Friday, February 14, 2014

Bacon's ideas were influential in the 1630s and 1650s

Bacon's ideas were influential in the 1630s and 1650s among scholars, in particular Sir Thomas Browne, who in his encyclopaediaPseudodoxiaEpidemica (1646–72)  Lenovo 3000 Y510a 15303 laptop keyboard frequently adheres to a Baconian approach to his scientific enquiries. During the Restoration, Bacon was commonly invoked as a guiding spirit of the Royal Society founded under Charles II in 1660.[41][42]During the 18th-century French Enlightenment, Lenovo 45N2106 laptop keyboard Bacon's non-metaphysical approach to science became more influential than the dualism of his French contemporary Descartes, and was associated with criticism of the ancien regime. In 1733 Voltaire"introduced him as the "father"SONY KFRMBA221A laptop keyboard of the scientific method" to a French audience, an understanding which had become widespread by 1750.[43] In the 19th century his emphasis on induction was revived and developed by William Whewell, among others. He has been reputed as the "Father of Experimental Science".[44]TOSHIBA Satellite M35X-S161 laptop keyboard Bacon is also considered to be the philosophical influence behind the dawning of the Industrial age.[45] In his works, Bacon called for a "spring of a progeny of inventions, which shall overcome, to some extent, and subdue our needs and miseries",[46] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard always proposing that all scientific work should be done for charitable purposes, as matter of alleviating mankind's misery, and that therefore science should be practical and have as purpose the inventing of useful things for the improvement of mankind's estate.HP Pavilion dv5-1095eo laptop keyboard This changed the course of science in history, from a merely contemplative state, as it was found in ancient and medieval ages, to a practical, inventive state – that would have eventually led to the inventions that made possible the Industrial Revolutions of the following centuries.[47]SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard He also wrote a long treatise on Medicine, History of Life and Death,[48] with natural and experimental observations for the prolongation of life. For one of his biographers, the historian William Hepworth Dixon, Bacon's influence in modern world is so great that every man who rides in a train, Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan sends a telegram, follows a steam plough, sits in an easy chair, crosses the channel or the Atlantic, eats a good dinner, enjoys a beautiful garden, or undergoes a painless surgical operation, owes him something.[49]SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bacon's vision for a utopian New World in North America may have been laid out in his novel The New Atlantis, which takes place on a fictional island, Bensalem, in the Pacific Ocean between Peru and Japan.Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Freedom of religion existed on Bensalem – a Jew is treated equally on an island of Christians – but whether New Atlantis influenced other reforms, such as women's rights, abolition of slavery, elimination of debtors' prisons, separation of church and state, and freedom of political expression, is a matter of debate.[50][51]HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan [page needed][52][page needed][53][page needed] There is no reference to any of these reforms in The New Atlantisitself; but his proposals for legal reform (which were not established during his lifetime) may have influenced the Napoleonic Code.[54]Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Bacon played a leading role in creating the British colonies, especially in Virginia, the Carolinas and Newfoundland in northeastern Canada. His government report on "The Virginia Colony" was submitted in 1609.HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1610 Bacon and his associates received a charter from the king to form the Tresurer and the Companye of Adventurers and planter of the Cittye of London and Bristoll for the Collonye or plantacon in Newfoundland[55] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and sent John Guy to found a colony there. In 1910 Newfoundland issued a postage stamp to commemorate Bacon's role in establishing the province. The stamp describes Bacon as "the guiding spirit in Colonization Schemes in 1610."[23] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moreover, some scholars believe he was largely responsible for the drafting, in 1609 and 1612, of two charters of government for the Virginia Colony.[56] Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States and author of the Declaration of Independence, wrote: "Bacon, Locke and Newton.APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences".[57] William Hepworth Dixon considered that Bacon's name could be included in the list of Founders of the United States of America.[58]HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Rosicrucian organisation AMORC believes that Bacon's work The New Atlantis inspired a colony of Rosicrucian mystics led by Johannes Kelpius to sail to North America in the late 17th century. Kelpius and his followers settled on the shores ofWissahickon Creek, in the colony of Pennsylvania, where they became known as "HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Hermits of Mystics of the Wissahickon" or simply "Monks of the Wissahickon".[59][60] According to AMORC, this and other Rosicrucian communities "...made valuable contributions to the newly-emerging American culture in the fields of printing, philosophy, the sciences, HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan and arts".[61] Although much of his legal reform proposals were not established in his lifetime, his legal legacy was considered by the magazine New Scientist, in a publication of 1961, as having influenced the drafting of theNapoleonic Code, and the law reforms introduced by Sir Robert Peel.[62]Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The historian William Hepworth Dixon referred to the Napoleonic Code as "the sole embodiment of Bacon's thought", saying that Bacon's legal work "has had more success abroad than it has found at home", and that in France "it has blossomed and come into fruit".[54]HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The scholar Harvey Wheeler attributed to Bacon, in his work "Francis Bacon's Verulamium – the Common Law Template of The Modern in English Science and Culture", the creation of these distinguishing features of the modern common law system:HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As late as the 18th century some juries still declared the law rather than the fact, but already before the end of the 17th century Sir Matthew Hale explained modern common law adjudication procedure and acknowledged Bacon as the inventor of the process of discovering unwritten laws from the evidences of their applications. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The method combined empiricism and inductivism in a new way that was to imprint its signature on many of the distinctive features of modern English society.[63] In brief, Bacon is considered by some jurists[who?] to be the father of modern Jurisprudence.[64] James McClellan, a political scientist from the University of Virginia, considered Bacon to have had "a great following" in the American colonies.[65]Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan More recent scholarship on Bacon's jurisprudence has focused on his advocating torture as a legal recourse to the crown.[66] Bacon himself was not a stranger to the torture chamber: in his various legal capacities in both Elizabeth I’s and James I’s reigns, Bacon was listed as a commissioner on five torture warrants. ASUS X53S Laptop Keyboard In 1683, in letter addressed to King James I on the question of torture’s place within English law, Bacon identifies the scope of torture: a means to further the investigation of threats to the state: “In the cases of treasons, torture is used for discovery,DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard and not for evidence."[67] For Bacon, torture was not a punitive measure, an intended form of state repression, but instead offered a modus operandi for the government agent tasked with uncovering acts of treason.TOSHIBA Satellite L300 Laptop Keyboard Francis Bacon often gathered with the men at Gray's Inn to discuss politics and philosophy, and to try out various theatrical scenes that he admitted writing.[68] Bacon's alleged connection to the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons has been widely discussed by authors and scholars in many books.[69] Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard However others, including Daphne du Maurier (in her biography of Bacon), have argued there is no substantive evidence to support claims of involvement with the Rosicrucians.[70] Frances Yates[71] does not make the claim that Bacon was a Rosicrucian, but presents evidence that he was nevertheless involved in some of the more closed intellectual movements of his day. SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard She argues that Bacon's movement for the advancement of learning was closely connected with the German Rosicrucian movement, while Bacon's New Atlantis portrays a land ruled by Rosicrucians. He apparently saw his own movement for the advancement of learning to be in conformity with Rosicrucian ideals.[72] ASUS A4000 Laptop Keyboard The link between Bacon's work and the Rosicrucians ideals which Yates allegedly found, was the conformity of the purposes expressed by the Rosicrucian Manifestos and Bacon's plan of a "Great Instauration",[72] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard for the two were calling for a reformation of both "divine and human understanding",[d][73] as well as both had in view the purpose of mankind's return to the "state before the Fall".[e][f] Another major link is said to be the resemblance between Bacon's "New Atlantis" and the German Rosicrucian Johann ValentinAndreae's "Description of the Republic of Christianopolis (1619)".[74]TOSHIBA Satellite l20-101 Laptop Keyboard In his book, Andreae shows an utopic island in which Christian theosophy and applied science ruled, and in which the spiritual fulfilment and intellectual activity constituted the primary goals of each individual, the scientific pursuits being the highest intellectual calling – linked to the achievement of spiritual perfection. HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard Andreae's island also depicts a great advancement in technology, with many industries separated in different zones which supplied the population's needs – which shows great resemblance to Bacon's scientific methods and purposes.[47][75]Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard The Rosicrucian organisation AMORC claims that Bacon was the "Imperator" (leader) of the Rosicrucian Order in both England and the European continent, and would have directed it during his lifetime.[61] Bacon's influence can also be seen on a variety of religious and spiritual authors, and on groups that have utilised his writings in their own belief systems.[76][77][78][79][80] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.[1] To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on empirical and measurableevidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.[2] The Oxford English Dictionary defines the scientific method as: "HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses."[3]Compaq 6720s Laptop Keyboard The chief characteristic which distinguishes the scientific method from other methods of acquiring knowledge is that scientists seek to let reality speak for itself,[discuss] supporting a theory when a theory's predictions are confirmed and challenging a theory when its predictions prove false. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard identifiable features distinguish scientific inquiry from other methods of obtaining knowledge. Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses via predictions which can be derived from them. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard These steps must be repeatable to guard against mistake or confusion in any particular experimenter. Theories that encompass wider domains of inquiry may bind many independently derived hypotheses together in a coherent, supportive structure. Theories, in turn, may help form new hypotheses or place groups of hypotheses into context.HP 365485-001 Laptop Keyboard Scientific inquiry is generally intended to be as objective as possible in order to reduce biased interpretations of results. Another basic expectation is to document, archive, and share all data and methodology so they are available for careful scrutiny by other scientists, TOSHIBA K000097460 Laptop Keyboard giving them the opportunity to verify the results by attempting to reproduce them. This practice, called full disclosure, also allows statistical measures of the reliability of the data to be established (when data is sampled or compared to chance).HP 365485-001 Laptop Keyboard According to David Lindberg, Aristotle (4th Century BCE) wrote about the scientific method even if he and his followers did not actually follow what he said. Lindberg also notes that Ptolemy (2nd Century AD) and Ibn al-Haytham (11th Century AD) are among the early examples of people who carried out scientific experiments. [8]HP Pavilion dv6-2166ss laptop keyboard Also, John Losee writes that "the Physics and the Metaphysicscontain discussions of certain aspects of scientific method", of which, he says "Aristotle viewed scientific inquiry as a progression from observations to general principles and back to observations."[9]TOSHIBA Satellite P305-S8906 laptop keyboard The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out.[10] Because science builds on previous knowledge, it consistently improves our understanding of the world.[11] The scientific method also improves itself in the same way,[12] TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S5077 laptop keyboard meaning that it gradually becomes more effective at generating new knowledge.[13][14] For example, the concept of falsification (first proposed in 1934) reducesconfirmation bias by formalizing the attempt to disprove hypotheses rather than prove them.[15]Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard The overall process involves making conjectures (hypotheses), deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments based on those predictions to determine whether the original conjecture was correct.[16] There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. HP Pavilion dv6-2114sa laptop keyboard Though the scientific method is often presented as a fixed sequence of steps, they are better considered as general principles.[17] Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (or to the same degree), and are not always in the same order. TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 laptop keyboard As noted by William Whewell (1794–1866), "invention, sagacity, [and] genius"[18] are required at every step: SONY VAIO VGN-FS940 laptop keyboard Formulation of a question: The question can refer to the explanation of a specific observation, as in "Why is the sky blue?", but can also be open-ended, as in "How can I design a drug to cure this particular disease?" HP Mini 210-1101TU Laptop Keyboard This stage also involves looking up and evaluating evidence from previous experiments, personal scientific observations or assertions, and/or the work of other scientists. If the answer is already known, SONY VAIO VGN-CR42S Laptop Keyboard a different question that builds on the previous evidence can be posed. When applying the scientific method to scientific research, determining a good question can be very difficult and affects the final outcome of the investigation.[19]HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard Hypothesis: An hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while formulating the question, that may explain the observed behavior of a part of our universe. The hypothesis might be very specific, e.g.,HP G71-343US Laptop Keyboard Einstein's equivalence principle orFrancis Crick's "DNA makes RNA makes protein",[20] or it might be broad, e.g., unknown species of life dwell in the unexplored depths of the oceans. A statistical hypothesis is a conjecture about some population. For example, the population might be people with a particular disease. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

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