Sunday, March 16, 2014

Dwarf tree resistant to crown

Dwarf tree resistant to crown rot and less susceptible to drought than most other dwarfing stocks. Produces large fruit, is precocious and hardy to USDA zone 3. "M" designates Malling series developed stocks. East Malling Research is a pioneer in the development of dwarfing rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv6-1101au CPU Fan East Malling Research Station in Kent, England collected clones of the Paradise stocks from France in 1912 from which 24 "M" were designated with no particular order to the rootstock characteristics other than where they were located in the garden at the time the numbers were assigned. In other words, M.2 is larger tree than M.9 while M.27 is smaller than M.26.[2] HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan "MM" designates Malling-Merton stocks developed from joint breeding program by John Innes Institute, in Merton, England, & East Malling Research Station in the early 1950s.[3] The "MM" series was developed primarily to provide resistance to Woolly Apple Aphid(Eriosomatinae) infestation.[4] "EMLA" designates East Malling / Long Ashton research statiHP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan ons who took the "M" stocks and developed virus free versions. E.g., EMLA 7 is M 7 with a guaranteed virus free stock.[5] EMLA characteristics are often different from the parent "M" rootstock. Note that nearly all the apple rootstocks in the industry are now virus free.[2] HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan "CG" or "G" designates Cornell-Geneva stocks which are those developed via the Cornell & USDA collaboration at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY. The "G" is the old designation. All newer stocks are "CG" followed by numbers that actually provide some information about the stock. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan As one might surmise, this is a huge improvement in the classical naming scheme which has no identification method at all. M.27 Malling 27: A very dwarfing rootstock. Unless the central leader is supported, the tree will be very small. Often only used as an intermediate stem piece on MM. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan 106 or MM.111. If handled and spaced properly, it can be a very productive stock for a vertical axe system.[5] Trees can be grown three to four feet tall and produce about 45 fruit, roughly 2 pecks, depending on fruit cultivar.[7] M.9: Very dwarfing - Reaches a height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m), HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan coming into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full capacity of 50 to 65 pounds (23 to 29 kg) after 5 to 6 years. It will grow under average soil conditions, but needs a good rich soil to thrive. A good choice where space is limited and fertility is high. Permanent staking is required, as is routine feeding and watering.[ HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan on this rootstock always require leader support. The rootstock is very susceptible to fire blight and can develop burr knots.[5] G.41 Geneva 41, released in 2005, produces trees the size of M.9. The rootstock was developed from a cross between M.27 and Robusta 5 made in 1975. Resistant to Crown|Collar|Root rot(Phytopthora) and fire blight.[5] ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan M.26: Dwarfing - Similar to M9 in effect, although somewhat more vigorous and generally stronger, with a higher expected eventual yield of 65–75 pounds (29–34 kg) and height of 8 to 10 ft (2.4 to 3.0 m). A good choice where soil quality is average and compact growth is required. Comes into fruit after 3–4 years, reaching full cropping capacity after 5 to 6 years. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan Staking needed for first five years of its life. It is susceptible to collar rot and fire blight and should not be planted in a wet site. Certain varieties when grafted onto this rootstock may exhibit signs of graft union incompatibility(i.e., the union breaks).[5] G.11 Geneva 11 is the second release of the Cornell breeding program similar in size to M.26(Class 4) but more productive. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan Has the advantage of being resistant to fire blight and crown rot as well as only rarely producing suckers or burr knots.[5] G.202 Geneva 202(CG 4202) is a semidwarfing rootstock that produces a tree in class 5 slightly larger than M.26(Size Class 4) and is more productive than M.26. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan It was developed from a cross of M.27(Size Class 1) and Robusta 5 to be fire blight and Phytopthora resistant as well as having resistance to woolly apple aphids. In a 9-year study with the scion cultivar of the "Liberty" apple, G.202 was about 50 percent smaller than M.7 but had much greater production efficiency.[5] ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan M.7 Malling 7 rootstock produces a semidwarf tree of Class 6[1] that is freestanding in deep well drained soils but in rocky, steep, or shallow soils, it tends to lean. The rootstock may sucker profusely and is susceptible to collar rot(Phytopthora).[5] MM.106: Semi-dwarfing - Sometimes referred to as semi-vigorous, this is the most widely used of rootstocks.[ HP 434678-001 CPU Fan It is probably the best choice for the average garden under average conditions, being tolerant of a wide range of soils, and producing a tree with an eventual size of 14 to 18 ft (4.3 to 5.5 m).[citation needed] Trees on this stock begin producing fruit within three to four years, and yield 90 to 110 pounds (41 to 50 kg) after some seven or eight years.[ HP G70-120EA CPU Fan MM106 is very suitable for use with weaker varieties that would produce under sized bushes with more dwarfing rootstocks. Can be trained as a half standard tree, but is rather too vigorous for cordons unless the soil is poor. Requires staking for the first five years or so of its life.[citation needed] Trees on MM. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan 106 are highly susceptible to collar rot especially when planted in soils that remain wet(poor percolation).[5] M.111 : Vigorous - Not generally suitable for garden scale growing, being both too large and spreading (18-25'), and too slow to come into cropping. They are however suitable for growing as specimen standards in the large garden, or for producing medium sized bushes on poorer soils. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan Begins to fruit after six or seven years, reaching full capacity of 160 to 360 lb (73 to 163 kg) after eight to nine years. It is not winter hardy in US zone 3 unless you receive abundant snow cover. Bud 118 was developed in the Soviet Union to replace MM 111, Bud 118 is winter hardy in zone 3 and very precocious. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan (Early bearing). Planting depth of this rootstock is critical. The union should be no higher than 1 to 2 inches above the final soil line.[5] M.25: Very vigorous - Suitable for a grassed orchard, and to grow on as a full standard. Plant 20 ft (6.1 m) apart, makes a tree of 15 to 20 ft (4.6 to 6.1 m) or more height and spread, eventually yielding 200 to 400 lb (91 to 181 kg) per tree.[ TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan This rootstock is primarily used in UK and is rarely seen in USA where M.111(size Class 8)[1] is used for this size tree. Seedling: Very vigorous trees produced on a rootstock grown from seed. There is greater variability than with the vegetatively propagated rootstocks. Apples used for production of seedling rootstocks include 'Dolgo' and 'Antonovka', which are both extremely hardy and vigorous.[ ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan The Malling series and clones have been standard rootstocks for apples for many years and remain the "workhorses" for the commercial industry in the USA[5] and the UK. However, since most of them are susceptible to disease some Malling rootstocks are being replaced by new breeds, including the Cornell-Geneva series, Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan which has resistance to the major problems preventing quality production of apples utilizing organic control systems. One of the newest rootstocks of the "CG" series, only released commercially in 2004, is CG5202(G.202) which adds resistance to the woolly apple aphid, and when combined with highly resistant cultivars such as "Liberty" it is showing great potential.[8][9] HP 637607-001 CPU Fan Another desirable characteristic of rootstocks is environmental adaptability. This may be tolerance to wet/dry soil conditions, acidity/alkalinity of soil or even hot/cold air temperature.[2] Rootstocks based on Siberian Crab apple are being used in colder areas for more cold tolerance.[10] HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan The ability of new rootstocks to modify or augment characteristics of fruit trees is limited and may disappoint in the long term. It takes ten years to get a full picture of the effects of any one rootstock, so a rootstock that appears promising in the first five years of a trial may fail in the last five years. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan The Mark rootstock was such a stock and has now fallen mostly into disfavor.[5] Another, the G.30, has proved to be an excellent stock for production but it was only after a number of years of trials that it was found to be somewhat incompatible with the cultivar 'Gala', so that it is now recommended to be staked and wired.[5] Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan An industry consortium undertakes trials of different rootstocks - called the "NC-140" trials.[11] These test many pome rootstocks in many different sites across the USA and thereby provide growers a clearer picture of what to expect when growing fruit trees on specific stock, in specific planting methods in their specific area of the USA. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan This information has the potential to create economic benefits to both growers and consumers, as well as helping to reduce the need to spray pesticides as frequently as is currently required. Pears are usually grafted onto quince rootstocks, which produce small to medium sized trees. Some varieties however are not compatible with quince, and these require double working. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan This means that a piece of pear graft-work compatible with both the quince rootstock and the pear variety is used as an intermediate between the two. If this is not done the pear and the rootstock could eventually separate at the graft. Varieties that require double working include 'Bristol Cross', 'Dr Jules Guyot', 'Doyenné d' été' and 'Williams Bon Chrétien'. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan Quince C: Moderately vigorous- Makes a bush pear tree about 8 to 18 ft (2.4 to 5.5 m) tall, bearing fruit within four to eight years. Suitable for highly fertile soils and vigorous varieties, but not where conditions are poor. Used for bush, cordon and espalier growing. Old stocks of Quince C may be infected with a virus, so care should be taken to obtain certified virus free stock. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan If in doubt, use Quince A as there is not a great amount of difference in vigour between the two. Quince A: Medium vigour- Slightly more vigorous than Quince C, this is the most common variety upon which pears are grafted. Bears fruit between four to eight years, making a tree of some 10 to 20 ft (3.0 to 6.1 m) in height and spread. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan Suitable for all forms of pear trees except standards. Pear stock: Very vigorous- Pears grafted onto pear rootstocks make very large standard trees, not suitable for most gardens. Until the 1970s, cherries were grown on the vigorous Malling F12/1, Mazzard (Prunus avium), or Maheleb (P. maheleb) rootstocks, which required much space and time before cropping began, thus the growing of cherries was not a realistic option on a garden scale. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan The introduction of the rootstock 'Colt' enabled trees reaching a maximum height of 12 to 15 ft (3.7 to 4.6 m) to be grown, and if trained as a pyramid it is possible to restrict growth to about 10 ft (3.0 m).[13]The popular sweet variety 'Stella' can even be successfully grown in a pot on the patio when grafted onto a 'Colt' rootstock.[13] DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan A newer rootstock, Gisela 5,[14]is slowly becoming available to gardeners and produces a tree smaller still than Colt, making netting for bird protection much easier. Many species of fruit (e.g. fig, filbert, olive, and pomegranate) are commonly grown on their own roots, as there may be no great advantages to using a special rootstock, HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan or suitable rootstocks may not be readily available. However even for fruit trees which usually are grown grafted on a rootstock, there can be advantages in growing them on their own roots instead, particularly in the traditional coppicing systems advocated in both sustainable agriculture andpermaculture. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan Disadvantages of using own root trees can include excessive size and excessive production of wood (thus very long times until the start of fruit production), although training branches horizontally and limiting pruning to summer only may help encourage fruit production at an earlier age.[15][16][17] Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan There is a lack of research on the use of the own root method in large scale systems. In addition to propagating trees on rootstocks designed to control size/vigour and confer disease resistance, grafting above the rootstock can be used to provide multiple cultivars of a single species, known as a family tree, or, within certain limits, HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan cultivars of different fruit species on one tree, often known as a fruit salad tree. Family trees typically combine several cultivars (two or three being most common) of apple, pear or a given species of stonefruiton a single rootstock, while fruit salad trees typically carry two or more different species from within a given genus, HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan such as plum, apricot, and peach ormandarin orange, lemon, and lime. Certain combinations, including sour cherry (prunus cerasus)/sweet cherry (prunus avium), although from the same genus, are known to be difficult, although successes have sometimes been reported. Other grafts of this kind can produce the Pomato. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan Rootstocks used to control tree size have been used in apple for over 2,000 years. Dwarfing rootstocks were probably discovered by chance in Asia. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees back to his teacher, Aristotle inGreece. They were maintained at the Lyceum, a center of learning in Greece. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Dwarf apples are mentioned during the Song Dynasty in China (11th to 13th centuries) Initial propagation was likely by severing a root and causing it to sucker. The dwarfing clones were propagated in gardens for their novelty and not their efficiency. They were often trained to elaborate shapes such as pyramids, trellises and espaliers. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan In the mid-1800s,horticulturists began referring to the rootstocks by name. They were called Paradise (or French Paradise) or Doucin (or English Paradise), with the former being more dwarfing than the latter. However, there was much variation in the plant material in size control. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Many new stocks had been introduced inaccurately under these names and undoubtedly viruses and genetic mutations had occurred in the plant material. In the late 19th century, one author described 14 different kinds of Paradise rootstocks. ASUS A6000R CPU Fan This led to research workers at the East Malling Research Station in England to gather the selections up to determine their trueness to name. They concluded that indeed, there were numerous misnamed and mixed collections of plant material. In 1912, Ronald Hatton initiated the work of classification, testing and standardization of apple tree rootstocks. HP Pavilion dv7-6011sg CPU Fan With the help of Dr Wellington, Hatton sorted out the incorrect naming and mixtures then widespread in apple rootstocks distribute Fruit tree pruning is the cutting and removing of parts of a fruit tree. It covers a number ofhorticultural techniques that control growth, remove dead or diseased wood, and stimulate the formation offlowers and fruit buds. Toshiba Satellite L300D-01P CPU Fan Pruning often means cutting branches back, sometimes removing smaller limbs entirely. It may also mean removal of young shoots, buds, leaves, etc. Careful attention to pruning and training young trees affects their later productivity and longevity. Good pruning and training can also prevent later injury from weak crotches (where a tree trunk splits into two or more branches) Compaq Presario CQ60-409CA CPU Fan that break from the weight of fruit, snow, or ice on the branches.[1] Other sustainable agriculture or permaculture personalities, such as Sepp Holzer and Masanobu Fukuoka, advocate and practiced no-pruning methods. To obtain a better understanding of how to prune plants properly, it is useful to have some underlying knowledge of how pruning works, and how it affects the way plants grow. HP Mini 110-3010sf CPU Fan Plants form new tissue in an area called the meristem, located near the tips of roots and shoots, where active cell division takes place. Meristem growth is aimed at ensuring that leaves are quickly elevated into sunlight, and that roots are able to penetrate deeply into the soil. Once adequate height and length is achieved by the stems and roots, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan they begin to thicken to support the plant. On the shoots, these growing tips of the plant are called apical buds. The apical meristem (or tip) produces the growth hormone auxin, which not only promotes cell division, but also diffuses downwards and inhibits the development of lateral bud growth that otherwise competes with the apical tip for light and nutrients. Toshiba Satellite M70-142 CPU Fan Removing the apical tip and its suppressive hormone lets lower, dormant lateral buds develop, and the buds between the leaf stalk and stem produce new shoots that compete to become lead growth. Manipulating this natural response to damage (known as the principle of apical dominance) DELL Inspiron E1505 CPU Fan by processes such as pruning (as well as coppicing and pollarding) allows the arborist to determine the shape, size and productivity of many fruiting trees and bushes. The main aim when pruning fruit trees is usually to maximize fruit yield. Unpruned trees tend to produce large numbers of small fruits that may be difficult to reach when harvesting by hand. HP 532613-001 CPU Fan Branches can become broken by the weight of the crop, and the cropping may become biennial (that is, bearing fruit only every other year). Overpruned trees on the other hand tend to produce light crops of large, flavourless fruit that does not store well. Careful pruning balances shoot growth and fruit production. HP Envy 14-1080eo CPU Fan In the early years of the tree's life, it is important to develop a framework sufficiently strong to bear the weight of crops. This requires formative pruning to reinforce the tree. Formative pruning of apple (Malus pumila) and pear (Pyrus communis) trees should be carried out in the dormant winter months. ACER TravelMate 5230 CPU Fan For the Northern hemisphere, this should occur between November and March; For the Southern hemisphere, June and September. Stonefruits—such as cherries, plums, or gages—have different requirements, and should not be pruned in dormant months. A maiden whip (a one-year-old tree with no side shoots) Lenovo 3000 G430 CPU Fan should be pruned to a bud with two buds below it at about 80 cm from the ground immediately after planting to produce primary branches during the first growing season. A feathered maiden (that is, a one-year-old tree with several side branches) should have its main stem pruned back to three or four strong shoots at 80 cm from the ground. ASUS EEE PC 1215N CPU Fan Side shoots should be shortened by two thirds of their length to an upward or outward facing bud. Lower shoots should be removed flush with the stem. Before pruning, distinguish between spur-bearing varieties, tip-bearing varieties, and an intermediate between the two that bears both on spurs and at the tips. Dell Vostro 3750 CPU Fan Spur-bearing trees occur more frequently than tip-bearing trees, and they bear most of their fruit yearly at the end of short lateral pieces of wood (spurs) up to about 4 inches long. Spur-bearing types include apples of the varieties Cox's Orange PippinJames Grieve and Sunset, and pears such asConference, Toshiba Satellite L500-018 CPU Fan Doyenne du Commice and Williams Bon Chretien. Tip-bearers on the other hand produce most of their fruit buds at the tips of slender shoots grown the previous summer, and include the apples Worcester Pearmain andIrish Peach, and the pears such as Jargonelle and Josephine de MalinesCOMPAQ Presario CQ42-116TU CPU Fan . There are basically three types of pruning that are applied once the main shape of the tree has been established. Renewal pruning: This also depends on the tendency of many apple and pear trees to form flower buds on unpruned two-year-old laterals. It is a technique best used for the strong laterals on the outer part of the tree where there is room for such growth. HP Pavilion dv6-2115eg CPU Fan Pruning long-neglected fruit trees is a task that should be undertaken over a lengthy period, with not more than one third of the branches that require removal being taken each year. Regulatory pruning: This is carried out on the tree as a whole, and is aimed at keeping the tree and its environment healthy, Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan e.g., by keeping the centre open so that air can circulate; removing dead or diseased wood; preventing branches from becoming overcrowded (branches should be roughly 50 cm apart and spurs not less than 25 cm apart along the branch framework); and preventing any branches from crossing. HP 646578-001 CPU Fan Tip-bearers should be pruned lightly in winter using the regulatory system (see above). Any maiden shoots less than 25 cm in length should be left untouched as they have fruit buds at their tips. Longer shoots are spur pruned to prevent overcrowding and to stimulate the production of more short-tip-bearing shoots the following year. SONY VAIO PCG-6L2L CPU Fan Branch leaders are 'tipped', removing the top three or four buds to a bud facing in the desired direction to make them branch out and so produce more tip-bearing shoots. Toshiba Satellite X205-S9349 CPU Fan, DELL yy529 CPU Fan

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