Friday, May 2, 2014

Republic of Moldova, Moldova i/mɔːlˈdoʊvə/,[nb 1][nb 2] officially the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Republica Moldovapronounced [reˈpublika molˈdova]) is a landlocked[7] country in Eastern Europe located between Romania to its west and Ukraine to its north, east and south. Its capital city is Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv6-1045ee CPU Fan Moldova declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republicin 1991 as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. A new constitution was adopted on July 29, 1994. A strip of Moldova's internationally recognised territory on the east bank of the river Dniester has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. HP Pavilion dv7-4050ev CPU Fan As a result of a decrease in industrial and agricultural output since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the relative size of the service sector in Moldova's economy has grown to dominate its GDP and currently stands at over 60%. Moldova remains, however, the poorest country in Europe.[7][8] HP Pavilion dv6t-3200 CTO CPU Fan Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government. It is, among other organizations, a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Toshiba Satellite L505-144 CPU Fan the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). The country aspires to join the European Union[9] and, to this end, has implemented an initial three-year action plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River; the valley of this river was a political centre when thePrincipality of Moldavia was founded in 1359.[11] The origin of the name of the river is not clear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan

The river was named by princeDragoș after hunting an aurochs: after the chase, his exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river. The dog's name was given to the river and extended to the Principality.

During the Neolithic stone age era, Moldova's territory was the centre of the large Cucuteni-Trypillian culturethat stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine, Toshiba Satellite A660-BT2N22 CPU Fan

and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The inhabitants of this civilisation, which lasted roughly from 5500 to 2750 BC, practiced agriculture, raised livestock, hunted, and made intricately designed pottery.

In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, thenByzantine Empires. Toshiba Satellite P305-S8814 CPU Fan

Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgarians,Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars.

The Principality of Moldavia, established in 1359, was bounded by the Carpathian Mountains in the west, Toshiba Satellite L550-13U CPU Fan Dniester river in the east, and Danube and Black Sea in the south. Its territory comprised the present-day territory of the Republic of Moldova, the eastern eight of the 41 counties of Romania, and the Chernivtsi Oblast and Budjak region of Ukraine. Like the present-day republic and Romania's north-eastern region, it was known to the locals as Moldova. Lenovo IBM ThinkPad Edge E420 Keyboard

Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and, since the 15th century, by the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tributary to theOttoman Empire, but it retained internal and partial external autonomy.

In accordance with the Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 and despite numerous protests by Moldavian nobles on behalf of the sovereignty of their principality, HP Pavilion G61-336NR CPU Fan

theOttoman Empire (of which Moldavia was a vassal) ceded to the Russian Empire the eastern half of the territory of the Principality of Moldavia along with Khotynand old Bessarabia (modern Budjak), which Russia had already conquered and annexed.

The new Russian province was called "Oblast of Moldavia and Bessarabia", and initially enjoyed a large degree of autonomy. HP Pavilion dv7-6184ca CPU Fan After 1828 this autonomy was progressively restricted and in 1871 the Oblast was transformed into the Bessarabia Governorate, in a process of state-imposed assimilation, "Russification". As part of this process, the Tsarist administration in Bessarabia gradually removed the Romanian language from official and religious use.[15] HP Pavilion dv7-3125eo CPU Fan

 The western part of Moldavia (which is a part of present-day Romania) remained an autonomous principality, and in 1859, united with Wallachia to form the Kingdom of Romania.

The Treaty of Paris (1856) returned three counties of Bessarabia — Cahul, HP Pavilion dv7-2185dx CPU Fan Bolgrad and Ismail — to Moldavia, but in the Treaty of Berlin (1878), the Kingdom of Romania agreed to return them to the Russian Empire. Over the 19th century, the Russian authorities encouraged colonization of the south of the region by Romanians,[16] Ukrainians, Lipovans, Cossacks, Bulgarians,[17] Germans,[18] Gagauzes, and allowed the settlement of more Jews,[nb 3IBM MCF-C10AM05 CPU Fan ] to replace the large NogaiTatar population expelled in the 1770s and 1780s, during Russo-Turkish Wars;[19] the Moldovan proportion of the population decreased from an estimated 86% in 1816,[20] in the aftermath of the Muslim expulsion, to around 52% in 1905.[21] During this time there were anti-Semitic riots, leading to an exodus of thousands of Jews to the United States of America. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ2XP/C CPU Fan World War I brought in a rise in political and cultural (ethnic) awareness among the inhabitants of the region, as 300,000 Bessarabians were drafted into the Russian Army formed in 1917; within bigger units several "Moldavian Soldiers' Committees" were formed. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Bessarabian parliament, Sfatul Ţării, DELL Latitude E4300 CPU Fan

was elected in October–November 1917 and opened on December 3 [O.S. November 21] 1917. The Sfatul Ţării proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic(December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917) within a federal Russian state, and formed a government (December 21 [O.S. December 8] 1917).

Bessarabia proclaimed independence from Russia on February 6 [O.S. January 24] HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan 1918 and requested the assistance of the French army present in Romania (general Henri Berthelot) and of the Romanian army, which had occupied the region in early January.[23] On April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918, the Sfatul Ţării decided with 86 votes for, 3 against and 36 abstaining, to unite with the Kingdom of Romania. FUJITSU LifeBook A6030 CPU Fan The union was conditional upon fulfillment of the agrarian reform, autonomy, and respect for universal human rights.[24] A part of the interim Parliament agreed to drop these conditions after Bukovina and Transylvaniaalso joined the Kingdom of Romania, although historians note that they lacked the quorum to do so. SONY Vaio VGN-FS115Z CPU Fan

This union was recognized by the principal Allied Powers in the 1920 Treaty of Paris, which however was not ratified by all of its signatories.[30][31] Some major powers, such as the United States and the newly communist Russia, did not recognize Romanian rule over Bessarabia, the latter considering it an occupation of Russian territory.[32]

In May 1919, the Bessarabian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed as a government in exile. HP 532617-001 CPU Fan

After the failure of theTatarbunary Uprising in 1924, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian ASSR) was formed.

In August 1939, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and its secret additional protocol were signed, by which Nazi Germany recognized Bessarabia as being within the Soviet sphere of influence, which led the latter to actively revive its claim to the region.[33] ACER Aspire 5730Z CPU Fan On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union, with the acknowledgement of Nazi Germany, issued an ultimatum to Romania requesting the cession of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina, with which Romania complied the following day. Soon after, the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic(Moldavian SSR, MSSR) was established,[33] comprising about 70% of Bessarabia, and 50% of the now-disbanded Moldavian ASSR. HP G56-126NR CPU Fan As part of the 1941 Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, Romania seized the territories of Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, and Transnistria. Romanian forces, working with the Germans, deported or exterminated about 300,000 Jews, including 147,000 from Bessarabia and Bukovina (of the latter, approximately 90,000 perished).[34] HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr CPU Fan The Soviet Army re-captured the region in February–August 1944, and re-established the Moldavian SSR. Between the end of the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive in August 1944 and the end of the war in May 1945, 256,800 inhabitants of the Moldavian SSR were drafted into the Soviet Army. 40,592 of them perished. FUJITSU Lifebook A3210 CPU Fan During the Stalinist periods 1940–1941 and 1944–1953, deportations of locals to the northern Urals, to Siberia, and northern Kazakhstan occurred regularly, with the largest ones on 12–13 June 1941, and 5–6 July 1949, accounting from MSSR alone for 18,392[nb 4] and 35,796 deportees respectively.[36] DELL Precision M6400 CPU Fan

Other forms of Soviet persecution of the population included 32,433 political arrests, followed by Gulag or in 8,360 cases, execution.

In 1946, as a result of a severe drought and excessive delivery quota obligations and requisitions imposed by the Soviet government, the southwestern part of the USSR suffered from a major famine.[37] Compaq Presario CQ60-615DX CPU Fan In 1946–1947, at least 216,000 deaths and about 350,000 cases of dystrophy were accounted by historians in the Moldavian SSR alone.[36] Similar events occurred in 1930s in the Moldavian ASSR.[36] In 1944–53, there were several anti-Soviet resistance groups in Moldova; however the NKVDand later MGB managed to eventually arrest, execute or deport their members.[36] HP Pavilion dv2660se CPU Fan In the postwar period, the Soviet government organized the immigration of working age Russian speakers (mostly Russians,Belarusians, and Ukrainians), into the new Soviet republic, especially into urbanized areas, partly to compensate for the demographic loss caused by the war and the emigration of 1940 and 1944.[38] Toshiba Satellite L500-1XC CPU Fan In the 1970s and 1980s, the Moldavian SSR received substantial allocations from the budget of the USSR to develop industrial and scientific facilities and housing. In 1971, the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a decision "About the measures for further development of the city of Kishinev" (modern Chișinău), DELL GM0503PEB1-8 (L2.M) CPU Fan

that allotted more than one billion Soviet rubles from the USSR budget for building projects,[39] subsequent decisions also directed substantial funding and brought qualified specialists from other parts of the USSR to develop Moldova's industry.[citation needed]

The Soviet government conducted a campaign to promote a Moldovan ethnic identity distinct from that of the Romanians, HP Pavilion dv7-1098eo CPU Fan based on a theory developed during the existence of the Moldavian ASSR. Official Soviet policy asserted that the language spoken by Moldovans was distinct from the Romanian language (seeMoldovenism). To distinguish the two, during the Soviet period, Moldovan was written in the Cyrillic alphabet, in contrast with Romanian, which since 1860 had been written in the Latin alphabet. Toshiba Satellite A205-S5804 CPU Fan All independent organizations were severely reprimanded, with the National Patriotic Front leaders being sentenced in 1972 to long prison terms. The Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova is assessing the activity of the communist totalitarian regime. HP Pavilion dv7-1240us CPU Fan In the 1980s, political conditions created by the glasnost and perestroika, a Democratic Movement of Moldova was formed, which in 1989 became known as the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova (FPM).[40][41] Along with several other Soviet republics, from 1988 onwards, Moldova started to move towards independence.  DELL yy529 CPU Fan On August 27, 1989, the FPM organized a mass demonstration in Chișinău that became known as the Grand National Assembly. The assembly pressured the authorities of the Moldavian SSR to adopt a language law on August 31, 1989 that proclaimed the Moldovan language written in the Latin script to be the state language of the MSSR. Its identity with the Romanian language was also established.[40][42Toshiba Qosmio G40-10E CPU Fan

] The year 1989 when the Communist Party continued to gain opposition, was also marked by November riots.

The first democratic elections for the local parliament were held in February and March 1990. Mircea Snegur was elected as Speaker of the Parliament, and Mircea Druc as Prime Minister. SONY Vaio VGN-CR407E CPU Fan On June 23, 1990, the Parliament adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the "Soviet Socialist Republic Moldova", which, among other things, stipulated the supremacy of Moldovan laws over those of the Soviet Union.[40] After the failure of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, HP Pavilion dv6-3131tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 Moldova declared its independence on 27 August 1991, Romaniabeing the first state to recognize its independence.

On December 21 of the same year, Moldova, along with most of the other Soviet republics, signed the constitutive act that formed the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). HP 622029-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova received official recognition on December 25. On December 26, 1991 the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Declaring itself a neutral state, Moldova did not join the military branch of the CIS. Three months later, on March 2, 1992, the country gained formal recognition as an independent state at the United Nations. Toshiba Satellite L675D-S7047 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 1994, Moldova became a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace program, and a member of the Council of Europe on June 29, 1995.[40]

In the region east of the Dniester river, Transnistria, which includes a large proportion of predominantly russophone East Slavs of Ukrainian (28%) and Russian (26%) descent (altogether 54% as of 1989), HP Pavilion dv7-4170ez Laptop CPU Cooling Fan while Moldovans (40%) have been the largest ethnic group, and where the headquarters and many units of the Soviet 14th Guards Army were stationed, an independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed on August 16, 1990, with its capital in Tiraspol.[40] HP Pavilion dv4-1506tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The motives behind this move were fear of the rise of nationalism in Moldova and the country's expected reunification with Romania upon secession from the USSR. In the winter of 1991–1992 clashes occurred between Transnistrian forces, supported by elements of the 14th Army, and the Moldovan police. Compaq Presario CQ61-411WM Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Between March 2 and July 26, 1992, the conflict escalated into a military engagement.

On January 2, 1992, Moldova introduced a market economy, liberalizing prices, which resulted in rapid inflation. From 1992 to 2001, the young country suffered a serious economic crisis, leaving most of the population below the poverty line. IBM FRU 46L4753 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 1993, a national currency, the Moldovan leu, was introduced to replace thetemporary cupon. The economy of Moldova began to change in 2001; and until 2008 the country saw a steady annual growth of between 5% and 10%. The early 2000s also saw a considerable growth of emigration of Moldovans looking for work (mostly illegally) in Russia HP Pavilion dv6-3190sf Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

 (especially the Moscow region), Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, and other countries; remittances from Moldovans abroad account for almost 38% of Moldova's GDP, the second-highest percentage in the world, after Tajikistan (45%).[43][44]

In the 1994 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Agrarian Party gained a majority of the seats, setting a turning point in Moldovan politics. SONY Vaio VGN-FZ21E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan With the nationalist Popular Front now in a parliamentary minority, new measures aiming to moderate the ethnic tensions in the country could be adopted. Plans for aunion with Romania were abandoned,[40] and the new Constitution gave autonomy to the breakaway Transnistria and Gagauzia. HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of Moldova adopted a "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia", and in 1995 the latter was constituted.

After winning the 1996 presidential elections, on January 15, 1997, Petru Lucinschi, the former First Secretary of the Moldavian Communist Party in 1989–91, became the country's second president (1997–2001), succeeding Mircea Snegur (1991–1996). HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2000, the Constitution was amended, transforming Moldova into aparliamentary republic, with the president being chosen through indirect election rather than direct popular vote.

Winning 49.9% of the vote, the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (reinstituted in 1993 after being outlawed in 1991), gained 71 of the 101 MPs, and on April 4, 2001, HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Eelected Vladimir Voronin as the country's third president (re-elected in 2005). The country became the first post-Soviet state where a non-reformed Communist Party returned to power.[40] New governments were formed by Vasile Tarlev (April 19, 2001 – March 31, 2008), and Zinaida Greceanîi (March 31, 2008 – September 14, 2009).  Dell Latitude E6500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In 2001–2003 relations between Moldova and Russia improved, but then temporarily deteriorated in 2003–2006, in the wake of the failure of the Kozak memorandum, culminating in the 2006 wine exports crisis. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova managed to stay in power for eight years. SONY Vaio VGN-NR120Q Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The fragmentation of the liberal (aka the democrats) helped consolidate its power. The decline of the party started in 2009 after Marian Lupu joined the Democratic Party and thus attracted many of the Moldovans supporting the Communists.

In the April 2009 parliamentary elections, the Communist Party won 49.48% of the votes, Toshiba Satellite A205-S5879 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

followed by the Liberal Party with 13.14% of the votes, the Liberal Democratic Party with 12.43%, and the Alliance "Moldova Noastră" with 9.77%. The controversial results of this election sparked civil unrest[46][47][48]

In August 2009, four Moldovan parties – Liberal Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, and Our Moldova Alliance – agreed to create a governing coalition that pushed the Communist party into opposition. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On August 28, 2009, this coalition chose a new parliament speaker (Mihai Ghimpu) in a vote that was boycotted by Communist legislators. Vladimir Voronin, who had been President of Moldova since 2001, eventually resigned on September 11, 2009, but the Parliament failed to elect a new president. Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The acting president Mihai Ghimpu instituted the Commission for constitutional reform in Moldova to adopt a new version of the Constitution of Moldova. After the constitutional referendum aimed to approve the reform failed in September 2010,[49] the parliament was dissolved again and a new parliamentary election was scheduled for 28 November 2010.[50] HP Pavilion dv6-2016ax Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On December 30, 2010, Marian Lupu was elected as the Speaker of the Parliament.[51] In accordance with the Constitution, he will be serving as the Acting President of Republic of Moldova. After the Alliance for European Integration lost a no confidence vote, the Pro-European Coalition was formed on May 30, 2013. SONY Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova is a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic. The 1994 Constitution of Moldova sets the framework for the government of the country. A parliamentary majority of at least two thirds is required to amend the Constitution of Moldova, which cannot be revised in time of war or national emergency. HP Pavilion dv7-6b55dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Amendments to the Constitution affecting the state's sovereignty, independence, or unity can only be made after a majority of voters support the proposal in a referendum. Furthermore, no revision can be made to limit the fundamental rights of people enumerated in the Constitution.[52] APPLE MacBook Pro 15 inch MA610LL Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The country's central legislative body is the unicameral Moldovan Parliament (Parlament), which has 101 seats, and whose members are elected by popular vote on party lists every four years.

The head of state is the President of Moldova, who is elected by the Moldovan Parliament, HP G71-340US Laptop CPU Cooling Fan requiring the support of three fifths of the deputies (at least 61 votes). The president of Moldova has been elected by the parliament since 2001, a change designed to decrease executive authority in favour of the legislature. The president appoints a prime minister who functions as the head of government, and who in turn assembles a cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval. HP Pavilion dv7-6166nr Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 1994 constitution also establishes an independent Constitutional Court, composed of six judges (two appointed by the President, two by Parliament, and two by the Supreme Council of Magistrature), serving six-year terms, during which they are irremovable and not subordinate to any power. HP Pavilion dv6-3050et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The Court is invested with the power of judicial review over all acts of the parliament, over presidential decrees, and over international treaties, signed by the country.

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova's foreign policy was designed with a view to establishing relations with other European countries, Dell Vostro 3500 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

neutrality, and European Union integration. In 1995 the country was admitted to the Council of Europe.

In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is also a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and the EU established an action plan that sought to improve collaboration between the its two neighbouring countries, Romania and Ukraine. HP Pavilion dv5-2135dx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan At the end of 2005 EUBAM, the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine, was established at the joint request of the presidents of Moldova and Ukraine. EUBAM assists the Moldovan and Ukrainian governments in approximating their border and customs procedures to EU standards, and offers support in both countries' fight against cross-border crime. Compaq Presario CQ61-435SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan After the 1990–1992 War of Transnistria,  ASUS M51SE Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and co-operating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions. The foreign minister of Moldova, HP G42-415DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Andrei Stratan, repeatedly stated that the Russian troops stationed in the breakaway region were there against the will of the Moldovan government and called on them to leave "completely and unconditionally."[53] In 2012, a secuACER Aspire 4736ZG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

rity zone incident resulted in the death of a civilian, raising tensions with Russia.[54]

In September 2010, the European Parliament approved a grant of €90 million to Moldova.[55] The money was to supplement $570 million in International Monetary Fund loans,[56] World Bank and other bilateral support already granted to Moldova.  HP Pavilion dv4-1133tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan In April 2010, Romania offered Moldova development aid worth of €100 million while the number of scholarships for Moldovan students doubled to 5,000.[57] According to a lending agreement signed in February 2010, Poland provided US$15 million as a component of its support for Moldova in its European integration efforts.[58]  HP Pavilion dv6-3043ee Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The first joint meeting of the Governments of Romania and Moldova, held in March 2012, concluded with several bilateral agreements in various fields.[59][60] The European orientation "has been the policy of Moldova in recent years and this is the policy that must continue," Nicolae Timofti told lawmakers before his election.[61]  Compaq Presario CQ61-421SG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On 29 November 2013, at a summit in Vilnius, Moldova signed an association agreement with the European Union dedicated to the European Union's 'Eastern Partnership' with ex-Soviet countries.[62] The Romanian President Traian Băsescu stated that Romania will make all efforts for Moldova to join the EU as soon as possible.  HP Pavilion dv6-1101au Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Likewise, Traian Băsescu declared that the unification of Moldova with Romania is the next national project for Romania.

The Moldovan armed forces consist of the Ground Forces and Air and Air Defense Forces. Moldova has accepted all relevant arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union. HP Pavilion dv6-3125er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan On October 30, 1992, Moldova ratified the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment and provides for the destruction of weapons in excess of those limits. The country acceded to the provisions of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in October 1994 in Washington, D.C. HP 606575-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

It does not have nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons. Moldova joined theNorth Atlantic Treaty Organisation's Partnership for Peace on March 16, 1994.

Moldova is committed to a number of international and regional control of arms regulations such as the UN Firearms Protocol, Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan,  HP Pavilion dv7-6185us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

the UN Programme of Action (PoA) and the OSCE Documents on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.

Since declaring independence in 1991, Moldova has participated in UN peacekeeping missions in Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Sudan and Georgia. DELL DFS491105MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova signed with Romania a military agreement to strengthen regional security. The agreement is part of Moldova's strategy to reform its military and cooperate with its neighbours.

According to Amnesty International, "Torture and other ill-treatment in police detention remained widespread; HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan the state failed to carry out prompt and impartial investigations and police officers sometimes evaded penalties. Political dissidents from Ilaşcu Group were released from arbitrary detention only after an order of the European Court of Human Rights.[65] In 2009, when Moldova experienced its most serious civil unrest in a decade, several civilians like Valeriu Boboc were killed by police and many more injured.[66] Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to Human Rights Report of the United States Department of State, released in April 2011, "In contrast to the previous year, there were no reports of killings by security forces. During the year reports of government exercising undue influence over the media substantially decreased." HP Pavilion dv7-3060us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan But "Transnistrian authorities continued to harass independent media and opposition lawmakers; restrict freedom of association, movement, and religion; and discriminate against Romanian speakers."[67] Moldova "has made “noteworthy progress” on religious freedom since the era of the Soviet Union,  HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan but it can still take further steps to foster diversity," said the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Heiner Bielefeldt, in Chișinău, in September 2011.[68] Moldova improved its legislation by enacting Law on Preventing and Combating Family Violence, in 2008. Dell Latitude E6510 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan oldova is divided into thirty-two districts (raioane, singular raion), three municipalities and two autonomous regions (Gagauzia and Transnistria).[70] The final status of Transnistria is disputed, as the central government does not control that territory. The cities of Comrat and Tiraspol, the administrative seats of the two autonomous territories also have municipality status. HP Pavilion dv6-2019er Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv6-3126ea Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova has 66 cities (towns), including the five with municipality status, and 916 communes. Other 699 villages are too small to have a separate administration, and are administratively part of either cities (40 of them) or communes (659). This makes for a total of 1,681 localities of Moldova, all but two of which are inhabited. HP 532613-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova lies between latitudes 45° and 49° N, and mostly between meridians 26° and30° E (a small area lies east of 30°). The total land area is 33,851 km2

The largest part of the nation lies between two rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. HP Pavilion dv6-3300ss Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova has access to the Danube for only about 480 m (1,575 ft), and Giurgiulești is the only Moldovan port on the Danube. In the east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south, receiving the waters of Răut, Bâc, Ichel, Botna. Ialpug flows into one of the Danube limans, whileCogâlnic into the Black Sea chain of limans. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad W500 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m (1,411 ft) — the highest point being the Bălănești Hill. Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Its subdivisions in Moldova include the Dniester Hills (Northern Moldavian Hills and Dniester Ridge), the Moldavian Plain (Middle Prut Valley and Bălţi Steppe), and the Central Moldavian Plateau (Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills, Cornești Hills—Codri Massive, "Codri" meaning "forests"—Lower Dniester Hills, Lower Prut Valley, and Tigheci Hills). HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In the south, the country has a small flatland, the Bugeac Plain. The territory of Moldova east of the river Dniester is split between parts of the Podolian Plateau, and parts of the Eurasian Steppe.The country's main cities are the capital Chișinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in the eastern region of Transnistria), Bălţi (in the north) and Bender (in the south-east). Comrat is the administrative centre of Gagauzia. HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate.[71]

Moldova's climate is moderately continental: The summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 600 mm (24 in) in the north to 400 mm (16 in) in the south, can vary greatly; Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Moldova was 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 in Camenca.[ HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded was −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 in Brătușeni, Edineţ county.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan As a part of an ambitious economic liberalization effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, liberalized all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and liberalized interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to promote growth.  HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Recent trends indicate that the Communist government intends to reverse some of these policies, and recollectivise land while placing more restrictions on private business. The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2007 (6%), in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. HP Pavilion dv5-1020et Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.

Following the regional financial crisis in 1998, Moldova has made significant progress towards achieving and retaining macroeconomic and financial stabilization. It has, furthermore, HP Pavilion dv5030 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan implemented many structural and institutional reforms that are indispensable for the efficient functioning of a market economy. These efforts have helped maintain macroeconomic and financial stability under difficult external circumstances, enabled the resumption of economic growth and contributed to establishing an environment conducive to the economy's further growth and development in the medium term.[ Compaq Presario CQ61-416EG Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Despite these efforts and recent resumption of economic growth, Moldova ranks low in terms of commonly used living standards and human development indicators in comparison with other transition economies. Although the economy experienced a constant economic growth after 2000: HP 532614-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan with 2.1%, 6.1%, 7.8% and 6.3% between 2000 and 2003 (with a forecast of 8% in 2004), one can observe that these latest developments hardly reach the level of 1994, with almost 40% of the GDP registered in 1990. Thus, during the last decade little has been done to reduce the country's vulnerability. HP MCF-W13BM05 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

After a severe economic decline, social and economic challenges, energy uprooted dependencies, Moldova continues to occupy one of the last places among European countries in income per capita.]

In 2005, according to the Human Development Report, the registered GDP per capita was US$ 2,100 PPP, which was 78% lower than the world average at the time (US $ 9,543). HP Pavilion dv5-1174ca Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moreover, GDP per capita was under the average of its statistical region (US $ 9,527 PPP). In 2005, about 20.8% of the population were under the absolute poverty line and registered an income lower than US $ 2.15 (PPP) per day. Moldova is classified as medium in human development and is at the 111th spot in the list of 177 countries. HP Pavilion dv7-3050ec Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The value of the Human Development Index (0.708) is below the world average. Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe in terms of official (i.e., excluding the black and grey economy) per capita which currently stands at $3,400 [74] The GDP(PPP) in 2011 constituted $12.15 billion. HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Moldova imports all of its supplies of petroleum, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Moldova is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest. HP 646578-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Moldova is known for its wines. For many years viticulture and winemaking in Moldova were the general occupation of the population. Evidence of this is present in historical memorials and documents, folklore, and the spoken language of Moldova, which is Romanian.

The country has a well established wine industry. HP 489126-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan It has a vineyard area of 147,000 hectares (360,000 acres), of which 102,500 ha (253,000 acres) are used for commercial production. Most of the country's wine production is made for export. Many families have their own recipes and strands of grapes that have been passed down through the generations. DELL Inspiron E1405 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan According to a 2011 WHO report, Moldova consumed the highest amount of alcohol per capita in the world in 2005.Cricova is one of the largest wine cellars in the world, with 120 km (75 mi) of tunnel-like storage galleries.Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate (with warm summers and mild winters) DELL DFS541305MH0T Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe. In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform.

The main means of transportation in Moldova are railroads 1,138 km (707 mi) and a highway system (12,730 km or 7,910 mi overall, including 10,937 km or 6,796 mi of paved surfaces). HP G62-341NR Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The sole international air gateway of Moldova is the Chișinău International Airport. The Giurgiulești terminal on the Danube is compatible with small seagoing vessels. Shipping on the lower Prut and Nistru rivers plays only a modest role in the country's transportation system. HP Pavilion dv6648el Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The first million of mobile telephone users was registered in September 2005. The number of mobile telephone users in Moldova increased by 47.3% in the first quarter of 2008 against the last year and exceeded 2.89 million.[78]

In September 2009, Moldova was the first country in the world to launch high-definition voice services (HD voice) for mobile phones, and the first country in Europe to launch 14.4 Mbit/s mobile broadband at a national scale, with over 40% population coverage.[79] HP Pavilion dv7-6151ed Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

As of 2010 there are around 1,295,000 Internet users in Moldova with overall Internet penetration of 35.9%.[80]

On 6 June 2012, the Government approved the licensing of 4G / LTE for mobile operators.

There is an ongoing controversy whether Romanians and Moldovans are the same ethnic group, namely whether Moldovans' self-identification constitutes an ethnic group distinct and apart from Romanians or a subset. Toshiba Satellite P100-386 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There were also numerous allegations that the ethnic affiliation numbers were rigged, 7 out of 10 observer groups of the Council of Europe reported a significant number of cases when census-takers recommended respondents to declare themselves Moldovans rather than Romanians.  HP G42-380LA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

Complicating the interpretation of the results, 18.8% of respondents that identified themselves as Moldovans declared Romanian to be their native language.

The official language of Moldova is Romanian, a Romance language related to Italian, French, Catalan, Spanish, and Portuguese.  HP G60-230us Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The 1991 Declaration of Independence names the official language Romanian.[84][85] The Constitution of 1994 states that the national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.[86] In 2003, theCommunist government adopted a political document which states that one of the priorities of the national politics of the Republic of Moldova is the insurance of the existence of the Moldovan language.[ HP KSB06105HA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In December 2013, a decision of theConstitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Declaration of Independence takes precedence over the Constitution and the state language should be called "Romanian".[1][88]

Scholars agree that Moldovan and Romanian are the same language, with the glottonym "Moldovan" used in certain political contexts.[89] SONY Vaio VPC-EB1E0E Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

More than 76 percent of the population declared Romanian/Moldovan as their native language.

As of the 2004 census, the country has significant Russian (6%) and Ukrainian (8.4%) populations. 50% of ethnic Ukrainians, 27% of Gagauz, 35% of Bulgarians, and 54% of smaller ethnic groups speak Russian as their first language.  Compaq Presario CQ70-220EO Laptop CPU Cooling Fan HP Pavilion dv7-3060sb Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Russian remains, in practice, used on all levels of the society and the state, and is provided with the status of a "language of interethnic communication" (alongside an official regional language in Gagauzia and Transnistria). In total, there are 541,000 people (or 16% of the population) in Moldova who use Russian as their first language, ACER Aspire 7720 Series Laptop CPU Cooling Fan including 130,000 ethnic Moldovans. On the other hand, 47,000 members of ethnic minorities use Romanian as their first language. Gagauz and Ukrainian have significant regional speaker populations and are also granted official regional status in Gagauzia and Transnistria respectively. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The primary foreign language taught is English. In 2013 it was taught to over 60% of schoolchildren as the first foreign language. This was followed by French, with less than 50% (Since 1996, the Republic of Moldova has been a full member of La Francophonie.), and then German. Compaq Presario CQ61-216TU Laptop CPU Cooling Fan For the 2004 census, Orthodox Christians, who make up 93.3% of Moldova's population, were not required to declare the particular of the two main churches they belong to. The Moldovan Orthodox Church, autonomous and subordinated to theRussian Orthodox Church, and the Orthodox Church of Bessarabia, Toshiba Satellite A215-S5802 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan autonomous and subordinated to the Romanian Orthodox Church, both claim to be the national church of the country. 1.9% of the population is Protestant, 0.9% belongs to other religions, 1.0% is non-religious, 0.4% is atheist, and 2.2% did not answer the religion question at the census. Toshiba Satellite A210-1BC Laptop CPU Cooling Fan There are 16 state and 15[91] private institutions of higher education in Moldova, with a total of 126,100 students, including 104,300 in the state institutions and 21,700 in the private ones. The number of students per 10,000 inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching 217 in 2000–2001, and 351 in 2005–2006. DELL Inspiron 630m Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The National Library of Moldova was founded in 1832. The Moldova State University and the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, the main scientific organizations of Moldova, were established in 1946.The total fertility rate (TFR) in Moldova was estimated in 2013 at 1.55 children/woman,[94] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1. ACER Travelmate 4152nlci Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

In 2012, the average age of women at first birth was 23.9 years, with 75.2% of births being to women under 30, and 22.4% of births being to unmarried women.[95] The maternal mortality rate was 41 deaths/100,000 live births (in 2010) and the infant mortality rate was 13.28 deaths/1,000 live births (in 2013).[96] HP Pavilion dv6-3034tx Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The life expectancy in 2013 was estimated at 69.82 years (65.95 years male, 73.94 years female).[96]

Public expenditure on health was 4.2% of the GDP and private expenditure on health 3.2%.[97] There are about 264 physicians per 100,000 people.[97] Health expenditure was 138 US$ (PPP) per capita in 2004.[97] HP G62-107SA Laptop CPU Cooling Fan Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the country has seen a decrease in spending on health care and, as a result, the tuberculosis incidence rate in the country has grown.[98] According to a 2009 study, Moldova was struggling with one of the highest incidence rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world.[99]  HP G62-455TX Laptop CPU Cooling Fan

The percentage of adults (aged 15–49) living with HIV/AIDS was estimated in 2009 at 0.40%.

Located geographically at the crossroads of Latin, Slavic and other cultures, Moldova has enriched its own culture adopting and maintaining some of the traditions of its neighbours and of other influence sources. HP 532617-001 Laptop CPU Cooling Fan The country's cultural heritage was marked by numerous churches and monasteries built by the Moldavian ruler Stephen the Great in the 15th century, by the works of the later renaissance Metropolitans Varlaam and Dosoftei, and those of scholars such as Grigore Ureche, Miron Costin, Nicolae Milescu, Dimitrie Cantemir,[nb 6] HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan Ion Neculce. In the 19th century, Moldavians from the territories of the medieval Principality of Moldavia, then split between Austria, Russia, and an Ottoman-vassal Moldavia (after 1859, Romania), made a significant contribution to the formation of the modern Romanian culture. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

Among these were many Bessarabians, such asAlexandru Donici, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stamati-Ciurea, Costache Negruzzi,Alecu Russo, Constantin Stere.

Mihai Eminescu, a late Romantic poet, and Ion Creangă, a writer, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan

are the most influential Romanian language artists, considered national writers both in Romania and Moldova.[102]

The largest ethnic group is a speaker of Romanian and shares the Romanian culture. The culture has been also influenced (throughEastern Orthodoxy) by the Byzantine culture.HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan The country has also important minority ethnic communities. Gagauz, 4.4% of the population, are Christian Turkic people. Greeks,Armenians, Poles, Ukrainians, although not numerous, were present since as early as 17th century, and had left cultural marks. The 19th century saw the arrival of many more Ukrainians from Podolia and Galicia, as well as new communities, such as Lipovans, Bulgarians and Bessarabian Germans. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan

In the second part of the 20th century, Moldova saw a massive Soviet immigration, which brought with it many elements of Soviet culture.

In October 1939, Radio Basarabia, a local station of the Romanian Radio Broadcasting Company, was the first radio station opened in Chișinău. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan Television in Moldova was introduced in April 1958, within the framework of Soviet television. Through cable, Moldovan viewers can receive a large number of Russian channels, a few Romanian channels, and several Russian language versions of international channels in addition to several local channels. One Russian and two local channels are aired. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan Moldovan cuisine is similar to neighbouring Romania, and has been influenced by elements of Russian, Turkish, and Ukrainian cuisine. Main dishes include beef, pork, potatoes, cabbage, and a variety of cereals. Popular alcoholic beverages are divin(Moldovan brandy), beer, and local wine. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan

Total recorded adult alcohol consumption is approximately evenly split between spirits, beer and wine.

Among Moldova's most prominent composers are Gavriil Musicescu, Ştefan Neaga and Eugen Doga.

In the field of popular music, Moldova has produced the band O-Zone, who came to prominence in 2003, with their hit song "Dragostea Din Tei." HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan

Moldova has been participating in the Eurovision Song Contest since 2005. Another popular band from Moldova is Zdob și Zdub that represented the country in the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 6th.

In May 2007, Natalia Barbu represented Moldova in Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with her entry "Fight", in Finland, Helsinki. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan Natalia squeezed into the final by a very small margin. Her rock song was aggressive in nature and performance. She took 10th place with 109 points. Then Zdob și Zdub again represented Moldova in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest, finishing 12th. Dan Bălan, another popular artist, released the album Chica Bomb in 2010. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan The band SunStroke Project with Olia Tira represented the country in the 2010 Eurovision Song Contest with their hit song "Run Away". Their performance gained international notoriety as an internet meme due to the pelvic thrusting and dancing of Sergey Stepanov, the band saxophonist. He has been fittingly dubbed "Epic Sax Guy".HP 434678-001 CPU Fan Among most prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Mark Pester, a distinguished violinist, conductor and the first professor of the State Conservatory. Mark Pester was a student of the famous violin teacher Leopold Auer at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. HP G70-120EA CPU Fan As a conductor, he staged the first operas in Moldova and performed with the greatest soloists including Sergei Rachmaninov. Other prominent classical musicians in Moldova are Maria Biesu, one of the leading world's sopranos and the winner of the Japan International Competition; Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan HP 606609-001 CPU Fan

pianist Mark Zeltser, winner of the USSR National Competition, Margueritte Long Competition in Paris and Busoni Competition in Bolzano, Italy. Another outstanding pianist is Oleg Maisenberg, the winner of the Schubert International Competition in Vienna.

Located in southeastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan Most of its territory lies between the area's two main rivers, the Dniester and the Prut. The Dniester forms a small part of Moldova's border with Ukraine in the northeast and southeast, but it mainly flows through the eastern part of the country, separating Bessarabia and Transnistria. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan

The Prut River forms Moldova's entire western boundary with Romania. The Danube touches the Moldovan border at its southernmost tip, and forms the border for 200 m (656 ft).

Phytogeographically, Moldova is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan

According to the WWF, the territory of Moldova can be subdivided into threeecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, the East European forest steppe (the most territory of the country), andPontic steppe (in the south and southeast).

Moldova's proximity to the Black Sea gives it a mild and sunny climate. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan Moldova's climate is moderately continental: the summers are warm and long, with temperatures averaging about 20 °C (68 °F), and the winters are relatively mild and dry, with January temperatures averaging −4 °C (25 °F). Annual rainfall, which ranges from around 6 centimeters (2.4 in) in the north to 4 centimeters (1.6 in) in the south, can vary greatly; HP 637607-001 CPU Fan

long dry spells are not unusual. The heaviest rainfall occurs in early summer and again in October; heavy showers and thunderstorms are common. Because of the irregular terrain, heavy summer rains often cause erosion and river silting.

Weather records. The highest temperature ever recorded: +41.5 °C (106.7 °F) on July 21, 2007 (Camenca). HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan

The lowest temperature ever recorded: −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) on January 20, 1963 (Brătuşeni, Edineţ county).

Most of Moldova's territory is a moderate hilly plateau cut deeply by many streams and rivers. Geologically, Moldova lies primarily on deep sedimentary rock that gives way to harder crystalline outcroppings only in the north. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan

Moldova's hills are part of theMoldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains.

The northern landscape of Moldova is characterized by gently rolling uplands of theDniester Hills (up to 300 m or 984 ft, in elevation) interlaced with small flat plains in the valleys of the numerous creeks (at 150 m or 492 ft elevation). Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan These hills, which have an average altitude of 240 meters (787 ft) and a maximum altitude of 320 meters (1,050 ft), can be divided into the Northern Moldavian Hills and theDniester Ridge, and continue further occupying the northern part of the Chernivtsi oblast in Ukraine. The eastern slopes of the Dniester Ridge (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 347 meters or 1,138 feet), form the high right bank of the Dniester River. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan The Moldavian Plain has an average of 200 meters (656 ft) and a maximum altitude of 250 meters (820 ft), and can be divided into the Bălţi Steppe and the Middle Prut Valley. Originally forested, it has been extensively de-forested for agriculture during the 19th and 20th centuries. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan

In contrast to the region to the north and south, which is smore slant, this area is referred to as plain, although it has relief very different from that of a flatland, and vegetation different from that of the steppe.

The hills of central Moldova, the Central Moldavian Plateau, at an average elevation of about 350 to 400 m (1,148 to 1,312 ft), HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan are ridges interlaced by deep, flat valleys, ravines, and landslide-scoured depressions. Steep forest-clad slopes account for much of the terrain, where the most common trees are hornbeam, oak, linden, maple, wild pear, and wild cherry. The term Codri refers more generally to all the forests between the Carpathians and the Dniesterriver, Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan and even more generally to all forests in the area of the Carpathians, yet since in Moldova most of them were preserved in the central part, Codri sometimes can colloquially refer to the remaining forests in the hills west and north of Chişinău. The Dniester Ridge border Central Moldavian Plateau to the north along the river Răut. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan The plateau can be divided into 5 parts: Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Ciuluc-Soloneţ), alongated in the north along the right side of the Răut river, 1,690 km2 (653 sq mi), Corneşti Hills (Romanian:Dealurile Corneştilor), also known as Cordi Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Codrilor), 4,740 km2 (1,830 sq mi), HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan Lower Dniester Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Nistrului Inferior), alongated to the south of the Botna river, 3,040 km2 (1,174 sq mi),Tigheci Hills (Romanian: Dealurile Tigheciului), alongated in the south along the left side of the Prut river, 3,550 km2(1,371 sq mi), and between the latter and the Prut river, the Lower Prut Valley (Romanian: Valea Prutului Inferior), 1,810 km2 (699 sq mi). DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan The country's highest point, Bălăneşti Hill, which reaches 1,407 or 1,410 ft (428.9 or 429.8 m), depending on the source, is situated in the Corneşti Hills, the western part of the Central Moldavian Plateau. Northwest of it are the Ciuluc-Soloneţ Hills (average 250 meters or 820 feet, max 388 meters or 1,273 feet). HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan

In the south, the Tigheci Hills (average 200 meters or 656 feet, max 301 meters or 988 feet) are a prolongation, and run to the south parallel to the Lower Prut Valley.

To the south-east, the southern part of the Central Moldavian Plateau, which averages 150–200 meters (492–656 ft), max 250 meters (820 ft), and has numerous ravines and gullies, SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan

gradually vanishs into the extensive Bugeac Plain, with most of the Budjak region already in Ukraine.Transnistria (the left bank of the Dniester) has spurs of the Podolian Plateau (Romanian: Podişul Podoliei, Ukrainian: Volyno-Podil's'ka vysochyna), (average 180 meters or 591 feet, max 275 meters or 902 feet), which are cut into by tributaries of the Dniester River. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

The southern half of Transnistria, the Lower Dniester Plain, can be regarded as the western end of the Eurasian steppe, and has an average elevation of 100 meters (328 ft), with a maximum of 170 meters (558 ft). The high right bank and low left bank of the Dniester are in sharp contrast here, where visibility is not impeded by forests. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan About 75 percent of Moldova is covered by a soil type called black earth or chernozem. In the northern hills, more clay textured soils are found; in the south, red-earth soil is predominant. The soil becomes less fertile toward the south but can still support grape and sunflower production. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan

The hills have woodland soils, while a small portion in southern Moldova is in the steppe zone, although most steppe areas today are cultivated. The lower reaches of the Prut and Dniester rivers and the southern river valleys are saline marshes.

Drainage in Moldova is to the south, toward the Black Sea lowlands, and eventually into the Black Sea, but only eight rivers and creeks extend more than 100 kilometers. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Moldova's main river, the Dniester, is navigable throughout almost the entire country, and in warmer winters it does not freeze over. The Prut river is a tributary of the Danube, which it joins at the far southwestern tip of the country. Over 95% of the water circulation in Moldova flows into one of the two rivers - the Prut or Dniester. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

Of Moldova's well-developed network of about 3,000 creeks and streams, all draining south to the Black Sea, only 246 exceed 6 mi (9.7 km) in length, and only 8 exceed 60 mi (96.6 km).

Underground water, extensively used for the country's water supply, includes about 2,200 natural springs. The terrain favours construction of reservoirs of various size. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan Moldova's communist-era environmental legacy, like that of many other former Soviet republics, is one of environmental degradation. Agricultural practices such as overuse of pesticides and artificial fertilizers were intended to increase agricultural output at all costs, without regard for the consequences. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan

As a result, Moldova's soil and groundwater were contaminated by lingering chemicals, some of which (including DDT) have been banned in the West.

Such practices continue in Moldova to the present day. In the early 1990s, use of pesticides in Moldova averaged approximately twenty times that of other former Soviet republics and Western nations. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan In addition, poor farming methods, such as destroying forests to plant vineyards, have contributed to the extensive soil erosion to which the country's rugged topography is already prone. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan,Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan,Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan

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