Tuesday, February 18, 2014

During World War II

During World War II, nearly the whole city became a large hospital for the wounded at the Eastern Front; FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan about 300,000 soldiers convalesced in the 111 hospitals of Sochi during that period. About 2,000 of donors contributed 20 tonnes of blood for this purpose. Also, 18,707 citizens were mobilized into the Army; of them 4,566 were killed and 17 were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union award (8 posthumously). For its achievements during the war, the city was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War in 1980. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan The resort infrastructure of the city was partly destroyed during the war and rebuilt by the early 1950s.[3] After the war, the city kept its position as the leading sanatorium and health resort of the Soviet Union. By 1960s, it was receiving about 500,000 visitors per year, i.e. about four times its population. This motivated the government to expand the city by including the Adler and Lazarevskoye districts. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan By the 1980s, the number of tourists rose to 5,000,000 per year, including 200,000 foreigners. It decreased dramatically to 300,000 in the 1990s due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and partly recovered to about 1,500,000 by the year 2000.[3] Technical areas have always played a secondary role in modern Sochi and were represented mostly by construction and food industries. ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan The latter focuses on production of fruits and vegetables, tea, honey, fish and poultry.[7] The commercial fishing in the Black Sea is rather inactive, but there is a trout aquafarm in the city.[3] A major recent event was the selection of Sochi as the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics that resulted in a major reconstruction of the city. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one urban-type settlement and seventy-nine rural localities, incorporated as the City of Sochi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Sochi is incorporated as Sochi Urban Okrug.[2] Sochi is administratively subdivided into four city districts: Tsentralny City District, HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan Lazarevsky City District, Khostinsky City District, and Adlersky City District. Tsentralny City District, comprising the city of Sochi proper, is by far the smallest out of four in terms of the area, and the other three have comparable areas, with Lazarevsky City District being the biggest. In terms of the population, Tsentralny City District is approximately twice as big as each of the other three city districts. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677.[5] The highlights include: Michael Archangel Cathedral, a diminutive church built in 1873–1891 to Kaminsky's designs in order to commemorate the victorious conclusion of the Caucasian War. DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan
  • The red-granite Archangel Column, erected in 2006 in memory of the Russian soldiers fallen in Sochi during the Caucasian War. It is capped by a 7-metre bronze statue of Sochi's patron saint, Michael the Archangel.
Sochi Art Museum occupies a large building with a four-columned portico, completed in 1939. The Neoclassical design is byIvan Zholtovsky. Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan
  • Sochi Arboretum, a large botanical garden with tropical trees from many countries, and the Mayors Alleé—a landscape avenue of palm trees planted by mayors from cities around the world.
The Tree of Friendship, a hybrid citrus tree planted in 1934 in the Subtropical Botanic Garden. Since 1940 numerous citrus cultivars from foreign countries have been grafted onto this tree as a token of friendship and peace. HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan
  • The associated Friendship Tree Garden Museum has a collection of 20,000 commemorative presents from around the world.
  • The Winter Theater (1934–1937) is another rigorously Neoclassical edifice, surrounded by 88 Corinthian columns, with a pediment bearing the statues of Terpsichore, Melpomene and Thalia, all three cast by Vera Mukhina.
Hall of Organ and Chamber Music. Located centrally in the city of Sochi it conducts organ, symphony, chamber-ensemble, choral, vocal music concerts. Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan
  • All year round the Sochi Symphony Orchestra, local actors of the city art groups, famous Russian and international performers, International Contests Winners and Laureates give concerts here.
  • The Maritime Passenger Terminal (1955) is notable for its distinctive 71-meter-high steepled tower and four statues symbolizing the cardinal points.
The Railway Station (1952) is one of the most remarkable buildings of Sochi. DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan The Riviera Park was established by Vasily Alexeyevich Khludov in 1883 in the part of the city which later became known as Khludovskaya. The park is popular with tourists and local residents alike. It has a variety of attractions, including an outcrop of funny statues and a "glade of friendship" where magnoliatrees were planted by every Soviet cosmonaut, among other notables. HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan Lazarevsky City District lies to the northwest from the city center; the 2010 Census showed the population of 63,894people.[5]It is the largest city district by area, covering some 1,744 square kilometers (673 sq mi) and comprising severalmicrodistricts:Lazarevskoye, 59 km (37 mi) from the city center, contains a delphinarium, an old church (1903), and a new church (1999). Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan The settlement was founded as a Russian military outpost in 1839 and was named after Admiral Mikhail Lazarev. Loo, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, was once owned by Princes Loov, a noble Abkhazian family claiming patrilineal descent from King Anos, whose royal title was sanctioned by Emperor Heraclius in 623 AD. The district contains the ruins of a medieval church, HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan

founded in the 8th century, rebuilt in the 11th century, and converted into a fortress in the Late Middle Ages.

Dagomys, 18 km (11 mi) from the city center, has been noted for its botanical garden, established by order of Nicholas II, as well as tea plantations and factories. A sprawling hotel complex was opened there in 1982. Dagomys adjoins Bocharov Ruchey, a dacha built for Kliment Voroshilov in the 1950s,  DELL yy529 CPU Fan

but later upgraded into a country residence of the President of Russia, where he normally spends his vacations and often confers with leaders of other states.

Golovinka is a historic location at the mouth of the Shakhe River. Formerly marking the border between the Ubykhs and the Shapsugs, the settlement was noted by Italian travelers of the 17th century as Abbasa. Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

On May 3, 1838, it was the site of the Subashi landing of the Russians, who proceeded to construct Fort Golovinsky where many convicted Decembrists used to serve. The fort was intentionally destroyed by Russian forces at the beginning of the Crimean War, so as to avoid its capture by the enemy.

Fort Godlik, of which little remains, had a turbulent history. It was built at the mouth of the Godlik River in the Byzantine period (5th to 8th centuries), SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan

was destroyed by the Khazars and revived by the Genoese in the High Middle Ages.

Khostinsky City District, sprawling to the southeast from the city center, occupies approximately 374 square kilometers (144 sq mi), with a population of 65,229 as of the 2010 Census.[5] The district is traversed by many rivulets which give their names to the microdistricts of Matsesta ("flame-colored river"), HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Kudepsta, and Khosta ("the river of boars"). Adlersky City District, with an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and a population of 76,534 people as of the 2010 Census,[5] is the southernmost district of the city, located just north of the border with Abkhazia. Until the establishment of Greater Sochi in 1961, it was administered as a separate town, which had its origin in an ancient Sadz village and a medievalGenoese trading post. HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave that contains traces of human habitation from about 30,000 years ago. The upland part of the district includes a network of remote mountain villages (auls), the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the events (Alpine and Nordic) of the2014 Winter Olympics. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Also located here are the largest trout fishery in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes. The Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to the Sochi region in the Middle Ages.[37] The region was relatively isolated before 1829.[37] In the North, a few hundred Sunni Muslim Shapsugs, a part of the Adyghe nation, lived around Tkhagapsh, nearLazarevskoye. HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Adyghe people (also known as Circassians) converted to Islam from Christianity in the 17th century.[38] In the nineteenth century, Islam spread to the region.[37] Currently, Sochi is a large predominantly Christian city, though there are thought to be around 20,000 Muslims (5% of inhabitants) living there now (the majority are from Adyghe) plus other Eastern Caucasians, Turks, Tatars, and other smaller Muslim groups.[39] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan A mosque was built in 2008 by United Arab Emirates in the central area of Bytkha, in addition to the old mosque being around 40 km (25 miles) north of the city center[39][40] in the Adyghe aul of Tkhagapsh. There are around thirty Christian Orthodox churches, the largest being St. Michael's, and two monasteries, plus two Catholic churches, one in the center of Sochi and the other in Lazarevskoye. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Armenian community, which is important in Sochi, gathers in about ten churches. Sochi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[22] at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C (65.1 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest months—January and February—the average temperature is about 10 °C (50 °F) during the day, IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan above 3 °C (37 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 9 °C (48 °F). In the warmest months—July and August—the temperature typically ranges from 25 to 29 °C (77 to 84 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is about 23–24 °C (73–75 °F). Yearly sunshine hours are around 2,200. Generally, the summer season lasts six months, from May to October. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Two months—April and November—are transitional; sometimes temperatures reach 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of around 16 °C (61 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. December, January, February and March are the coldest months, with average temperature (of these four months) 11 °C (52 °F) during the day and 4 °C (39 °F) at night. Average annual precipitationis about 1,700 millimeters (67 in).[9][23][41] HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sochi lies at 8b/9a hardiness zone, so the city supports different types of palm trees.[21] Sochi is situated on the same latitude as Nice but strong cold winds from Asia make winters less warm. In fact, temperatures drop below freezing every winter for one or two days. The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C (102.9 °F), on July 30, 2000, and the lowest temperature recorded was −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) on January 25, 1892. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sochi is unique among larger Russian cities as having some aspects of a subtropical resort. Apart from the scenic Caucasus Mountains, pebble and sand beaches, the city attracts vacation-goers with its subtropical vegetation, numerous parks, monuments, and extravagant Stalinist architecture. About two million people visit Greater Sochi each summer,[46] when the city is home to the annual film festival "Kinotavr" and a getaway for Russia's elite. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Public transport is represented mainly by bus and taxi. Sochi is served by the Adler-Sochi International Airport. A kind of non-mass public transport are also two funicular (the Central military sanatorium and Ordzhonikidze resort) and three cable cars (at arboretum sanatorium "Dawn" and pension "Neva") also has several cableways in Krasnaya Polyana.  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The Sochi Port terminal building was built in 1955 by Karo Alabyan and Leonid Karlik in Stalinist architecture. It is topped with a 71-meter steepled tower. Sculptures embodying seasons and cardinal points are set above the tower's three tiers. Five of the railway stations of Sochi were renovated for the 2014 Winter Olympics. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan These are Dagomys, Sochi, Matsesta andKhosta railway stations. In Adler city district of Sochi, the original railway station was preserved and new railway stationwas built near it. Another new railway station was built in Estosadok, close to Krasnaya Polyana. At some point, plans to construct the light metro network to serve the Olympics were considered; however, the Sochi Light Metro plan was abandoned in favor of the reconstruction of the railway. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sochi is also known for its sport facilities: a local tennis school spawned the careers of such notable players as Grand Slam champions Maria Sharapova andYevgeny Kafelnikov (Kafelnikov spent much of his childhood here, while Sharapova relocated to Florida at the age of seven). In late 2005, the Russian Football Union announced that it was planning to establish a year-round training center for the country's national teams in Sochi. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The city's warm climate was cited as one of the main incentives. And it's home to FC Zhemchuzhina who play in the Russian First Division.The nearby ski resort of Roza Khutor at Krasnaya Polyana is the location of the alpine and Nordic events for the 2014 Winter Olympics.In June 2006, the International Olympic Committee announced that Sochi had been selected as a finalist city to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan On July 4, 2007, Sochi was announced as the host city of the 2014 Winter Games, edging out Pyeongchang, South Korea and Salzburg, Austria.[48] This will be Russia's first time hosting the Winter Olympic Games, and its first time hosting the Paralympic Games. The site of a training centre for aspiring Olympic athletes, in 2008, the city had no world-class level athletic facilities fit for international competition.[49] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan To get the city ready for the Olympics, the Russian government committed a $12 billion investment package,[50] shared 60%–40% between the government and private sector.[51] According to some estimates, the investments necessary to bring the location up to Olympic standards may exceed that of any previous Olympic games.[49] SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By January 2014 the construction costs have been reported to exceed the $50 billion mark, making it the most expensive Olympic Games in history.[52]According to a report by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, this cost will not boost Russia's national economy, but may attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia in the future as a result of improved services. [53] HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi have been surrounded by concern and controversy following a new federal law approved in Russia in June 2013 that bans "homosexual propaganda to minors".[54] Many voices have since then claimed to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics, including British actor Stephen Fry who published an open letter[55] to David Cameron and to the International Olympic Committee asking for a boycott and relocation of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL CPU Fan There has also been concern regarding possible terrorist attacks primarily by Islamist militants. The state-controlled RAO UES announced in July 2007 that it might spend 30 billion roubles (about US$1.2 billion) on upgrading the electrical power system in the Sochi area by 2014.[57] The power generating companies Inter RAO UES and RusHydro would have to build or modernize four thermal power plants and four hydroelectric plants—and the federal grid company FGC UES has to replace the Central-Shepsi electricity transmission line, which reportedly often fails in bad weather. HP G71-340US CPU Fan The new power line would run partly on power towers and partly across the bottom of the Black Sea. By 2011, the power supply of the resort area would increase by 1129 MW—of which 300 MW would be used for Olympic sports facilities “The cost of the work is estimated at 83.6 billion rubles (about US $3.26 billion), of which 50 billion rubles (about US$2 billion dollars) will go to investments in the electricity grid,” power company announced. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan They did not say how much of the bill the state would foot. In February 2007, when UES had planned to spend 48.8 billion rubles (about US$1.9 billion) on the Sochi area, the share the state had been ready to pay 38 billion roubles (about US$1.48 billion) of that. The Tsentralny City District, or Sochi proper, borders Lazarevsky City District in the west and Khostinsky City District in the north and in the east. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the southwest, it is bounded by the Black Sea. Population: 137,677 (2010 Census);[2] 133,935 (2002 Census);[5] 137,968 (1989 Census).[6] The district covers an area of 32 square kilometers (12 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, has a population of 137,677. Adlersky City District (Russian: А́длерский райо́н) is the southernmost of four city districts of the city of Sochi inKrasnodar Krai, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Russia, lying along the Black Sea coast near the southern Russian border with Abkhazia. The city district borders Maykopsky District of Adygea in the north, Mostovsky District of Krasnodar Krai in the east, Abkhazia in the south, and Khostinsky City District in the northwest. In the southwest, it is bordered by the Black Sea. Population: 76,534 (2010 Census);[2] 69,120 (2002 Census);[4] HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 68,827 (1989 Census).[5] Adlersky District was chosen to host the 2014 Winter Olympics. The historical center of the district is Adler Microdistrict (А́длер) — formerly classified as a town, but today amicrodistrict of Adlersky City District—located at the mouth of the Mzymta River. The settlement was founded by Russians on 18 June 1837 as the fort of Svyatoy Dukh (Holy Spirit). HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan However, this area had been inhabited long before the Russian arrival. During the Middle Ages, it was the site of Liesh, a Sadz Abkhazianvillage. In the 13th century, the Genoese merchants arrived to establish a factory which became known as Layso. At that time the upland area was controlled by the Sadz princes of Aredba, one of whose principal estates was located within the modern district boundaries. HP Pavilion dv7t-6100 CTO CPU Fan The current name was given to the area by the Ottoman Turks, who called it eitherArtlar or Artı. Adler is home to the Sochi International Airport, which serves the whole Greater Sochi area. Adler railway station is also the effective southern terminus of the Russian section of the North Caucasus Railway, which has ceased to carry international traffic to Georgia since hostilities between Russia and Georgia closed the cross-border line in 1992. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA CPU Fan The summer months see direct train services bringing visitors to Adler from as far away asBerlin in the west (a journey of 3,714 km), Vorkuta in the north (4,286 km away, beyond the Arctic Circle), andKhabarovsk in the Russian Far East, with the 9,816 km of the latter journey taking eight days to complete. Passenger service to Sukhumi starts and stops from time to time.  ASUS M51SE CPU Fan For the 2014 Winter Olympics, new suburban network was put in operation. There is currently frequent suburban service to Sochi, with most of the trains stopping also in Khosta and Matsesta, both in Khostinsky City District. The service continues in the direction of Abkhazian border, where trains stop at Olympiyskaya Derevnya railway platform. HP G42-415DX CPU Fan The service terminates at Olympiysky Park train station. Both the station and the platform were constructed for the Olympics. Furthermore, a connection to the airport is open, with regular service to Sochi through Adler railway station. Finally, a new line was constructed between Adler and Krasnaya Polyana, where some of the Olympic competitions will be held, with two railway stations, Esto-Sadok and Krasnaya Polyana. ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan Kudepsta railway platform has been disused.Vesyoloye railway station is only in operation when there is passenger traffic to Abkhazia; at this station, customs and border controls take place. Buses connect Adler with other localities of the city of Sochi. The district covers an area of 1,352 square kilometers (522 sq mi) and has under its jurisdiction a network of mountain auls,  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx CPU Fan the Estonian colony at Estosadok, and the ski resort of Krasnaya Polyana which will host the snow events (alpine and Nordic) of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The Fisht Olympic Stadium and associated facilities will be located closer to the shore. The landmarks of the former town of Adler include two Russian Orthodox churches, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and the Holy Ghost, as well as the Armenian Saint Sarkis Cathedral.  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee CPU Fan Apart from a pebbly and narrow beach backed by the railway line, the district also has a municipal historical museum and a dolphinarium, which makes it popular among tourists. It is also possible to visit the largest trout farm in Russia (founded in 1964) and a breeding nursery for great apes. Among the natural wonders of the district is the Akhshtyr Gorge with a 160-meter-long cave which contains traces of human habitation about 30,000 years ago.  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG CPU Fan The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), is a major international multi-sport event being held in Sochi, Russia in the tradition of the Winter Olympic Games. Scheduled for 7–23 February 2014, opening rounds in certain events were held on the eve of the Opening Ceremony, 6 February 2014.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics are being organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee (SOC). Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City. It is the first Olympics in Russia since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er CPU Fan A total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines are being held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of 12 accounting for gender—are being held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing, ski and snowboard slopestyle, and snowboard parallel slalom. HP 606575-001 CPU Fan The events are being held around two clusters of new venues; an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium and the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, and snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana. In preparation, organizers focused on modernizing the telecommunications, electric power, and transportationinfrastructures of the region.  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us CPU Fan While originally budgeted at US$12 billion, various factors caused the budget to expand to over US$51 billion, surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as the most expensive Olympics in history. The lead-up to the 2014 Games was marked by major controversies, including allegations of corruption leading to the aforementioned cost overruns, DELL DFS491105MH0T CPU Fan concerns for the safety and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) athletes and supporters during the Games due to the country's recent anti-LGBT policies. This led to ongoing Olympic protests of Russian anti-gay laws, protests by ethnic Circassian activists over the site of Sochi (the site of what they consider to be a genocide) and various security concerns over threats by jihadist groups tied to the insurgency in the North Caucasus. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee (IOC) session held in Guatemala City,Guatemala, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea.[3] This is the first time that the Russian Federation has hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in and aroundMoscow. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan As of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion.[5] This amount includes the 214 billion rubles (US$ 6.5 billion) cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects (roads, railroads, power plants). This total, if borne out, would be over four times the initial budget of $12 billion (compared to the $8 billion spent for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver), HP Pavilion dv7-3060us CPU Fan and would make the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[6] which hosted 3 times as many events.[7] According to Sochi 2014 Olympic and Paralympic Organizing Committee President and CEO Dmitry Chernyshenko, partnership and commercial programs allowed the use of funds generated by Sochi 2014 for the 2009–10 development period,  HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan postponing the need for the state funds guaranteed by the Russian Government. He confirmed that the Organizing Committee had raised more than $500 million through marketing in the first five months of 2009.[8] The Russian Government provided nearly 327 billion rubles (about US$10 billion) for the total development, expansion and hosting of the Games.[9] Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 192 billion rubles (US$6 billion) coming from the federal budget and 7 billion rubles (US$218 million) from the Krasnodar Krai budget and from the Sochi budget. The organizers expect to have a surplus of US$300 million when the Games conclude. With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C (42.8 °F) and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games.[12] HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking; all Sochi venues, Olympic Park bars and restaurants and public areas are smoke-free during the Games.[13] It is also the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting a winter games. The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretin Valley, about 4 km (2.5 miles) from Russia'sborder with Georgia.[14][15] HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The venues are clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. After the Olympics, a Formula One street circuit is planned for the site. The deal to hold the Russian Grand Prix was signed on 14 October 2010, and runs from 2014 to 2020.[17] HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first race will take place after the Closing Ceremony of the Games, and the IOC has announced that the race will be delayed until 2015 if construction of the circuit interferes with preparations for the 2014 Olympics. The emblem of the 2014 Winter Olympics, unveiled in December 2009, carries a minimalistic style, and unlike previous Olympic emblems, consists of typefaces with no drawn elements at all. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan While more elaborate designs with influence from Khokhloma were considered, organizers eventually decided to use a simpler and more "futuristic" design instead. The "Sochi" and "2014" lettering is designed to mirror each other vertically (particularly on the "hi" and "14" characters), "reflecting" the contrasts of Russia's landscape (such as Sochi itself, a meeting point between the Black Sea and the Western Caucasus).[19] IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

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