Some cultures deliberately limit access to birth control because they consider it to be morally or politically undesirable.The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implantable contraceptives. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery This is followed by a number of hormonal contraceptives including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injections. Less effective methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms and contraceptive sponge and fertility awareness methods. The least effective methods arespermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. Sterilization, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery while highly effective, is not usually reversible; all other methods are reversible, most immediately upon stopping them. Emergency contraceptives can prevent pregnancy in the few days after unprotected sex. Some regard sexual abstinence as birth control, but abstinence-only sex education may increase teen pregnancies when offered without contraceptive education. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery
In teenagers, pregnancies are at greater risk of poor outcomes. Comprehensive sex education and access to birth control decreases the rate of unwanted pregnancies in this age group. While all forms of birth control may be used by young people, long-acting reversible birth control such as implants, IUDs, or vaginal rings are of particular benefit in reducing rates of teenage pregnancy. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery
After the delivery of a child, a woman who is not exclusively breastfeeding may become pregnant again after as few as four to six weeks. Some methods of birth control can be started immediately following the birth, while others require a delay of up to six months. In those who are breast feeding progestin-only methods are preferred over combined oral contraceptives. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery
In those who have reached menopause it is recommended that birth control be continued for one year after the last period.About 222 million women who want to avoid pregnancy in developing countries are not using a modern birth control method. Birth control use in developing countries has decreased the number of maternal deaths by 40% (about 270,000 deaths prevented in 2008) and could prevent 70% if the full demand for birth control were met.[ Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
By lengthening the time between pregnancies, birth control can improve adult women's delivery outcomes and the survival of their children.In the developing world women's earnings, assets, weight, and their children's schooling and health all improve with greater access to birth control. Birth control increases economic growth because of fewer dependent children, more women participating in the workforce, and less consumption of scarce resources. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
Birth control methods include barrier methods, hormonal birth control, intrauterine devices (IUDs), sterilization, and behavioral methods. They are used before or during sex while emergency contraceptives are effective for up to a few days after sex. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery
Effectiveness is generally expressed as the percentage of women who become pregnant using a given method during the first year and sometimes as a lifetime failure rate among methods with high effectiveness, such as tubal ligation.
The most effective methods are those that are long acting and do not require ongoing health care visits. Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
Surgical sterilization, implantable hormones, and intrauterine devices all have first-year failure rates of less than 1%. Hormonal contraceptive pills, patches or vaginal rings, and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), if used strictly, can also have first-year (or for LAM, first-6-month) failure rates of less than 1%. With typical use first-year failure rates are considerably high, at 9%, due to incorrect usage. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery
Other methods such as fertility awareness, condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides have higher first-year failure rates even with perfect usage.
While all methods of birth control have some potential adverse effects, the risk is less than that ofpregnancy. After stopping or removing many methods of birth control, including oral contraceptives, Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery
IUDs, implants and injections, the rate of pregnancy during the subsequent year is the same as for those who used no birth control.In those with specific health problems, certain forms of birth control may require further investigations. For women who are otherwise healthy, many methods of birth control should not require a medical exam including birth control pills, injectable or implantable birth control, and condoms. Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery
Specifically, a pelvic exam, breast exam, or blood test before starting birth control pills do not appear to affect outcomes and therefore are not required. The World Health Organization in 2009 published a detailed list of medical eligibility criteria for each type of birth control.
Comparison of birth control methods: Different types of birth control methods have large differences in effectiveness, actions required of users, and side effects. Sony VGP-BPS21A/b Battery
Different methods require different actions of users. Barrier methods, spermicides, or coitus interruptus must be used at every act of intercourse. The male condom may not be applied until the man achieves an erection. Barriers such as diaphragms, caps, the contraceptive sponge, and female condoms may be placed several hours before intercourse begins (note that when using the female condom the penis must be guided into place when initiating intercourse). Sony VGP-BPS26 Battery
The female condom should be removed immediately after intercourse, and before arising. The other female barrier methods must be left in place for several hours after sex. Spermicides, depending on the form, may be applied several minutes to an hour before intercourse begins.
With IUDs, female or male sterilization, and hormone implant there is "little or nothing to do" post initial procedure; Sony VGP-BPL26 Battery
there is nothing to put in place before intercourse to prevent pregnancy Intrauterine methods require clinic visits for installation and removal or replacement (if desired) only once every several years (5-12), depending on the device. Sterilization is a one-time, permanent procedure - after the success of surgery is verified (for vasectomy), no action is usually required of users. Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery
Implants, such as Nexplanon, provide effective birth control for three years without any user action between insertion and removal of the implant. Insertion and removal of the Implant involves a minor surgical procedure. Oral contraceptives require some action every day. Other hormonal methods require less frequent action - weekly for the patch, Sony VGP-BPS22 Battery
twice a month for vaginal ring, monthly for combined injectable contraceptive, and every twelve weeks for the injection Depo-Provera. Fertility awareness-based methods require some action every day to monitor and record fertility signs. The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) requires breast feeding at least every four to six hours. Sony VGP-BPL22 Battery
Different methods require different levels of diligence by users. Methods with little or nothing to do or remember, or that require a clinic visit less than once per year are said to be non-user dependent, forgettable or top-tier methods. Intrauterine methods, implants and sterilization fall into this category. Sony VGP-BPS22A Battery
For methods that are not user dependent, the actual and perfect-use failure rates are very similar.
Many hormonal methods of birth control, and LAM require a moderate level of thoughtfulness. For many hormonal methods, clinic visits must be made every three months to a year to renew the prescription. The pill must be taken every day, the patch must be reapplied weekly, or the ring must be replaced monthly. Sony VAIO PCG-3B1M Battery
Injections are required every 12 weeks. The rules for LAM must be followed every day. Both LAM and hormonal methods provide a reduced level of protection against pregnancy if they are occasionally used incorrectly (rarely going longer than 4–6 hours between breastfeeds, a late pill or injection, or forgetting to replace a patch or ring on time). The actual failure rates for LAM and hormonal methods are somewhat higher than the perfect-use failure rates. Sony VAIO PCG-3D1M Battery
Higher levels of user commitment are required for other methods. Barrier methods, coitus interruptus, and spermicides must be used at every act of intercourse. Fertility awareness-based methods may require daily tracking of the menstrual cycle. The actual failure rates for these methods may be much higher than the perfect-use failure rates.
Different forms of birth control have different potential side effects. Not all, or even most, users will experience side effects from a method. Sony VAIO PCG-3G2M Battery
The less effective the method, the greater the risk of the side-effects associated with pregnancy.
Minimal or no other side effects are possible with coitus interruptus, fertility awareness-based, and LAM. Some forms of periodic abstinence encourage examination of the cervix; insertion of the fingers into the vagina to perform this examination may cause changes in the vaginal environment. Sony VAIO PCG-5R1M Battery
Following the rules for LAM may delay a woman's first post-partum menstruation beyond what would be expected from different breastfeeding practices.
Barrier methods have a risk of allergic reaction. Users sensitive to latex may use barriers made of less allergenic materials - polyurethane condoms, or silicone diaphragms, for example. Sony VAIO PCG-7162M Battery
Barrier methods are also often combined with spermicides, which have possible side effects of genital irritation, vaginal infection, and urinary tract infection.
Sterilization procedures are generally considered to have low risk of side effects, though some persons and organizations disagree. Female sterilization is a more significant operation than vasectomy, and has greater risks; Sony VAIO PCG-7181M Battery
in industrialized nations, mortality is 4 per 100,000 tubal ligations, versus 0.1 per 100,000 vasectomies.
After IUD insertion, users may experience irregular periods in the first 3–6 months with Mirena, and sometimes heavier periods and worse menstrual cramps with ParaGard. However, "ninety-nine percent of IUD users are pleased with them". Sony VAIO PCG-41112M Battery
A positive characteristic of IUDs is that fertility and the ability to become pregnant returns quickly once the IUD is removed.
Because of their systemic nature, hormonal methods have the largest number of possible side effects.
Male and female condoms provide significant protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD) when used consistently and correctly. They also provide some protection against cervical cancer. Sony VAIO PCG-7153M Battery
Condoms are often recommended as an adjunct to more effective birth control methods (such as IUD) in situations where STD protection is also desired.