Saturday, May 24, 2014

Obvious impacts of the ice on the landscape

Obvious impacts of the ice on the landscape include the formation of glacial valleys such as Glendalough in Wicklow and of corries, or glacial lakes. The depositing of mounds of debris under the melting ice created drumlins, a common feature of the landscape across the north midlands.[ SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Streams also formed under the ice and the material deposited by these formed eskers (Irish eiscir). The greatest of these, the Esker Riada, divides the northern and southern halves of the island and its ridge once served as the main highway connecting the east and west coasts.[11] About one half of the coastline consists of a low lying dune pasture land known as Machair. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


The large central lowland is of limestone covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, with widespread bogs and lakes. The Bog of Allen is one of the largest bogs.[12] The coastal mountains vary greatly in geological structure. In the south, the mountains are composed of old red sandstone with limestone river valleys. APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In Galway, Mayo, Donegal, Down and Wicklow, the mountains are mainly granite, while much of the northeast of the country is a basalt plateau. An area of particular note is the Giant's Causeway, in Antrim, a mainly basalt formation caused by volcanic activity between 50–60 million years ago.[13] HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The basalts were originally part of the great Thulean Plateau formed during the Paleogene period.[14]

The soils of the north and west tend to be poorly drained peats and gleys, including peaty podzols. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In contrast, in the south and east the soils are free-draining brown earths and brown and grey-brown podzols. This is reflected in the rainfall distribution on the island, with the poorly drained regions being those with the highest rainfalls.

An unusual environment is present in north County Clare, in an area known as the Burren. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

This karst-like landscape consists of limestone bedrock, with little or no soil in the inner-most areas. There are numerous sinkholes, where surface water disappears through the porous rock surface, and extensive cave systems have been formed in some areas. The Pol an Ionain cave, near Doolin, is the site of one of the world's longest known free-hanging stalactites. Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan


Ireland consists of a mostly flat low-lying area in the midlands, ringed by mountain ranges such as (beginning in County Kerry and working counter-clockwise) the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, Comeragh Mountains, Blackstairs Mountains, Wicklow Mountains, the Mournes, Glens of Antrim, Sperrin Mountains, FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Bluestack Mountains, Derryveagh Mountains, Ox Mountains, Nephinbeg Mountains and the Twelve Bens/Maumturks group. Some mountain ranges are further inland in the south of Ireland, such as the Galtee Mountains, the highest inland range,[16] Silvermine and Slieve Bloom Mountains. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

The highest peak is Carrauntoohil, 1,038 m (3,405 ft) high,[17] is in the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, a range of glacier-carved sandstone mountains in County Kerry, in the southwest of the island. The mountains are not high – only three peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft)[17] and another 457 exceed 500 m (1,640 ft).  SONY VGN-FE31M Laptop Keyboard


The main river in Ireland is the River Shannon, 386 km (240 mi), the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain, which separates the boggy midlands of Ireland from the West of Ireland. The river develops into three lakes along its course, Lough Allen, Lough Ree, and Lough Derg. Of these, Lough Derg is the largest.[17] HP G42-415DX Laptop Keyboard

The River Shannon enters the Atlantic Ocean after Limerick city at the Shannon Estuary. Other major rivers include the River Liffey, River Lee, River Blackwater, River Nore, River Suir, River Barrow, River Bann, River Foyle, River Erne, and River Boyne. (See the list of rivers in Ireland.)

Lough Neagh, in Ulster,[17] is the largest lake in Ireland and the UK. FUJITSU Lifebook S7110 Laptop Keyboard

Legend has it that a giant, Fionn mac Cumhail, was fighting with another in Scotland, and enraged, scooped out a lump of earth, which he threw. It fell into the Irish Sea, creating the Isle of Man, while the hole filled up with water to become Lough Neagh. Other large lakes include Lough Erne and Lough Corrib. HP AESP7U00110 Laptop Keyboard


Beginning with County Donegal, Lough Swilly separates one side of the Inishowen peninsula. Lough Foyle on the other side, is one of Ireland's larger inlets, situated between County Donegal and County Londonderry.[19] Further round the coast is Belfast Lough, between County Antrim and County Down.[20] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

Also in County Down is Strangford Lough, actually an inlet partially separating the Ards peninsula from the mainland. Further down the coast, Carlingford Lough is situated between Down and County Louth.[20]

Dublin Bay is the next sizeable inlet, while the eastern coast of Ireland is mostly uniform until Wexford Harbour at the mouth of the River Slaney.[21ACER Aspire 5710 Laptop Keyboard

] On the southern coast, Waterford Harbour is situated at the mouth of the River Suir[22] (into which the other two of the Three Sisters (River Nore and River Barrow) flow). The next major inlet is Cork Harbour, at the mouth of the River Lee, in which Great Island is situated.

Dunmanus Bay, Bantry Bay, Kenmare estuary and Dingle Bay are all inlets between the peninsulas of County Kerry. HP Pavilion dv6-2112sa Laptop Keyboard

North of these is the Shannon Estuary. Between north County Clare and County Galway is Galway Bay. Clew Bay is located on the coast of County Mayo, south of Achill Island, while Broadhaven Bay, Blacksod Bay and Sruth Fada Conn bays are situated on the north west part of Connaught in North Mayo. SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard

Killala Bay is on the north east coast of Mayo. Donegal Bay is a major inlet between County Donegal and County Sligo.

Malin Head is the most northerly point in Ireland,[23] while Mizen Head is one of the most southern points, hence the term "Malin head to Mizen head" (or the reverse) is used for anything applying to the island of Ireland as a whole. HP G42-365LA Laptop Keyboard

Carnsore Point is another extreme point of Ireland, being the southeastern most point of Ireland. Further along the coast is Hook Head while the Old Head of Kinsale in is one of many headlands along the south coast of Ireland.

Loop Head is the headland at which County Clare comes to a point on the west coast of Ireland, TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

with the Atlantic on the north, and further inland on the south, the Shannon estuary. Hag's Head is another headland further up Clare's north/western coastline, with the Cliffs of Moher along the coastline north of the point.Erris Head is the northwesternmost point of Connacht.

Achill Island, in the northwest, is the largest island off Ireland's coast. HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard

The island is inhabited, and is connected to the mainland by a bridge.[24] Some of the next largest islands are the Aran Islands, off the coast of southern Connacht, host to an Irish-speaking community, or Gaeltacht. Valentia Island off the Iveragh peninsula is also one of Ireland's larger islands, HP Pavilion G7-1081NR Laptop Keyboard

and is relatively settled, as well as being connected by a bridge at its southeastern end. Omey Island, off the coast of Connemara is a tidal island.

Some of the best-known peninsulas in Ireland are in County Kerry; the Dingle peninsula, the aforementioned Iveragh peninsula and the Beara peninsula.  HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard

The Ards peninsula is one of the larger peninsulas outside Kerry. The Inishowen peninsula in County Donegal includes Ireland's most northerly point, Malin Head and several important towns including Buncrana on Lough Swilly, Carndonagh and Moville on Lough Foyle.  GATEWAY V021646BS1 Laptop Keyboard

Ireland's most northerly land feature is Inishtrahull island, off Malin Head. Rockall Island may deserve this honour but its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark (for the Faroe Islands) and Iceland. The most southerly point is the Fastnet Rock. TOSHIBA 9J.N9082.001 Laptop Keyboard


Ireland's climate is temperate,[25] though significantly warmer than almost all other locations at similar latitude, such as Poland (on mainland Europe) or Newfoundland (on the opposite edge of the Atlantic), due to the warming influence of the North Atlantic drift. The prevailing wind blows from the southwest, breaking on the high mountains of the west coast.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Rainfall is therefore a particularly prominent part of western Irish life, with Valentia Island, off the west coast of County Kerry, getting almost twice as much annual rainfall as Dublin on the east (1,400 mm or 55.1 in vs. 762 mm or 30.0 in). Across the country, about 60% of the annual rainfall occurs between August and January. COMPAQ Presario CQ40 laptop keyboard


January and February are the coldest months of the year, and mean daily air temperatures fall between 4 and 7 °C (39.2 and 44.6 °F) during these months. July and August are the warmest, with mean daily temperatures of 14 to 16 °C (57.2 to 60.8 °F), whilst mean daily maximums in July and August vary from 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) near the coast, to 19 to 20 °C (66.2 to 68.0 °F) inland. Packard Bell Easynote LM82 laptop keyboard

The sunniest months are May and June, with an average of five to seven hours sunshine per day.[26] Though extreme weather events in Ireland are comparatively rare when compared with other countries in the European Continent, they do occur. Explosive Atlantic depressions, occurring mainly in the months of December, January and FebruaryTOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

, can occasionally bring winds of up to 160 km/h or 99 mph to Western coastal counties; while the summer months, and particularly around late July/early August, sudden and violent thunderstorms can develop, more especially, but not exclusively, across midland and western areas of the country. SONY VAIO VGN-NW50JB laptop keyboard


The table shows mean climate figures for the Dublin Airport weather station over a thirty-year period. Climate statistics based on the counties of Northern Ireland vary slightly but are not significantly different.

From an administrative viewpoint, 20 of the counties in the republic are units of local government. ASUS F9E laptop keyboard

The other six have more than one local council area, producing a total of 34 county-level authorities. Tipperary has two ridings, North Tipperary and South Tipperary, originally established in 1838 and renamed in 2001.The cities of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway and Waterford have city councils and are administered separately from the counties bearing those names. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 laptop keyboard

The remaining part of County Dublin is split into Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal, and South Dublin.Electoral areas in Ireland (the state), called constituencies in accordance with Irish law, mostly follow county boundaries. Maintaining links to the county system is a mandatory consideration in the re-organisation of constituency boundaries by a Constituency Commission. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard


In Northern Ireland, a major re-organisation of local government in 1973 replaced the six traditional counties and two county boroughs (Belfast and Derry) by 26 single-tier districts,[33] which, apart from Fermanagh cross the traditional county boundaries. The six counties and two county-boroughs remain in use for purposes such as Lieutenancy. HP Pavilion DV7-3173nr laptop keyboard

In November 2005, proposals were announced which would see the number of local authorities reduced to seven.[34] The island's total population of approximately 6 million people is concentrated on the east coast, particularly in Dublin and Belfast and their surrounding areas.

Ireland has 12,000 km² (4,633 miles²) of bogland, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

consisting of two distinct types, blanket bogs and raised bogs. Blanket bogs are the more widespread of the two types. They are essentially a product of human activity aided by the moist Irish climate. Blanket bogs formed on sites where Neolithic farmers cleared trees for farming.  ACER Aspire One A150-BGc laptop keyboard

As the land so cleared fell into disuse, the soil began to leach and become more acidic, producing a suitable environment for the growth of heather and rushes. The debris from these plants accumulated and a layer of peat formed. One of the largest expanses of Atlantic blanket bog in Ireland is to be found in County Mayo.  SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S laptop keyboard


Raised bogs are most common in the Shannon basin. They formed when depressions left behind after the ice age filled with water to form lakes. Debris from reeds in these lakes formed a layer at the bottom of the water. This eventually choked the lakes and raised above the surface, forming raised bogs.[39] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


Since the 17th century, peat has been cut for fuel for domestic heating and cooking and it is called turf when so used. The process accelerated as commercial exploitation of bogs grew. In the 1940s, machines for cutting turf were introduced and larger-scale exploitation became possible. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In the Republic, this became the responsibility of a semi-state company called Bord na Móna. In addition to domestic uses, commercially extracted turf is used in a number of industries, especially electricity generation[40] though peat is being combined with biomass for dual-firing electricity generation.[41] HP AESP7U00110 laptop keyboard


In recent years, the high level of bog being destroyed by cutting has raised environmental concerns. The problem is particularly acute for raised bogs as they yield a higher-grade fuel than blanket bogs. Plans are now in place in both the Republic and Northern Ireland to conserve most of the remaining raised bogs on the island. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard


Offshore exploration for natural gas began in 1970.[43] The first major discovery was the Kinsale Head gas field in 1971.Next was the smaller Ballycotton gas field in 1989,[43] and the Corrib gas field in 1996.Exploitation of the Corrib project has yet to get off the ground because the controversial proposal to refine the gas onshore, FUJITSU Lifebook S7111 laptop keyboard

rather than at sea has been met with widespread opposition. Gas from these fields is pumped ashore and used for both domestic and industrial purposes. The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over 28 million barrels (4,500,000 m3) of oil, is a 2000 discovery.Ireland is the largest European producer of zinc with three operating zinc-lead mines at Navan, Galmoy and Lisheen.  SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

Other mineral deposits with actual or potential commercial value include gold, silver, gypsum, talc, calcite, dolomite, roofing slate, limestone aggregate, building stone, sand and gravel.[47]

In May 2007 the Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (now replaced by the Department of Communications, TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

Energy and Natural Resources) reported that there may be volumes over 130 billion barrels (2.1×1010 m3) of petroleum and 50 trillion cubic feet (1,400 km3) of natural gas in Irish waters[48] – worth trillions of Euro, if true. The minimum 'guaranteed' amount of oil in the Irish Atlantic waters is 10 billion barrels (1.6×109 m3), worth over €450 billion. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4110 laptop keyboard

There are also areas of petroleum and natural gas on shore, for example the Lough Allen basin, with 9.4 trillion cubic feet (270 km3) of gas and 1.5 billion barrels (240,000,000 m3) of oil, valued at €74.4 billion. Already some fields are being exploited, such as the Spanish Point field, with 1.25 trillion cubic feet (35 km3) of gas and 206 million barrels (32,800,000 m3) of oil, valued at €19.6 billion. Packard Bell Easynote TK81 laptop keyboard

The Corrib Basin is also quite large, worth anything up to €87 billion, while the Dunquin gas field contains 25 trillion cubic feet (710 km3) of natural gas and 4.13 billion barrels (657,000,000 m3) of petroleum.

In March 2012 the first commercial oil well was drilled 70 km off the Cork coast by Providence Resources. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

The Barryroe oil well is yielding 3500 barrels per day, at current oil prices at $120 a barrel Barryroe oil well is worth in excess of €2.14bn annually.

The climate of Ireland can be summed up as being mild, moist and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

It is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Köppen climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Europe.The country receives generally warm summers and mild winters. It is considerably warmer than other areas on its latitude, because it lies in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, and as a result is warmed by the North Atlantic Current all year. SONY VAIO PCG-F23 laptop keyboard


The influence of the North Atlantic Current also ensures the coastline of Ireland remains ice-free throughout the winter—unlike for example the Sea of Okhotsk and the Labrador Sea which are at a similar latitude. The climate in Ireland does not experience extreme weather, with tornadoes and similar weather features being rare.  Lenovo 63Y0047 laptop keyboard


Ireland, as a whole, experiences a lack of temperature extremes compared to other areas of similar latitudes. Summers are generally warm and winters are mild. There is a regional variation, with inland areas being cooler in winter and warmer in summer than their coastal counterparts.

The warmest areas are found along the southwest coast. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

Valentia Island, County Kerry has the highest annual mean temperature, at 10.4 °C (50.7 °F).[2]

The coldest areas are found inland. Clones, County Monaghan and Mullingar, County Westmeath both have the lowest annual mean temperature, at 8.8 °C (47.8 °F).[3][4] TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4110 laptop keyboard


The highest temperature ever recorded in Ireland was 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) at Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny on 26 June 1887. The lowest temperature was −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) at Markree Castle, County Sligo on 16 January 1881.[5]

Extreme heat and cold are both rare throughout the country. Packard Bell Easynote TK81 laptop keyboard

Summer temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) usually once or twice every decade (2013, 2006, 2005, 2003, 1995, 1990, 1989, 1983, 1976 and 1975 are recent examples), although they commonly reach the high 20s °C (low 80s °F) most summers, while severe freezes occur only occasionally in winter, with temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) being very uncommon, and temperatures below freezing uncommon in many coastal areas. Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard


Mean daily winter temperatures vary from 4.0 °C (39.2 °F) to 7.6 °C (45.7 °F), and mean daily summer temperatures vary from 15 °C (59 °F) to 20 °C (68.0 °F).

Air frost occurs frequently in the winter, with most areas seeing over 40 days of air frost every year. In northern areas, air frost occurs on average 10.2 days every January, SONY VAIO PCG-FR315B laptop keyboard

the month in which air frost occurs most frequently.[6] Along the coast, air frost occurs less regularly. In the Sperrins and the Glens of Antrim air frost occurs around 80 days a year.[7] The pattern is similar with ground frost, with on average around 100 days of ground frost in the lowlands and over 140 in the mountains.[8]  SONY VAIO PCG-F23 laptop keyboard


Frost is rarer along the coast, in urban areas and also in western and southern areas.

Roches Point, County Cork receives the least number of days with air frost, with an average of 7.0 days with air frost recorded annually.Kilkenny, County Kilkenny receives the most amount of days with air frost, with an average of 53.0 days with air frost recorded annually.[10] Lenovo 63Y0047 laptop keyboard


In Dublin, Dublin Airport records air frost on average 24.3 days per year, while Casement Aerodrome (which is further inland) records air frost on average 41.3 days per year.

The sunniest months are May and June. During these months sunshine duration averages between 5 and 6½ hours per day over most of the country. HP Pavilion DV6-1000 laptop keyboard

The south-east gets the most sunshine, averaging over 7 hours a day in early summer. December is the dullest month with an average daily sunshine ranging from about 1 hour in the north to almost 2 hours in the south-east. Over the year as a whole most areas get an average of between 3¼ and 3¾ hours of sunshine each day.  SONY Vaio PCG-K45 laptop keyboard

 Irish skies are completely covered by cloud roughly half of the time.

The sunniest part of the island is the south-east coast. Rosslare, County Wexford is the sunniest area, and receives on average 4.38 hours of sunshine per day (1,598.41 hours per year)

The dullest, i.e., least sunny, part of the island is generally in the west and northwest of the country. However, Birr, SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

County Offaly, in the midlands, is the dullest station, receiving on average 3.2 hours of sunshine per day, considerably less than the stations at Malin Head in the North or Belmullet in the West.[15] Inland areas tend to receive less sunshine than coastal areas due to the convective development of clouds over land.  HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

Cloud develops because of vertical air currents caused by thermal heating of the ground.

Rainfall is the most common form of precipitation on the island, and is extremely common throughout Ireland, although some parts of the west coast receive over four times as much rain as the east coast. HP Pavilion dv6-3124tx laptop keyboard

Rainfall in Ireland normally comes from Atlantic frontal systems which travel north-east over the Island, bringing cloud and rain. Most of the eastern half of the country has between 750 and 1,000 mm (29.5 and 39.4 in) of rainfall in the year. Rainfall in the west generally averages between 1,000 and 1,250 mm (39.4 and 49.2 in). SONY VGN-FE790 laptop keyboard

In many mountainous districts rainfall exceeds 3,000 mm (118.1 in) per year. The wettest months almost everywhere are December and January. April is the driest month generally, but in many southern parts June is the driest. HP Mini 110-3007tu Laptop Keyboard


The average number of "wet days" (days with more than 1 mm (0.039 in) of rain) ranges from about 151 days a year along the east and south-east coasts, to about 225 days a year in parts of the west.

The wettest weather station is Valentia Island, County Kerry, which receives 1,430.1 mm (56.30 in) of rain per year, on average.[2] DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard


The driest weather station is Casement Aerodrome, County Dublin, which receives 711.4 mm (28.01 in) of rain per year, on average.[12]

The weather station with the highest number of "wet days" is Belmullet, County Mayo with 193 days per year,[18] while the station with the lowest number of "wet days" is Dublin Airport, County Dublin with 128 days per year. HP Pavilion dv4t-1400 CTO Laptop Keyboard


Severe cold weather is uncommon in Ireland with the majority of winter precipitation coming in the form of rain. Although hills and mountainous regions in the country can see up to 30 days of snowfall annually, most low lying regions of the island only see a few days of lying snow per year (from December to March inclusive), or may see no snow at all during some winters. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

However, in recent winters, there has been a significant increase in prolonged "cold snaps", in which heavy snow does fall across Ireland for several weeks, often causing disruption to traffic and services across Ireland. Consequently, there have been increased calls to prepare the country for snow and ice, ASUS K012462A1 Laptop Keyboard

including the distribution of grit, salt, and other snow-treatable minerals. In late 2011, the Irish Government set up "Winter-Ready", in order to prepare the country for such severe weather.[20]

Due to the volatility of Ireland's weather (which is mainly because of the influence of the Atlantic Ocean,  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Drift, as well as Ireland's Northerly latitude and vulnerability to Siberian/Arctic winds) weather during the Winter months is very variable and difficult to predict, with the aforementioned factors making both extremely low temperatures and relatively mild temperatures possible. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard


The snowiest weather station is Clones, County Monaghan; which receives, on average, nearly 30 days of snow and/or sleet per year. Of these, 10.8 days have snow lying at 09:00.[3]

The least snowy weather station is Valentia Island, County Kerry; which receives, on average, 5.6 days of snow and/or sleet per year. Of these, 0.8 days have snow lying at 09:00. Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard


Generally, the coast tends to be windier than inland areas; and the west tends to be windier than the east.

The station with the highest mean wind speed is Malin Head, County Donegal; averaging at 16.3 kn (30.2 km/h; 18.8 mph). Malin Head also receives the most gale force winds, recording them on average 66.0 days per year.[21] HP G61-406SA Laptop Keyboard


The station with the lowest mean wind speed is Kilkenny, County Kilkenny; averaging at 6.5 kn (12.0 km/h; 7.5 mph).[10]

The station that records the least amount of gale force winds is Birr, County Offaly; recording them on average 1.2 days per year.[24]

The highest wind speed ever recorded in Ireland was 327 km/h (203 mph; 177 kn) at Kilkeel, County Down on 12 January 1974.  HP G61-406SA Laptop Keyboard


Tornadoes are very rare in Ireland, with around less than ten reported every year - mostly in August.

Irish cuisine is a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced Ireland's cuisine thereafter and, as a result, is often closely associated with Ireland. Representative Irish dishes include Irish stew, bacon and cabbage, potato, boxty, coddle, and colcannon. IBM Lenovo ThinkPad X300 Laptop Keyboard


There are many references to food and drink in Irish mythology and early Irish literature such as the tale of Fionn mac Cumhaill and the Salmon of Knowledge[1] The old stories also contain many references to banquets, although these may well be greatly exaggerated and provide little insight into everyday diets. Honey seems to have been widely eaten and used in the making of mead. SONY VAIO VGN-N21S/W Laptop Keyboard

There are also many references to fulacht fiadh, which may have been sites for cooking deer, consisting of holes in the ground which were filled with water. The meat was placed in the water and cooked by the introduction of hot stones. Many fulacht fiadh sites have been identified across the island of Ireland, and some of them appear to have been in use up to the 17th century. SONY Vaio PCG-K315B Laptop Keyboard


Excavations at the Viking settlement in the Wood Quay area of Dublin have produced a significant amount of information on the diet of the inhabitants of the town. The main meats eaten were beef, mutton, and pork. Domestic poultry and geese as well as fish and shellfish were also common, as was a wide range of native berries and nuts, especially hazel. DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

The seeds of knotgrass and goosefoot were widely present and may have been used to make a porridge.

From the Middle Ages, until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century, the dominant feature of the rural economy was the herding of cattle. The meat produced was mostly the preserve of the gentry and nobility. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

The poor generally made do with milk, butter, cheese, and offal, supplemented with oats and barley. The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter (similar to the practice of the Maasai) was not uncommon. Black pudding is made from blood, grain, (usually barley) and seasoning, and remains a breakfast staple food in Ireland. HP Pavilion dv6-3136ee laptop keyboard


Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. The potato was introduced into Ireland in the second half of the 16th century, initially as a garden crop. It eventually came to be the main food crop of the poor. As a food source, the potato is extremely valuable in terms of the amount of energy produced per unit area of crop. HP Pavilion dv6-3136ee laptop keyboard

The potato is also a good source of many vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C when fresh.

Potatoes were widely cultivated, but in particular by those at a subsistence level; the diet of this group of this period consisted mainly of potatoes supplemented with buttermilk. Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard

Potatoes were also fed to pigs, to fatten them prior to their slaughter at the approach of the cold winter months. Much of the slaughtered pork would have been cured to provide ham and bacon that could be stored over the winter. HP Pavilion DV6-1350us laptop keyboard


Fresh meat was generally considered a luxury except for the most affluent until the late 19th century and chickens were not raised on a large scale until the emergence of town grocers in the 1880s allowed people to exchange surplus goods, like eggs, and for the first time purchase a variety food items to diversify their diet. HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard


The reliance on potatoes as a staple crop meant that the people of Ireland were vulnerable to poor potato harvests. Consequently several famines occurred throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. The first Great Famine of 1739 was the result of extreme cold weather but the famine of 1845 to 1849 (see Great Irish Famine) was caused by potato blight which spread throughout the Irish crop which consisted largely of a single variety, the Lumper. HP Pavilion dv6-3034ca laptop keyboard

During the famine approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland.

In the 21st century, the usual modern selection of foods common to Western culture has been adopted in Ireland. Common meals include pizza, curry, Chinese food, and lately, Lenovo 63Y0011 laptop keyboard

some West African dishes and East European (especially Polish) dishes have been making an appearance, as ingredients for these and other cuisines have become more widely available.

In tandem with these developments, and led by Myrtle Allen,[3] the last quarter of the 20th century saw the emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways. HP 519265-001 laptop keyboard

This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish (especially salmon and trout), oysters, mussels and other shellfish, traditional soda bread, the wide range of cheeses that are now being made across the country, and, of course, the potato. Traditional dishes, such as Irish stew, coddle, the Irish breakfast, SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

and potato bread have enjoyed a resurgence in popularity. Schools like the Ballymaloe Cookery School have emerged to cater for the associated increased interest in cooking.

Fish and chips take-away is popular. The first fish and chips were sold in Dublin in the 1880s by an Italian immigrant from San Donato Val di Comino, Giuseppe Cervi. TOSHIBA PK13CW10200 laptop keyboard

His wife Palma would ask customers 'Uno di questa, uno di quella?' This phrase (meaning 'one of this, one of the other') entered the vernacular in Dublin as 'one and one', which is still a common way of referring to fish and chips in the city.[4]

In much of Ulster (especially Northern Ireland and County Donegal), fish and chips are usually known as a 'fish supper'.  DELL NSK-DJ301 laptop keyboard


The proliferation of fast food has led to increasing public health problems, including obesity, where it was reported that as many as 327,000 Irish children are now obese or overweight and in response the Irish Government is now considering introducing a "Fast Food Tax".[5] Government efforts to combat obesity have also included television advertising campaigns and education programmes in schools. ACER TravelMate 3020 laptop keyboard


The eating of seafood, particularly shellfish has always been very popular in Ireland, especially in coastal cities like Galway and Dublin. Such is the impact of shellfish in Irish culture that in Dublin the fish seller is celebrated in the traditional folk song Molly Malone and in Galway the international Galway Oyster Festival is held every September.[10 DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

] An example of an Irish shellfish dish is Dublin Lawyer (lobster cooked in whiskey and cream).[11] Salmon and cod are perhaps the two most common types of fish eaten. Carrageen moss and Dulse (both types of red algae) are commonly used in Irish seafood dishes. Lenovo 04W0872 laptop keyboard,HP Pavilion dv4-1318tu laptop keyboard,HP Mini 210-1107TU laptop keyboard

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