Saturday, May 10, 2014

The UK has been at the forefront of developments in film

The UK has been at the forefront of developments in film, radio, and television. Broadcasting in the UK has historically been dominated by the taxpayer-funded but independently run British Broadcasting Corporation or BBC, HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan although other independent radio and television (ITV, Channel 4, Five) and satellite broadcasters (especially BSkyB which has over 10 million subscribers[90]) have become more important in recent years. BBC television, and the other three main television channels are public service broadcasters who, HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan as part of their license allowing them to operate, broadcast a variety of minority interest programming. The BBC and Channel 4 are state-owned, though they operate independently. Many successful British TV shows have been exported around the world, such as Pop Idol (created by Simon Fuller), HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?Britain's Got Talent (created by Simon Cowell), The X FactorHell's Kitchen (created by Gordon Ramsay), The Office(created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant), Ramsay's Kitchen NightmaresStrictly Come DancingDoctor WhoDownton Abbey and Top Gear. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The British Film Institute drew up a list of the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes in 2000, voted by industry professionals.[91] In 2004 the BBC conducted a nationwide poll to find "Britain's Best Sitcom".[92] The United Kingdom has a large number of national and local radio stations which cover a great variety of programming. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The most listened to stations are the five main national BBC radio stations. BBC Radio 1, a new music station aimed at the 16–24 age group. BBC Radio 2, a varied popular music and chat station aimed at adults is consistently highest in the ratings. BBC Radio 4, a varied talk station, is noted for its news, current affairs, drama and comedy output as well as The Archers, HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan its long running soap opera, and other unique programmes. The BBC, as a public service broadcaster, also runs minority stations such as BBC Asian Network, BBC Radio 1Xtra and BBC Radio 6 Music, and local stations throughout the country. Talksport is one of the biggest commercial radio stations in the UK. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan From the creation of the United Kingdom, the English school of painting is mainly notable for portraits and landscapes, and indeed portraits in landscapes. Among the artists of this period are Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792), George Stubbs (1724–1806), and Thomas Gainsborough (1727–1788). DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan William Hogarth painted far more down-to-earth portraits and satires, and was the first great English printmaker. The late 18th century and the early 19th century was perhaps the most radical period in British art, producing William Blake(1757–1827), DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan John Constable (1776–1837) and William Turner (1775–1851), three of the most influential British artists, each of whom have dedicated spaces allocated for their work at the Tate Britain.[95] The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB) achieved considerable influence after its foundation in 1848 with paintings that concentrated on religious, literary, and genre subjects executed in a colourful and minutely detailed style. HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan PRB artists included John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and subsequently Edward Burne-Jones. Also associated with it was the designer William Morris, whose efforts to make beautiful objects affordable (or even free) for everyone led to his wallpaper and tile designs to some extent defining the Victorian aesthetic and instigating the Arts and Crafts movement. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Visual artists from the United Kingdom in the 20th century include Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Bridget Riley, and the pop artists Richard Hamilton and Peter Blake. Also prominent amongst twentieth-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.[96] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Sir Jacob Epstein was a pioneer of modern sculpture. In 1958 artist Gerald Holtom designed the protest logo for the British CND, which later became a universal peace symbol used in many different versions worldwide.[97] As a reaction to abstract expressionism, pop art emerged originally in England at the end of the 1950s. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Known for his thickly impasted portrait and figure paintings, Lucian Freud was widely considered the pre-eminent British artist of his time.[98] The 1990s saw the Young British Artists, Damien Hirst and Tracey Emin. Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway, John Tenniel, Aubrey Beardsley, Roger Hargreaves, Arthur Rackham,  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan John Leech, George Cruikshank and Beatrix Potter were notable book illustrators. In the late 1960s, British graphic designer Storm Thorgerson co-founded the English graphic art group Hipgnosis, who have designed many iconic single and album covers for rock bands. His works were notable for their surreal elements,  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan with perhaps the most famous being the cover for Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon.[99] The subversive political artwork of Banksy (pseudonym of the renowned English graffiti artist whose identity is concealed) can be found on streets, walls and buildings all over the world, and has also featured in TV shows.[100][1HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan 01] Arts institutions include the Royal College of Art, Royal Society of Arts, New English Art Club, Slade School of Art, Royal Academy, and the Tate Gallery (founded as the National Gallery of British Art). The architecture of the United Kingdom includes many features that precede the creation of the United Kingdom in 1707, SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan from as early as Skara Brae and Stonehenge to the Giant's Ring, Avebury and Roman ruins. In most towns and villages the parish church is an indication of the age of the settlement. Many castles remain from the medieval period such as; Windsor Castle (longest-occupied castle in Europe),[102]  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Stirling Castle (one of the largest and most important in Scotland),[103] Bodiam Castle (moated castle), and Warwick Castle. Over the two centuries following the Norman conquest of England of 1066, and the building of the Tower of London, castles such as Caernarfon Castle in Wales and Carrickfergus Castle in Ireland were built. HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan English Gothic architecture flourished from the 12th to the early 16th century, and famous examples include Westminster Abbey, the traditional place of coronation for the British monarch, which also has a long tradition as a venue for royal weddings;[105] Canterbury Cathedral, one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England; ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Salisbury Cathedral, which has the tallest church spire in the UK;[106] and Winchester Cathedral, which contains the longest nave and overall length of any Gothic cathedral in Europe.[107] In the United Kingdom, a listed building is a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan About half a million buildings in the UK have "listed" status. In the 1680s, Downing Street was built by Sir George Downing, and its most famous address 10 Downing Street, became the residence of the Prime Minister in 1730.[108] One of the best known English architects working at the time of the foundation of the United Kingdom was Sir Christopher Wren. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan He was employed to design and rebuild many of the ruined ancient churches of London following the Great Fire of London. His masterpiece, St Paul's Cathedral, was completed in the early years of the United Kingdom.[109] Buckingham Palace, the official London residence of the British monarch, was built in 1705. Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In the early 18th century baroque architecture – popular in Europe – was introduced, and Blenheim Palace was built in this era. However, baroque was quickly replaced by a return of the Palladian form. The Georgian architecture of the 18th century was an evolved form of Palladianism. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Many existing buildings such as Woburn Abbey and Kedleston Hall are in this style. Among the many architects of this form of architecture and its successors, neoclassical and romantic, were Robert Adam, Sir William Chambers, and James Wyatt. The aristocratic stately home continued the tradition of the first large gracious unfortified mansions such as the Elizabethan Montacute House andHatfield House. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan During the 18th and 19th centuries to the highest echelons of British society, theEnglish country house served as a place for relaxing, hunting and running the countryside. Many stately homes have become open to the public; Knebworth House, now a major venue for open air rock and pop concerts,[111] ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Alton Towers, theme park and the most popular in the UK,[112] and Longleat, the world's first safari park outside Africa. In the early 19th century the romantic medieval gothic style appeared as a backlash to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to develop incorporating steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular retrospective Renaissancestyles. HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In this era of prosperity and development British architecture embraced many new methods of construction, but ironically in style, such architects as August Pugin ensured it remained firmly in the past. At the beginning of the 20th century a new form of design arts and crafts became popular,  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the architectural form of this style, which had evolved from the 19th century designs of such architects as George Devey, was championed by Edwin Lutyens. Arts and crafts in architecture is symbolised by an informal, non-symmetrical form, often with mullioned or lattice windows, multiple gablesand tall chimneys. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan This style continued to evolve until World War II. Following the Second World War, reconstruction went through a variety of phases, but was heavily influenced by Modernism, especially from the late 1950s to the early 1970s. Many bleak town centre redevelopments—criticised for featuring hostile, HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan concrete-lined "windswept plazas"—were the fruit of this interest, as were many equally bleak public buildings, such as the Hayward Gallery. Many Modernist inspired town centres are today in the process of being redeveloped, Bracknell town centre being a case in point. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan However, in the immediate post-War years many thousands (perhaps hundreds of thousands) of council houses in vernacular style were built, giving working-class people their first experience of private gardens and indoorsanitation. Modernism remains a significant force in UK architecture, although its influence is felt predominantly in commercial buildings. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan The two most prominent proponents are Lord Rogers of Riverside and Norman Foster. Rogers' iconic London buildings are probably Lloyd's Building and the Millennium Dome, while Foster created the 'Gherkin' and the City Hall. Completed in 2012, the Shard London Bridge is the tallest building in the European Union.[115HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan ] Other major skyscrapers under construction in London include The Pinnacle, and Heron Tower.[116][117] Modernist architect Nicholas Grimshaw designed the Eden Project in Cornwall, which is the world's largest greenhouse. Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan The UK was at the forefront of the illegal, free rave movement from the late 1980s, which led to pan-European culture of teknivalsmirrored on the UK free festival movement and associated travelling lifestyle.[119] The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Gardens.[120] HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually.[120] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world’s largest arts festival.[121] Established in 1947, it takes place in Scotland's capital during three weeks every August alongside several other arts and cultural festivals. The Fringe mostly attracts events from the performing arts, particularly theatre and comedy, although dance and music also figure significantly. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan The circus is a traditional form of entertainment in the UK. Chipperfield's Circus dates back more than 300 years in Britain, making it one of the oldest family circus dynasties.[114] Philip Astley is regarded as the father of themodern circus. Following his invention of the circus ring in 1768,[122] Astley's Amphitheatre opened in London in 1773. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan As an equestrian master Astley had a genius for trick horse-riding, and when he added tumblers, tightrope-walkers, jugglers, performing dogs, and a clown to fill time between his own demonstrations – the modern circus was born.[123][124] Having began his theatrical career with Hughes Royal Circus in London in the 1780s, HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan Englishman John Bill Ricketts brought the modern circus to the US in 1792, and he gave America's first complete circus performance in Philadelphia on 3 April 1793.[123] Joseph Grimaldi is the most celebrated of English clowns, and is widely considered the father of modern clowning. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan Much of the folklore of the United Kingdom pre-dates the UK. Though some of the characters and stories are present across Britain, most belong to specific countries or regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elfs, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angeln and Weyland Smith,[127] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.[128] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan During the High Middle Ages tales originated from Brythonic traditions, notably the Arthurian myth.[129][130][131] Deriving from Welsh source;King Arthur, Excalibur and Merlin, while the Jersey poet Wace introduced the Knights of the Round Table. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae. HP 434678-001 CPU Fan Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore. The Loch Ness Monster is a cryptid that is reputed to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan The legendary monster has been affectionately referred to by the nickname Nessie since the 1950s.[132] The Leprechaun figures large in Irish folklore. A mischievous fairy type creature in emerald green clothing who when not playing tricks spend all their time busily making shoes, Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan the Leprechaun is said to have a pot of gold hidden at the end of the rainbow, and if ever captured by a human it has the magical power to grant three wishes in exchange for release.[133] In mythology, English fairy tales such as Jack and the Beanstalk helped form the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent, HP 606609-001 CPU Fan while the legendary dwarf Tom Thumb is a traditional hero in English folklore. English fairy tale Goldilocks and the Three Bears is one of the most popular fairy tales in the English language.[134] Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, the heroic English figure Hereward the Wake resisted the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park, and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.[135] TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while the colourful English piratesBlackbeard and Calico Jack are renowned.[86] The Gremlin is part of RAF folklore dating from the 1920s, with gremlin being RAF slang for a mishievous creature that sabotages aircraft, meddling in the planes equipment.[136] ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan Legendary figures from nineteenth century London whose tales have been romanticised include Sweeney Todd, the murderous barber of Fleet Street, and serial killer Jack the Ripper. On 5 November, people in England make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plotcentred on Guy Fawkes, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan which became an annual event after The Thanksgiving Act of 1606 was passed.[137] The Guy Fawkes mask has become an emblem for anti-establishment protest groups. Halloween is a traditional and much celebrated holiday in Scotland and Ireland on the night of 31 October.[139] The name Halloweenis first attested in the 16th century as a Scottish shortening of the fuller All-Hallows-Even,[140HP 637607-001 CPU Fan ] and according to some historians has its roots in the gaelic festival Samhain, where the Gaels believed the border between this world and the otherworld became thin, and the dead would revisit the mortal world.[141] In 1780, Dumfries poet John Mayne makes note of pranks at Halloween; "What fearfu' pranks ensue!", HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan as well as the supernatural associated with the night, "Bogies" (ghosts).[142] The bard of Scotland Robert Burns' 1785 poem "Halloween" is recited by Scots at Halloween, and Burns was influenced by Mayne's composition.[142][143] In Scotland and Ireland, traditional Halloween customs include; HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan Guising — children disguised in costume going from door to door requesting food or coins – which became practice by the late 19th century,[144][145] turnips hollowed-out and carved with faces to make lanterns,[146] holding parties where games such as apple bobbing are played.[147] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan Other practices in Ireland include lightingbonfires, and having firework displays.[148][149] Further contemporary imagery of Halloween is derived from Gothic and Horrorliterature (notably Shelley's Frankenstein and Stoker's Dracula), and classic horror films (such as Hammer Horrors). HP G56-114SA CPU Fan Mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish migration in the 19th century popularised Halloween in North America. Each country of the United Kingdom has its own body responsible for heritage matters. English Heritage is the governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. Seventeen of the United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.[152]Some of the best known of these include; HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast,Westminster, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.[153] Historic Scotland is the executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland, such asStirling Castle. The Old and New Town of Edinburgh is a notable Scottish World Heritage site. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan Many of Wales' great castles, such as the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd and other monuments, are under the care ofCadw, part of the Welsh Government. The Northern Ireland Environment Agency promotes and conserves the natural and built environment in Northern Ireland, and The Giants Causeway in the northeast coast, is one of the UK's natural World Heritage sites. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan The British Museum in London with its collection of more than seven million objects,[154] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,[155] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan National Museums of Scotland bring together national collections in Scotland. Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales comprises eight museums in Wales. The Titanic Belfast museum, a visitor attraction in the Titanic Quarter, east Belfast, Northern Ireland on the regenerated site of the shipyard where Titanic was built, was officially opened to the public in March 2012.[156DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan ] The architecture is a tribute to Titanic itself, with the external facades, a nod to the enormous hull of the cruise liner.[157] The first Madame Tussauds wax museum opened in London in 1835, and today displays waxworks of famous people from various fields, including; HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan royalty (Princess Diana), historical figures (Henry VIII), sports heroes (Beckham) among others.[158] The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.[159] The National Galleries of Scotland are the five national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries. The National Museum of Art, Wales, opened in 2011. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.[161] The National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh, holds 7 million books, fourteen million printed items and over 2 million maps.[162] HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan The National Library of Wales is the national legal deposit library of Wales. From the time of the Scientific Revolution, England and Scotland, and thereafter the United Kingdom, have been prominent in world scientific and technologicaldevelopment. The Royal Society serves as the national academy for sciences, with members drawn from many different institutions and disciplines. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Formed in 1660, it is one of the oldest learned societies still in existence. Sir Isaac Newton's publication of the Principia Mathematica ushered in what is recognisable as modern physics. The first edition of 1687 and the second edition of 1713 framed the scientific context of the foundation of the United Kingdom. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan He realised that the same force is responsible for movements of celestial and terrestrial bodies, namely gravity. He was the father of classical mechanics, formulated as his three laws and as the co-inventor (with Gottfried Leibniz) of differential calculus. He also created the binomial theorem, worked extensively on optics, and created a law of cooling. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Since Newton's time, figures from the UK have contributed to the development of most major branches of science. Examples include Michael Faraday, who, with James Clerk Maxwell, unified the electric and magneticforces in what are now known as Maxwell's equations; James Joule, who worked extensively in thermodynamics and is often credited with the discovery of the principle of conservation of energy; HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan Paul Dirac, one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics; naturalist Charles Darwin, author of On the Origin of Species and discoverer of the principle of evolution by natural selection; Harold Kroto, the discoverer of buckminsterfullerene; William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) who drew important conclusions in the field of thermodynamics and invented the Kelvinscale of absolute zero; HP G62-244CA CPU Fan botanist Robert Brown discovered the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (Brownian motion); and the creator of Bell's Theorem, John Stewart Bell. Other British pioneers in their field include; Joseph Lister (Antiseptic surgery), Edward Jenner (Vaccination), ASUS A6000R CPU Fan

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