Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , also known asIslamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS /ˈaɪsɪs/) or Islamic State,is an Islamic extremist rebel group controlling territory in Syria, Iraq, and Libya, with operations or affiliates inLebanon, Nigeria, Egypt, and other areas of the Middle East, North Africa, West Africa,South Asia, andSoutheast Asia.SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan
The group is known in Arabic as ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fīl-ʿIrāq wash-Shām, leading to the Arabic acronym Da'ish or DAESH . On 29 June 2014, the group proclaimed itself to be aworldwide caliphate with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi being named its caliph and also renamed itself Islamic StateDELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard
The new name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised and condemned, with the UN, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to acknowledge it.As caliphate, it claims religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide and that "the legality of all emirates, groups, states, and organisations, becomes null by the expansion of the khilāfah's (caliphate's) authority and arrival of its troops to their areas".HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard
Many Islamic and non-Islamic communities judge the group unrepresentative of Islam. Political scientist Graeme Wood comments on IS that "the religion preached by its most ardent followers derives from coherent and even learned interpretations of Islam".HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard
The United Nations has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated as a terrorist organisation by the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Canada, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Syria, Egypt, India, and Russia.DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard
Over 60 countries are directly or indirectly waging war against ISIL.The group originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which was renamed Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn—commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)—when the group pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004. As Jama'at and later AQI, beginning in August 2003, the group participated in the Iraqi insurgency, which had followed the March 2003 invasion of Iraq.DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard
In January 2006, it joined other Sunni insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council, which in October 2006, proclaimed the formation of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI). ISI gained a significant presence in the Al Anbar Governorate, Diyala Governorate and Baghdad Governorate. French Macaron Pillow ,Creative Cushion - Matty's
Under the leadership of al-Baghdadi, ISI sent delegates into Syria in August 2011 after the Syrian Civil War had begun in March 2011. This group named itself Jabhat an-Nurah li-Ahli ash-Shām or al-Nusra Front, and established a large presence in Sunni-majority areas of Syria within the governorates of Ar-Raqqah, Idlib, Deir ez-Zor and Aleppo. SONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery
In April 2013, al-Baghdadi announced the merger of his ISI with al-Nusra Front, and announced that the name of the reunited group was now Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). However, both al-Julani and al-Zawahiri, the leaders of al-Nusra and of al-Qaeda, rejected the merger. After an eight-month power struggle, al-Qaeda cut all ties with ISIL on 3 February 2014—citing its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence".SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery
On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself: "Islamic State".ISIL is known for its well-funded web and social media propaganda, which includes Internet videos of the beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, as well as the deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery
The group gained notoriety after it drove the Iraqi government forces out of key western cities in Iraq. In Syria, it conducted ground attacks against both government forces and rebel factions in the Syrian Civil War. It gained those territories after an offensive, initiated in early 2014, which senior US military commanders and members of the US House Committee on Foreign Affairs saw as a re-emergence of Sunni insurgents and al-Qaeda militants. SONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery
This territorial loss implied a failure of US foreign policy, and almost caused a collapse of the Iraqi government that prompted renewal of US military action in Iraq.Current advances by Iraqi forces into ISIL-controlled territory are focused on Tikrit.The group has had various names since it was established.42 SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery
The group was founded in 1999 by Jordanian radical Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, under the name Jamāʻat al-Tawīd wa-al-Jihād, "The Organisation of Monotheism and Jihad" (JTJ).In October 2004, al-Zarqawi swore loyalty to Osama bin Laden and changed the group's name to Tanīm Qāʻidat al-Jihād fī Bilād al-Rāfidayn, "The Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia", SONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery
commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq. (AQI). Although the group has never called itself al-Qaeda in Iraq, this has been its informal name over the years.In January 2006, AQI merged with several other Iraqi insurgent groups to form the Mujahideen Shura Council.Al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery
On 12 October 2006, the Mujahideen Shura Council merged with several more insurgent factions, and on 13 October the establishment of the Dawlah al-ʻIraq al-Islāmiyah, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), was announced.The leaders of this group were Abu Abdullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi and Abu Ayyub al-Masri. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery
After they were killed in a U.S.–Iraqi operation in April 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadibecame the new leader of the group.On 8 April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, which more fully translates as Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant or Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.These names are translations of the Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islāmīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-ShāmSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery
al-Shām being a description of the Levant or Greater Syria.The translated names are commonly abbreviated as ISIL or ISIS, with a debate over which of these acronyms should be used.The Washington Post concluded that the distinction between the two "is not so great".The name Daʿish is often used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery
It is based on the Arabic letters Dāl, alif, ʻayn, and shīn, which form the acronym(داعش) of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām.5354 There are many spellings of this acronym, with DAESH gaining acceptance. ISIL considers the name Da'ish derogatory, because it sounds similar to the Arabic words Daes, "SONY VAIO PCG-6Q1L CPU Fan
one who crushes something underfoot", and Dahes, "one who sows discord".ISIL also reportedly uses flogging as a punishment for those who use the name in ISIL-controlled areas.On 14 May 2014, the United States Department of State announced its decision to use "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) as the group's primary name.However, in late 2014, top U.S. officials shifted toward DAESH, since it was the preferred term used by Arab partners.SAMSUNG N150 Laptop Keyboard
On 29 June 2014, the group renamed itself the Islamic State (IS) and declared it was a worldwide "caliphate". "Accordingly, the 'Iraq and Shām' in the name of the Islamic State is henceforth removed from all official deliberations and communications, and the official name is the Islamic State from the date of this declaration." DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard
This name and the idea of a caliphate has been widely criticised, with the UN, various governments, and mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use it.Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Jordanian Salafi Jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and his militant group Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, founded in 1999, achieved notoriety in the early stages of the Iraqi insurgency for the suicide attacks on Shia Islamic mosques, HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard
civilians, Iraqi government institutions and Italian soldiers partaking in the U.S.-led 'Multi-National Force'. Al-Zarqawi's group officially pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network in October 2004, changing its name to Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidaynد "Organisation of Jihad's Base in Mesopotamia"), also known as Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). HP Mini 110-3135dx Laptop Keyboard
Attacks by the group on civilians, Iraqi Government and security forces, foreign diplomats and soldiers, and American convoys continued with roughly the same intensity. In a letter to al-Zarqawi in July 2005, al-Qaeda's deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri outlined a four-stage plan to expand the Iraq War. DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard
The plan included expelling U.S. forces from Iraq, establishing an Islamic authority as a caliphate, spreading the conflict to Iraq's secular neighbours, and clashing with Israel, which the letter says "was established only to challenge any new Islamic entity".Lenovo 3000 Y500 Laptop Keyboard
In January 2006, AQI joined hands with several smaller Iraqi insurgent groups under an umbrella organisation called the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC). This was claimed by Brian Fishman in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science to be little more than a media exercise and an attempt to give the group a more Iraqi flavour and perhaps to distance al-Qaeda from some of al-Zarqawi's tactical errors, HP Pavilion DV9233EU Laptop Keyboard
more notably the 2005 bombings by AQI of three hotels in Amman. On 7 June 2006, a U.S. air-strike killed al-Zarqawi, who was succeeded as leader of the group by the Egyptian militant Abu Ayyub al-Masri.On 12 October 2006, MSC united with three smaller groups and six Sunni Islamic tribes to form the "Mutayibeen Coalition". DELL F484C Laptop Keyboard
It swore by Allah " rid Sunnis from the oppression of the rejectionists (Shi'ite Muslims) and the crusader occupiers, ... to restore rights even at the price of our own lives... to make Allah's word supreme in the world, and to restore the glory of Islam...".A day later, MSC declared the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), which should comprise Iraq's six mostly Sunni Arab governorates,with Abu Omar al-Baghdadi being announced as its Emir. Compaq Presario CQ57 Laptop Keyboard
Al-Masri was given the title of Minister of War within the ISI's ten-member cabinet.According to a study compiled by U.S. intelligence agencies in early 2007, the ISI – also known as AQI – planned to seize power in the central and western areas of the country and turn it into a Sunni Islamic state.HP Pavilion dm1-1010st Laptop Keyboard
The group built in strength and at its height enjoyed a significant presence in the Iraqi governorates of Al Anbar, Diyala and Baghdad, and claimed Baqubah as a capital city.The U.S. troops surge of 2007 supplied the U.S. military with more manpower for operations targeting the group, resulting in dozens of high-level AQI members being captured or killed.DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard
Between July and October 2007, al-Qaeda in Iraq or ISI seemed to have lost their secure military bases in Anbar province and theBaghdad area.During 2008, a series of U.S. and Iraqi offensives managed to drive out the AQI-aligned insurgents from their former safe havens, such as the Diyala and Al Anbar governorates, to the area of the northern city of Mosul, the latest major battleground against ISI.DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard
By 2008, the ISI was describing itself as being in a state of "extraordinary crisis".Its violent attempts to govern its territory led to a backlashfrom Sunni Iraqis and other insurgent groups and a temporary decline in the group, which was attributable to a number of factors,notably the Anbar Awakening.In late 2009, the commander of the U.S. forces in Iraq, General Ray Odierno, stated that the ISI "has transformed significantly in the last two years. IBM Lenovo Thinkpad X301 2774 Laptop Keyboard
What once was dominated by foreign individuals has now become more and more dominated by Iraqi citizens". On 18 April 2010, the ISI's two top leaders, Abu Ayyub al-Masri andAbu Omar al-Baghdadi, were killed in a joint U.S.-Iraqi raid near Tikrit. In a press conference in June 2010, General Odierno reported that 80% of the ISI's top 42 leaders, including recruiters and financiers, had been killed or captured, with only eight remaining at large. SONY Vaio VGN-AW Laptop Keyboard
He said that they had been cut off from al-Qaeda's leadership in Pakistan.On 16 May 2010, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was appointed as the new leader of the Islamic State of Iraq.Al-Baghdadi replenished the group's leadership, many of whom had been killed or captured, by appointing former Ba'athist military and intelligence officers who had served during the Saddam Hussein regime.Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard
These men, nearly all of whom had spent time imprisoned by the U.S. military, came to make up about one-third of Baghdadi's top 25 commanders. One of them was a former Colonel, Samir al-Khlifawi, also known as Haji Bakr, who became the overall military commander in charge of overseeing the group's operations.Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard
In July 2012, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement online announcing that the group was returning to the former strongholds from which U.S. troops and theirSunni allies had driven them in 2007 and 2008.99 He also declared the start of a new offensive in Iraq called Breaking the Walls, aimed at freeing members of the group held in Iraqi prisons.HP Pavilion DV7-4053 Laptop Keyboard
Violence in Iraq had begun to escalate in June 2012, primarily by AQI's car bomb attacks, and by July 2013, monthly fatalities had exceeded 1,000 for the first time since April 2008.In March 2011, protests began in Syria against the government of Bashar al-Assad. In the following months, violence between demonstrators and security forces led to a gradual militarisation of the conflict.HP G72-227WM Laptop Keyboard
In August 2011, al-Baghdadi began sending Syrian and Iraqi ISI members experienced in guerilla warfare across the border into Syria to establish an organisation inside the country. Led by a Syrian known as Abu Muhammad al-Julani, this group began to recruit fighters and establish cells throughout the country.On 23 January 2012, the group announced its formation as Jabhat al-Nusra li Ahl as-Sham—Jabhat al-Nusra—more commonly known as the al-Nusra Front. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard
Al-Nusra grew rapidly into a capable fighting force, with popular support among Syrians opposed to the Assad government.On 8 April 2013, al-Baghdadi released an audio statement in which he announced that the al-Nusra Front had been established, financed, and supported by the Islamic State of Iraq, and that the two groups were merging under the name "Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham". HP Pavilion DV3000 Laptop Keyboard

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