Saturday, April 4, 2015

By 2014, ISIL was increasingly

By 2014, ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than as a terrorist group.408 As major Iraqi cities fell to ISIL in June 2014, Jessica Lewis, a former US army intelligence officer at the Institute for the Study of War, described ISIL as "not a terrorism problem anymore", but rather "an army on the move in Iraq and Syria, and they are taking terrain. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad, and they have an aspirational goal to govern. HP Pavilion DV8310CA Laptop Keyboard
I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq." Lewis has called ISIL "an advanced military leadership". She said, "They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line.  Lenovo 0A62039 Laptop Keyboard
They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees."408
While officialswhich? fear that ISIL may either inspire attacks in the United States by sympathisers or by those returning after joining ISIL, US intelligence agencies find there is no immediate threat or specific plots. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard
Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel sees an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counterterrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin has derided such alarmist talk as a "farce" that panics the public.Some news commentators, such as international newspaper columnist Gwynne Dyer,410 and samples of American public opinion, such as surveys by NPR,have advocated a strong but measured response to ISIL's recent provocative acts.  TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard
Conspiracy theorists in the Arab world have advanced rumours that the US is secretly behind the existence and emboldening of ISIL, as part of an attempt to further destabilise the Middle East. After such rumours became widespread, the US embassy in Lebanon issued an official statement denying the allegations, calling them a complete fabrication.412  Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 Laptop Keyboard
Otherswhich? are convinced that ISIL leader al-Baghdadi is an Israeli Mossad agent and actor called Simon Elliot. The rumours claim that NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden reveal this connection. Snowden's lawyer has called the story "a hoax."ISIL's expanding claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups.  HP G61-400SP Laptop Keyboard
International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.Turkey has been accused of supporting or colluding with ISIL, especially by Syrian Kurds. According to journalist Patrick Cockburn, there is "strong evidence for a degree of collaboration" between the Turkish intelligence services and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship ... remains cloudy".4COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU Laptop Keyboard
93David L. Phillips of Columbia University's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, writes that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".494HP 317443-001 Laptop Keyboard
Several ISIL fighters and commanders have claimed Turkey supports ISIL.495496497 Within Turkey itself, ISIL is believed to have caused increasing political polarisation between secularists and Islamists.498
Turkey has been further criticised for allowing individuals from outside the region to enter its territory and join ISIL in Syria.499500 HP HDX18-1200 CTO Laptop Keyboard
With many Islamist fighters passing through Turkey to fight in Syria, Turkey has been accused of becoming a transit country for such fighters and has been labelled the "Gateway to Jihad".501 Turkish border patrol officers are reported to have deliberately overlooked those entering Syria upon the payment of a small bribe.501 A report by Sky News exposed documents showing that passports of foreign Islamists wanting to join ISIL by crossing into Syria had been stamped by the Turkish government.502 DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard
An ISIL commander stated that "most of the fighters who joined us in the beginning of the war came via Turkey, and so did our equipment and supplies",497503 adding that ISIL fighters received treatment in Turkish hospitals.
Although Saudi Arabia's government rejected these claims,504 the Iraqi President Nouri al-Maliki accused Saudi Arabia of funding ISIL.505 SONY Vaio PCG-K215S Laptop Keyboard
Some media outlets likeNBC, BBC, and The New York Times and the US-based think tank Washington Institute for Near East Policy have written of individual Saudi donations to the group, and the Saudi state's decade long sponsorship of Salafism around the world, but have concluded that there is no evidence of direct Saudi state support for ISIL.  Lenovo 45N2141 laptop keyboard
During the Syrian Civil War, multiple parties in the conflict have accused the Syrian government of collusion with Isil to some degree. Several sources have claimed that Isil prisoners were strategically released from Syrian prisons at the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011.511 The Syrian government has bought oil directly from ISIS,512HP Pavilion dv6-2133ee laptop keyboard
and in March 2015 a European Union report brought to light that the Syrian government and ISIL jointly run a HESCO gas plant in Tabqa, central Syria; the facility continues to supply government-held areas, and electricity continues to be supplied to ISIL-held areas from government-run power plants.513HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard
United States Secretary of State John Kerry has stated that the Syrian government has tactically avoided Isis forces in order to weaken moderate opposition such as the Free Syrian Army,514 as well as "even purposely ceding some territory to them ISIS in order to make them more of a problem so he can make the argument that he is somehow the protector against them".515 ASUS X85S laptop keyboard
A IHS Jane's Terrorism and Insurgency Center database analysis confirmed that only 6% of Syrian government forces attacks were targeted at ISIL in Jan 1–Nov 21, 2014, while in the same period only 13% of all ISIS attacks targeted government forces.510 The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces has stated that the Syrian government has operatives inside ISIS,516 as has the leadership ofAhrar ash-Sham.51ASUS X53S laptop keyboard
7 ISIS members captured by the FSA have claimed that they were directed to commit attacks by Syrian government operatives.
Rand Paul, the junior Senator from Kentucky, accused the US government of allying with ISIL in the Syrian Civil War by arming their allies and fighting their enemies in that country.519520   LENOVO AEQA1STU010 laptop keyboard
Abu Yusaf, a commander of the ISIL, said in August 2014 that many of the Free Syrian Army members who had been trained by United States' and Turkish and Arab military officers were now actually joining ISIL.521 In September 2014, some US-backed Syrian rebels and ISIL signed a "non-aggression" agreement.A UN report estimated a total of 15,000 fighters from over 80 countries in ISIL's ranks as of November 2014.52 Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard
4 US intelligence estimated an increase to around 20,000 foreign fighters in February 2015, including 3,400 from Western countries.Statistics gathered by nation indicate up to: 3,000 from Tunisia,526527 2,500 from Saudi Arabia,526527 1,700 from Russia,5281,500 from Jordan,527 1,500 from Morocco,527 1,200 from France,527 1,000 from Turkey,529 900 from Lebanon,527COMPAQ Presario CQ40-133TU laptop keyboard
650 from Germany,530 600 from the United Kingdom,526527 600 from Libya,527 500 from Uzbekistan,527 500 from Pakistan,527 440 from Belgium,527 360 from Turkmenistan,527 360 from Egypt,527 350 from Serbia,531 330 from Bosnia,527 300 from China,532 300 from Kosovo,533 300 from Sweden,534 250 from Australia,535 250 from Kazakhstan,527 Lenovo 3000 Y500 laptop keyboard
250 from the Netherlands,527 200 from Austria,536 200 from Algeria,527 190 from Tajikistan,527 180 from the United States,525 150 from Norway,537 150 from Denmark,527 140 from Albania,531 130 from Canada,538 120 from Israel/Palestine,527 110 from Yemen,527 100 from Sudan,527 100 from Kyrgyzstan,527 100 from Spain,539 80 from Italy,527 HP Mini 110-3519la laptop keyboard
70 from Somalia,527 70 from Kuwait,527 70 from Finland,527 50 from Ukraine,527 40 from Switzerland,527 30 from Ireland,527 and 18 from India.ISIL relies mostly on captured weapons. Major sources are Saddam Hussein's Iraqi stockpiles from the 2003–11 Iraq insurgency541 and weapons from government and opposition forces fighting in the Syrian Civil War and during the post-US withdrawal Iraqi insurgency. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard
The captured weapons, including armour, guns, surface-to-air missiles, and even some aircraft, enabled rapid territorial growth and facilitated the capture of additional equipment.
The group has a long history of using truck and car bombs, suicide bombers, and IEDs, and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5357 laptop keyboard
ISIL captured nuclear materials from Mosul University in July 2014, but is unlikely to be able to turn them into weapons.ISIL is known for its extensive and effective use of propaganda.545546 It uses a version of the Muslim Black Standard flag and developed an emblem which has clear symbolic meaning in the Muslim world.547SONY N860-7676-T101 laptop keyboard
In November 2006, shortly after the group's rebranding as the "Islamic State of Iraq", the group established the al-Furqan Institute for Media Production, which produces CDs, DVDs, posters, pamphlets, and web-related propaganda products.548 ISIL's main media outlet is the I'tisaam Media Foundation,549 which was formed in March 2013 and distributes through the Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF).550 DELL E141395 laptop keyboard
When ISIL announced it's expansion to other countries in November 2014 it established media departments for the new branches, and it's media apparatus ensured that the new branches follow the same models it uses in Iraq and Syria.In 2014, ISIL established the al-Hayat Media Centre, which targets a Western audience and produces material in English, German, Russian and French.5HP 518965-001 laptop keyboard
Also in 2014, ISIL launched the Ajnad Media Foundation, which releases jihadist audio chants.554 In December 2014, FBI Director James Comey stated that ISIL's "propaganda is unusually slick. They are broadcasting... in something like 23 languages".From July 2014, al-Hayat began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq, in a number of different languages including English. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard
According to the magazine, its name is taken from the town of Dabiq in northern Syria, which is mentioned in a hadith aboutArmageddon.ISIL's use of social media has been described by one expert as "probably more sophisticated than that of most US companies".545557 It regularly takes advantage of social media, particularly Twitter, to distribute its message by organising hashtag campaigns, encouraging Tweets on popular hashtags, LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard
and utilising software applications that enable ISIL propaganda to be distributed automatically via its supporters' accounts.558559 Another comment is that "ISIS puts more emphasis on social media than other jihadi groups... They have a very coordinated social media presence."560 In August 2014, Twitter administrators shut down a number of accounts associated with ISIL. DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard
ISIL recreated and publicised new accounts the next day, which were also shut down by Twitter administrators.561 The group has attempted to branch out into alternative social media sites, such as Quitter, Friendica and Diaspora; Quitter and Friendica, however, almost immediately worked to remove ISIL's presence from their sites.562HP Mini 1151NR laptop keyboard
In a switch from its former practices, ISIL's media arm imposed a social media blackout on 27 September 2014, fearing that tweets and posts would give away military positions.563 ISIL has also attempted to present a more "rational argument" in its series of "press release/discussions" performed by hostage/captive John Cantlie and posted on YouTube.  SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard
In one "Cantlie presentation", various current and former US officials were quoted, such as US PresidentBarack Obama and former CIA Officer Michael Scheuer.
In 2014, the RAND Corporation carried out a study of 200 documents — personal letters, expense reports and membership rosters — which had been captured fromIslamic State of Iraq (al-Qaeda in Iraq).565 HP Pavilion DV7-3078nr laptop keyboard
It found that from 2005 until 2010, outside donations amounted to only 5% of the group's operating budgets, with the rest being raised within Iraq.565 In the time period studied, cells were required to send up to 20% of the income generated from kidnapping, extortion rackets and other activities to the next level of the group's leadership. Higher-ranking commanders would then redistribute the funds to provincial or local cells that were in difficulties or needed money to conduct attacks.56Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan

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