Wednesday, September 4, 2013

History of Turkey

The history of Turkey encompasses the history of Republic of Turkey and the history of the region now known asTurkey (derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia; i.e., "Land of the Turks"), including the areas known as Anatoliaand Eastern Thrace.[1][2] Anatolia (Turkish: Anadolu) comprises most of modern Turkey and is known by the Latin name of Asia Minor. SONY PCGA-BP1N battery

Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic,[3] including various Ancient Anatolian civilizations[4] and ancientThracians.[5] The remnants of Bronze Age civilizations such as the Hattians, provide examples of the lives of its citizens and their trade. After the fall of the Hittites, new states such as Phrygia and Lydia appeared on the western coast as Greek civilization began to flourish. SONY PCG-5G2L battery

The growing Persian kingdom eventually absorbed them. Following the Persian invasion, its expansionism brought it into conflict with the Greek monarch Alexander the Great who successfully expelled the Persians. Although he brought an end to the Persian Empire, his reign was short and his empire broke up on his death. SONY PCG-5G3L battery

Most of Anatolia eventually fell under the Seleucid Empire, the largest of Alexander's territories, but they were driven back by the Romans by 191 BC, most of their lands returning to local kingdoms such as the Kingdom of Pergamum. Roman control gradually strengthened carving out provinces from the Anatolian lands, but the Roman Empire was weakened by successive civil wars and barbarian invasions. These resulted in periodic divisions of the empire. SONY PCG-F305 battery

In the 4th century, during the reign of Constantine the Great, at the east part of the Roman empire (referred to by historians much later as the Byzantine Empire) was established a new capital at Constantinople. Parting from the West empire the Byzantine Empire it succeeded to flourish for almost a thousand years. SONY PCG-5J1L battery

Oghuz Turks[6] began migrating into Anatolia in the context of the larger Turkic expansion, forming the Seljuq Empire in the 11th century AD.[7] After the Seljuq victory over forces of the Byzantine Empire in 1071 at the Battle of Manzikert,[8] the process was accelerated.[9] The Seljuq dynasty controlled Turkey until the country was invaded by the Mongols following the Battle of Kosedag. SONY PCG-5J2L battery

During the years when the country was under Mongol rule, some small Turkish states were born. One of these states was the Ottoman beylik which quickly controlled Western Anatolia and conquered much of Rumelia. After finally conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman state would become a large empire, called the Turkish Empire in Europe. SONY PCG-5K2L battery

Next, the Empire expanded to Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle East,Central Europe and North Africa. Although the Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th century; it did not fully reach the technological advance in military capabilities of the Western powers in the 19th century. SONY PCG-5G2M battery

Nevertheless, Turkey managed to maintain independence though some of its territories were ceded to its neighbours and some small countries gained independence from it.

Following World War I in which Turkey was defeated, most of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace was occupied by the Allied powers including the capital city Istanbul. SONY PCG-5L1L battery

In order to resist the occupation, a cadre of young military officers formed a government in Ankara. The elected leader of the Ankara Government, Mustafa Kemalorganized a successful war of independence against the Allied powers. After the liberation of Anatolia and East Thrace, the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 with its capital at Ankara.

By this time, bronze metallurgy spread to Anatolia from the Transcaucasian Kura-Araxes culture in the late 4th millennium BCE. SONY PCG-6S2L battery

Anatolia remained fully in the prehistoric period until it entered the sphere of influence of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC under Sargon I. The interest of Akkad in the region as far as it is known was for exporting various materials for manufacturing.[11] While Anatolia was well endowed with copper ores, there is no trace as yet of substantial workings of the tin required to make bronze in Bronze-Age Anatolia.[12] SONY PCG-6S3L battery

Akkad suffered problematic climate changes in Mesopotamia, as well as a reduction in available manpower that affected trade. This led to the fall of the Akkadians around 2150 BCE at the hands of the Gutians.

Various theories have been proposed that postulate waves of migration during the Middle Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East. SONY PCG-6V1L battery

While the turmoils that separate the Late Bronze Age from the Early Iron Age are well documented (see Bronze Age collapse), theories of migration during the Middle Bronze Age (20th century BCE) have little direct support.

Some suggestions connect these alleged "mass migrations" with the coming of the Greeks, moving from their former settlements into south and central Balkans displacing the former non-Greek inhabitants of Greece. SONY PCG-6W1L battery

Others make reference to a supposed migration of the Hittites to their earliest known home in Kültepe during the same period

For reasons unknown, the Hittites moved into Khattian Central Anatolia (Central Turkey), conquering the Hattians and later adopting their culture and name.[5] SONY PCG-7111L battery

This invasion by the Hittites displaced other peoples living in Anatolia, who in turn displaced the Middle Helladic Greek-speaking peoples to the west. This enforced exodus from Northwestern Anatolia created a wave of refugees who invaded what is now southern Greece and destroyed the Early Helladiccivilization. SONY PCG-71511M battery

Archaeological evidence shows that the cities of Erzerum, Sivas, Pulur Huyuk near Baiburt, Kultepe near Hafik, and Maltepe near Sivas all show destruction during this time. The great trading city of Kanesh (Level 2) was also destroyed. From there in the hill country between Halys the destruction layers from this time tell the same story. SONY PCG-6W3L battery

Karaoglan, Bitik, Polatli and Gordion are burnt as well as Etiyokusu and Cerkes. Further west near the Dardanelles the two large mounds of Korpruoren and Tavsanli, west of Kutahya, show the same signs of being razed to the ground.

The destruction even crossed into Europe in what is now Bulgaria. SONY PCG-7113L battery

The migration brought an end to Bulgaria's early Bronze Age, with Archaeological evidence showing that the Yunacite, Salcutza, and Esero centers had a sudden mass desertion during this time.

From the Dardanelles, the refugee invaders moved into mainland Greece, and the Peloponnese saw burnt and abandoned cities on par with the much later Dorian invasion which destroyed the Mycenaean civilization.[6] SONY PCG-7133L battery

At this time, 1900 BCE, destruction layers can be found at southern Greek sites like Orchomenos, Eutresis, Hagios Kosmas, Raphina, Apesokari, Korakou, Zygouries, Tiryns, Asine, Malthi and Asea. Many other sites are deserted, e.g. Yiriza, Synoro, Ayios Gerasimos, Kophovouni, Makrovouni, Palaiopyrgos, etc. SONY PCG-7Z1L battery

This destruction across Greece also coincided with the arrival of a new culture that had no connection with the Early Helladic civilization, who were the original inhabitants.[6]

Northern Greece escaped destruction, as well as southern Anatolia, which during this time showed no disturbances.SONY PCG-7Z2L battery

According to one view, supporting evidence of this mass movement of new populations into southern Greece may be seen in archaeology with the spread of "Minyan" ware throughout Greece around 1900 BC.However, this has been disputed through excavations at Lerna showing that Minyan ware had a predecessor. SONY PCG-8Y1L battery

The advent of Minyan ware coincides with domestic processes reflective of the smooth transition from Early to Middle Bronze Age culture.

The Old Assyrian Empire claimed the resources for themselves after the Gutians were vanquished, notably silver. SONY PCG-8Y2L battery

One of the numerous Assyrian cuneiform records found in Anatolia at Kanesh uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.[11]

The Hittite Old Kingdom emerges towards the close of the Middle Bronze Age, conquering Hattusa under Hattusili I (17th century BCE). SONY PCG-8Z2L battery

The Anatolian Middle Bronze Age influenced the Minoan culture on Crete as evidenced by archaeological recovery at Knossos

The Hittite Empire was at its height in the 14th century BCE, encompassing central Anatolia, north-western Syria as far asUgarit, and upper Mesopotamia. Kizzuwatna in southern Anatolia controlled the region separating Hatti from Syria, thereby greatly affecting trade routes. SONY PCG-8Z1L battery

The peace was kept in accordance with both empires through treaties that established boundaries of control. It was not until the reign of the Hittite king Suppiluliumas that Kizzuwatna was taken over fully, although theHittites still preserved their cultural accomplishments in Kummanni (now Şar, Turkey) and Lazawantiya, north of Cilicia.[15] SONY PCG-7112L battery

After 1180s BCE, amid general turmoil in the Levant associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the empire disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BCE. The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their empire, SONY PCG-6W2L battery

and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East.

Beginning with the Bronze Age collapse at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the west coast of Anatolia was settled by Ionian Greeks, usurping the related but earlier Mycenaean Greeks. SONY PCG-5K1L battery

Over several centuries, numerous Ancient Greek city-states were established on the coasts of Anatolia. Greeks started Western philosophy on the western coast of Anatolia (Pre-Socratic philosophy).[16]

The Phrygian Kingdom essentially came into being after the fragmentation of the Hittite Empire during the 12th century BCE, and existed independently until the 7th century BCE. SONY PCG-5J4M battery

Possibly from the region of Thrace, the Phrygians eventually established their capital of Gordium (now Yazılıkaya). Known as Mushki by the Assyrians, the Phrygian people lacked central control in their style of government, and yet established an extensive network of roads. They also held tightly onto a lot of the Hittite facets of culture and adapted them over time.[17] SONY PCG-7181M battery

Shrouded in myth and legend promulgated by ancient Greek and Roman writers is King Midas, the last king of the PhrygianKingdom. The mythology of Midas revolves around his ability to turn objects to gold by mere touch, as granted byDionysos, and his unfortunate encounter with Apollo from which his ears are turned into the ears of a donkey. SONY PCG-5P4L battery

The historical record of Midas shows that he lived approximately between 740 and 696 BCE, and represented Phrygia as a great king. Most historians now consider him to be King Mita of the Mushkis as noted in Assyrian accounts. The Assyrians thought of Mita as a dangerous foe, for Sargon II, their ruler at the time, was quite happy to negotiate a peace treaty in 709 BCE. SONY PCGA-BP1U battery

This treaty had no effect on the advancing Cimmerians, who streamed into Phrygia and led to the downfall and suicide of King Midas in 696 BCE.

Lydia, or Maeonia as it was called before 687 BCE, was a major part of the history of western Anatolia, beginning with the Atyad dynasty, who first appeared around 1300 BCE. SONY PCGA-BP2E battery

The succeeding dynasty, the Heraclids, managed to rule successively from 1185-687 BCE despite a growing presence ofGreek influences along the Mediterranean coast. As Greek cities such as Smyrna, Colophon, and Ephesusrose, the Heraclids became weaker and weaker. The last king, Candaules, SONY PCGA-BP2EA battery

was murdered by his friend and lance-bearer named Gyges, and he took over as ruler. Gyges waged war against the intruding Greeks, and soon faced by a grave problem as the Cimmerians began to pillage outlying cities within the kingdom. It was this wave of attacks that led to the incorporation of the formerly independentPhrygia and its capital Gordium into the Lydian domain. SONY PCGA-BP2NX battery

It was until the successive rules ofSadyattes and Alyattes II, ending in 560 BCE, that the attacks of the Cimmerians ended for good. Under the reign of the last Lydian king Croesus, Persia was invaded first at the Battle of Pteria ending without a victor. Progressing deeper into Persia, Croesus was thoroughly defeated in the Battle of Thymbra at the hands of the Persian Cyrus IIin 546 BC. SONY PCGA-BP2NY battery

Thrace, including European part of Turkey, has been inhabited since forty thousand years ago and entered Neolithic by about 6000 B.C. with its inhabitants starting the practice of agriculture.[5]

The Thracians (Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Central and Southeastern Europe.[20] SONY PCGA-BP2V battery

They were bordered by the Scythians to the north, the Celts and the Illyrians to the west, the Ancient Greeks to the south and the Black Sea to the east. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known asThracology. SONY PCGA-BP3T battery

By 550 BCE, the Median Empire of eastern Anatolia, which had existed for barely a hundred years, was suddenly torn apart by a Persian rebellion. As Lydia king, Croesus had a large amount of wealth which to draw from, and he used it to go on the offensive against the Persian king Cyrus the Great. In the end, SONY PCGA-BP4V battery

Croesus was thrust back west and Cyrus burned the Lydian capital Sardis, taking control of Lydia in 546 BCE.[21]

The remaining kingdom of Ionia and several cities of Lydia still refused to fall under Persian domination, and prepared defenses to fight them and sending for aid from Sparta. SONY PCGA-BP51 battery

Since no aid was promised except for a warning to Cyrus from their emissary, eventually their stance was abandoned and they submitted, or they fled as in citizens from Phocaea to Corsica or citizens fromTeos to Abdera in Thrace.[21]

The Achaemenid Persian Empire, thus founded by Cyrus the Great, SONY PCG-6W1M battery

continued its expansion under the Persia king Darius the Great, in which the satrap system of local governors continued to be used and upgraded and other governmental upgrades were carried out. A revolt by Naxos in 502 BCE prompted Aristagoras of Miletus to devise a grandiose plan by which he would give a share ofNaxos's wealth to Artaphernes, SONY PCG-6S4M battery

satrap of Lydia, in return for his aid in quashing the revolt. The failure of Aristagoras in fulfilling his promise of rewards and his conduct disturbed the Persians, so much so that he resorted to convincing his fellow Ionians to revolt against the Persians. This revolt, known as the Ionian Revolt, spread across Anatolia, and with Athenian aid, SONY PCGA-BP51A battery

Aristagoras held firm for a time, despite the loss in the Battle of Ephesus. The burning of Sardis in 498 BCE enraged Darius so much that he swore revenge upon Athens. This event brought down the hammer upon Aristagoras as the Persian army swept through Ionia, re-taking city by city. It was the eventual Battle of Lade outside Miletus in 494 BCE that put an end to the Ionian Revolt once and for all. SONY PCG-5J1M battery

Although the Persian Empire had official control of the Carians as a satrap, the appointed local ruler Hecatomnus took advantage of his position. He gained for his family an autonomous hand in control of the province by providing the Persians with regular tribute, avoiding the look of deception. His son Mausolus continued in this manner, and expanded upon the groundwork laid by his father. SONY PCGA-BP52 battery

He first removed the official capital of the satrap from Mylasa to Halicarnassus, gaining a strategic naval advantage as the new capital was on the ocean. On this land he built a strong fortress and a works by which he could build up a strong navy. He shrewdly used this power to guarantee protection for the citizens of Chios, Kos, and Rhodes as they proclaimed independence from Athenian Greece. SONY PCGA-BP52A battery

Fortunately,Mausolus did not live to see his plans realized fully, and his position went to his widow Artemisia. The local control over Caria remained in Hecatomnus's family for another 20 years before the arrival of Alexander the Great.

By the 5th century BC, the Thracian presence was pervasive enough to have made Herodotus[24] SONY PCGA-BP71 battery

call them the second-most numerous people in the part of the world known by him (after the Indians), and potentially the most powerful, if not for their lack of unity. The Thracians in classical times were broken up into a large number of groups and tribes, though a number of powerful Thracian states were organized, such as the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace and the Dacian kingdom ofBurebista. SONY PCGA-BP71A battery

A type of soldier of this period called the Peltast probably originated in Thrace.

During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers, priests and prophets.

In that period, contacts between the Thracians and Classical Greece intensified.[ SONY VGP-BPL1 battery

Before the expansion of the Kingdom of Macedon, Thrace was divided into three camps (East, Central, and West) after the withdrawal of the Persians. A notable ruler of the East Thracians was Cersobleptes, who attempted to expand his authority over many of the Thracian tribes. He was eventually defeated by the Macedonians. SONY VGP-BPL2 battery

Thracian civilisation was not urban and the largest Thracian cities were in fact large villages. The Thracians were typically not city-builders[25][26] and their only polis was Seuthopolis.

In 336 BCE, King Philip of Macedon was unexpectedly killed, making his son Alexander the new ruler of Macedon as he was very popular. SONY PCG-5K2M battery

He immediately went to work, raising a force large enough to go up against the Persians, gathering a navy large enough to counter any threats by their powerful navy. Landing on the shores of Anatolia near Sestos on the Gallipoli in 334 BCE,Alexander first faced the Persian army in the Battle of the Granicus, in which the Persians were effectively routed. SONY PCG-5K1M battery

Using the victory as a springboard for success, Alexander turned his attention to the rest of the western coast, liberating Lydia andIonia in quick succession. The eventual fall of Miletus led to the brilliant strategy by Alexander to defeat the Persian navy by taking every city along the Mediterranean instead of initiating a very high-risk battle on the sea. SONY VGP-BPL4 battery

By reducing this threat,Alexander turned inland, rolling through Phyrgia, Cappadocia, and finally Cilicia, before reaching Mount Amanus. Scouts forAlexander found the Persian army, under its king Darius III, advancing through the plains of Issus in search of Alexander. At this moment, Alexander realized that the terrain favored his smaller army, and the Battle of Issus began. SONY VGP-BPL5A battery

Darius's army was effectively squeezed by the Macedonians, leading to not only an embarrassing defeat for Darius, but that he fled back across the Euphrates river, leaving the rest of his family in Alexander's hands. Thus, Anatolia was freed from the Persian yoke for good.

In June of 323 BCE, Alexander died suddenly, leaving a power vacuum in Macedon, putting all he had worked for at risk. SONY VGP-BPS2 battery

Being that his half-brother Arrhidaeuswas unable to rule effectively due to a serious disability, a succession of wars over the rights to his conquests were fought known as the Wars of the Diadochi.Perdiccas, a high-ranking officer of the cavalry, and later Antigonus, the Phrygian satrap, prevailed over the other contenders of Alexander's empire in Asia for a time.[11] SONY VGP-BPS3 battery

Ptolemy, the governor of Egypt, Lysimachus, and Seleucus, strong leaders of Alexander's, consolidated their positions after the Battle of Ipsus, in which their common rival Antigonus was defeated. The former empire of Alexander was divided as such: Ptolemy gained territory in southern Anatolia, much of Egypt and theLevant, SONY PCG-5L2M battery

which combined to form the Ptolemaic Empire; Lysimachus controlled western Anatolia and Thrace, while Seleucus claimed the rest of Anatolia as theSeleucid Empire. Only the kingdom of Pontus under Mithridates I managed to gain their independence in Anatolia due to the fact that Antigonus had been a common enemy. SONY PCG-5J5M battery

Seleucus I Nicator first created a capital city over the span of 12 years (299 BCE-287 BCE) worthy of his personage,Antioch, named after his father Antiochus. He concentrated also on creating a large standing army, and also divided his empire into 72 satrapies for easier administration. After a peaceful beginning, a rift occurred between Lysimachus and Seleucus that led to open warfare in 281 BCE. SONY VGP-BPS4 battery

Even though Seleucus had managed to defeat his former friend and gain his territory at the Battle of Corupedium, it cost him his life as he was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos, future king ofMacedon, in Lysimachia.[29]

After the death of Seleucus, the empire he left faced many trials, both from internal and external forces. SONY VGP-BPS5 battery

Antiochus Ifought off an attack from the Gauls successfully, but could not defeat the King of Pergamon Eumenes I in 262 BCE, guaranteeing Pergamon's independence.[30] Antiochus II named Theos, or "divine", was poisoned by his first wife, who in turn poisoned Berenice Phernophorus, second wife of Antiochus and the daughter of Ptolemy III Euergetes. SONY VGP-BPS5A battery

Antiochus II's son from his first wife, Seleucus II Callinicus, ended up as ruler of the Seleucids after this tragedy. These turn of events made Ptolemy III very angry, and led to the invasion of the empire (the Third Syrian War) in 246 BCE. This invasion leads to victory for Ptolemy III at Antioch and Seleucia, and he grants the lands of Phrygia to Pontus's Mithridates II in 245 BCE as a wedding gift. SONY VGP-BPS8 battery

Events in the east showed the fragile nature of the Seleucids as a Bactrian-inspired revolt in Parthia begun by itssatrap Andragoras in 245 BCE led to the loss of territory bordering Persia. This was coupled with an unexpected invasion of northern Parthia by the nomadic Parni in 238 BCE and a subsequent occupation of the whole of Parthia by one of their leaders, Tiridates.[32] SONY PCG-8Y2M battery

Antiochus II Theos of the Seleucids failed to end the rebellion, and therefore a new kingdom was created, the Parthian Empire, under Tiridates's brother Arsaces I. Parthia extended to the Euphrates river at the height of its power.[29]

The kingdom of Pergamon under the Attalid dynasty was an independent kingdom established after the rule of Philetaerusby his nephew Eumenes I. SONY PCG-7Z1M battery

Eumenes enlarged Pergamon to include parts of Mysia and Aeolis, and held tightly onto the ports of Elaia and Pitane. Attalus I, successor of Eumenes I, remained active outside of the boundaries of Pergamon. He refused protection payment to the Galatians and won a fight against them in 230 BCE, and then defeated Antiochus Hieraxthree years later in order to secure nominal control over Anatolia under the Seleucids. SONY PCG-6W2M battery

The victory was not to last asSeleucus III reestablished control of his empire, but Attalus was allowed to retain control of former territories of Pergamon.[33]

The dealings with Attalus proved to be the last time the Seleucids had any meaningful success in Anatolia as the Roman Empire lay on the horizon. SONY PCG-8Z2M battery

After that victory, Seleucus's heirs would never again expand their empire.

In the Second Punic War, Rome had suffered in Spain, Africa, and Italy because of the impressive strategies of Hannibal, the famous Carthaginian general. When Hannibal entered into an alliance with Philip V of Macedon in 215 BCE, SONY PCG-8Z1M battery

Rome used a small naval force with the Aetolian League to help ward off Hannibal in the east and to prevent Macedonian expansion in western Anatolia. Attalus I of Pergamon, along with Rhodes, traveled to Rome and helped convince the Romans that war against Macedon was supremely necessary. SONY PCG-8Y3M battery

The Roman general Titus Quinctius Flaminius not only soundly defeated Philip's army in the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE, but also brought further hope to the Greeks when he said that an autonomous Greece and Greek cities in Anatolia was what Rome desired.

During the period just after Rome's victory, the Aetolian League desired some of the spoils left in the wake of Philip'sdefeat, Sony PCG-61211M battery

and requested a shared expedition with Antiochus III of the Seleucids to obtain it. Despite warnings by Rome, Antiochus left Thrace and ventured into Greece, deciding to ally himself with the League. This was intolerable for Rome, and they soundly defeated him in Thessaly at Thermopylae before Antiochus retreated to Anatolia near Sardis.[11]Combining forces with the Romans, Sony PCG-71213M battery

Eumenes II of Pergamon met Antiochus in the Battle of Magnesia in 189 BCE. There Antiochus was thrashed by an intensive cavalry charge by the Romans and an outflanking maneuver by Eumenes.

Because of the Treaty of Apamea the very next year, Pergamon was granted all of the Seleucid lands north of the Taurus mountains and Rhodes was given all that remained. Sony PCG-71311M battery

This seemingly great reward would be the downfall of Eumenes as an effective ruler, for after Pergamon defeated Prusias I of Bithynia and Pharnaces I of Pontus, he delved too deeply into Roman affairs and the Roman senate became alarmed. When Eumenes put down an invasion by the Galatians in 184 BCE, Sony PCG-71212M battery

Rome countered his victory by freeing them, providing a heavy indicator that the scope of Pergamon's rule was now stunted.

The interior of Anatolia had been relatively stable despite occasional incursions by the Galatians until the rise of the kingdoms of Pontus and Cappadocia in the 2nd century BCE. Sony PCG-71313M battery

Cappadocia under Ariarathes IV initially was allied with theSeleucids in their war against Rome, but he soon changed his mind and repaired relations with them by marriage and his conduct. His son, Ariarathes V Philopator, continued his father's policy of allying with Rome and even joined with them in battle against Prusias I of Bithynia when he died in 131 BCE. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

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