an unusually large wind field. This caused a projected storm surge of a Category 4 height though the windspeeds were that of a Category 2. ACER Aspire 2003WLMi laptop keyboard
As it approached the Texas coast, the inner structure and eyewall became more organized.[39][40]
Ike made U.S. landfall at Galveston, Texas, on September 13 at 2:10 am CDT (0710 UTC), as a high Category 2 hurricane with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a central pressure of 950 mbar (28.05 inHg). HP G72-b20SG laptop keyboard
The 2:00 am NHC advisory cited tropical storm and hurricane force winds extending 275 miles (443 km) and 120 miles (190 km), respectively, from the center. Around 3:00 am CDT (0800 UTC), it passed over San Leon, Texas and made its final landfall near Baytown, Texas around 4:00 am CDT (0900 UTC). SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard
On September 13, Ike began a slow turn north, then northeast. After losing strength to tropical-storm force winds nearPalestine, Texas around 1 pm,[1] it passed 100 miles (160 km) to the east of Dallas and west of Little Rock, Arkansas. Maintaining tropical storm-force winds as it moved inland, GATEWAY M-6333 laptop keyboard
it tracked across Arkansas on the night of September 13 and also produced tornadoes across the state. It brought heavy rainfall all along its path, but moved more quickly the farther north it went as it slowly lost tropical characteristics.[1]
Early on September 14, Tropical Storm Ike merged with a large cold front moving from west to east over the central U.S. and became extratropical. ASUS X85S laptop keyboard
This deep low pressure continued toward the north-east spreading heavy rains and damaging winds with hurricane-force gusts across a large portion of the Midwest. It moved into Canada that night, giving strong winds and heavy rain across Southern Ontario and most of Quebec, before exiting into the Atlantic at the latitude of theLabrador Sea, early on the 16th. HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard
On September 5, Florida Governor Charlie Crist declared a state of emergency in advance of Ike's arrival, which was expected to be as early as September 8. Authorities in Key West issued a mandatory evacuation for all visitors for September 6. TheFederal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) positioned supplies, and emergency response crews in Florida and along the Gulf Coast.[ HP Pavilion dv6-2131so laptop keyboard
Florida Keys officials began evacuations on the low-lying chain of islands in phases, starting at the end in Key West by 8 am Sunday and continuing throughout the day—at noon for the Middle Keys, and at 4 pm for the Upper Keys, including Key Largo. Visitors were told to leave on Saturday. SONY VAIO VGN-AR370E laptop keyboard
On September 10, U.S. President George W. Bush made an emergency declaration for Texas in advance of Hurricane Ike, making more federal help available for preparations and evacuations.[43]
On September 7, The Texas Water/Wastewater Agency Response Network (TXWARN activated its 700 member utility mutual aid network and began coordination with the HP Pavilion DV6-1027nr laptop keyboard
State Emergency Operations Center and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) to begin preparations and notifications to utilities to prepare for Ike. State rural water associations activated mutual aid networks to prepare for the landfall of Hurricane Hanna and Hurricane Ike while still providing assistance to areas affected by Hurricane Gustav.[44][45] SONY VAIO PCG-FR77G/B laptop keyboard
The Texas Rural Water Association held meetings with state agencies on Tuesday, September 9, to plan for landfall along the Texas Gulf Coast.[46][47]
On September 11, forecasting models began to show Ike making landfall just south of Galveston. City Manager Steven LeBlanc late Wednesday issued a mandatory evacuation order for the low lying west end of Galveston Island.[48] ACER Aspire 3810T laptop keyboard
 Later, the mandatory evacuation order was extended to the entire island of Galveston, as well as low-lying areas around Houston, Texas.[49] Residents evacuating ahead of Ike were received by emergency workers in the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. The fleeing residents were provided a place of refuge, medical treatment, and provisions until Ike had passed. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard
After Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast and submerged New Orleans, the DFW area became a place for New Orleans residents to recover from the storm's destructive forces. The DFW area was still providing relief to evacuees from Gustav earlier in the 2008 hurricane season when it began preparations for evacuating residents of coastal Texas prior to Ike's arrival. TOSHIBA Satellite P105-S6102 laptop keyboard
Also on September 11, at 8:19 pm (CDT), the National Weather Service in Houston/Galveston, Texas issued a strongly worded bulletin, regarding storm surge along the shoreline of Galveston Bay. The bulletin advised that residents living in single-family homes in some parts of coastal Texas faced "certain death" if they did not heed orders to evacuate.Reports said as many as 40 percent of Galveston's citizens may have not paid attention to the warnings.[54] ASUS F9J laptop keyboard
It was feared to be much the same in Port Arthur, and it was predicted that low-lying areas between Morgan City, Louisiana and Baffin Bay, Texas, particularly those areas east of Ike's projected eye landfall would experience the greatest damage from storm surges of up to 20 feet (6.1 m). ACER Aspire 4315 laptop keyboard
Waves at sea were expected to be higher, up to 70 feet (21 m) according to computer simulations.[55]
The price of gas increased in the expectation of damage to some of the numerous oil refineries along the South Texas coast, or at least delays in production from the oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard
The potential danger and possible death warnings were effectively communicated to residents of the Galveston area days before Hurricane Ike landed in Texas. Due to evacuation issues during previous hurricanes authorities were swift in providing residents with information on the deadly potential of Hurricane Ike. ACER Aspire 7745G Laptop Keyboard
"Authorities in Louisiana and Texas ordered major evacuations for Hurricane Gustav and Ike, who made landfall within 12 days of each other; altogether, nearly 3 million people left their homes in advance of the two storms. Nothing speaks more to improvements in evacuation management than repeat experience."[57] DELL NSK-DD101 Laptop Keyboard
In addition to the orders of local and state officials, federal officials were thoroughly involved in evacuation decisions; because of its strength, size and projected path into Galveston, President Bush made an emergency declaration for Texas three days before landfall. More than one million people evacuated in advance of Hurricane Ike, but more than 100,000 people did not."HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

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