Tuesday, October 29, 2013

In the bovine cattle-raising sector

In the bovine cattle-raising sector, the "green ox," which is raised in pastures, on a diet of hay and mineral salts, conquered markets in Asia, Europe and the Americas, particularly after the "mad cow disease" scare period. Brazil has the largest cattle herd in the world, with 198 million heads,[25] responsible for exports surpassing the mark of US$ 1 billion/year.[23] Compaq Presario A900 CTO CPU Fan A pioneer and leader in the manufacture of short-fiber timber cellulose, Brazil has also achieved positive results within the packaging sector, in which it is the fifth largest world producer. In the foreign markets, it answers for 25 percent of global exports of raw cane and refined sugar; it is the world leader in soybean exports and is responsible for 80 percent of the planet's orange juice, and since 2003, has had the highest sales figures for beef and chicken, ACER Aspire 4736ZG CPU Fan among the countries that deal in this sector. Brazil is endowed with vast agricultural resources. There are two distinct agricultural areas. The first, composed of the southern one-half to two-thirds of the country, has a semitemperate climate, higher rainfall, more fertile soil, more advanced technology and input use, adequate infrastructure, and more experienced farmers. Toshiba Satellite A10-103 CPU Fan This region produces most of Brazil's grains and oilseeds and export crops. The other, located in the drought-ridden northeast region and in the Amazon basin, lacks well-distributed rainfall, good soil, adequate infrastructure, and sufficient development capital. Although mostly occupied by subsistence farmers, both regions are increasingly important as exporters of forest products, cocoa, and tropical fruits. SONY MCF-519PAM05 CPU Fan Central Brazil contains substantial areas of grassland with only scattered trees. The Brazilian grasslands are far less fertile than those of North America, and are generally more suited for grazing. The history of agriculture in Brazil in the colonial period and beyond is intertwined with the history of slavery in Brazil. Since the abolition of slavery in 1888 by the Lei Áurea ("Golden Law"), the practice of forced labour (trabalho escravo) has remained commonplace in agriculture.[1][2] SONY Vaio VPC-EB290X CPU Fan During the dictatorship period, agriculture was neglected and exploited as a means of resources for the industry sector and cheap food for the urban population. Until late 1980s, export and prices were controlled, with quotas on exports. This has changed since the early 1990s. Brazilian agriculture is well diversified, and the country is largely self-sufficient in food. HP Pavilion dv7-2043cl CPU Fan Agriculture accounts for 8% of the country's GDP, and employs about one-quarter of the labour force in more than 6 million agricultural enterprises. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane and coffee, and a net exporter of cocoa, soybeans, orange juice, tobacco, forest products, and other tropical fruits and nuts. Livestock production is important in many parts of the country, wHP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan ith rapid growth in the poultry, pork, and milk industries reflecting changes in consumer tastes. On a value basis, production is 60% field crops and 40% livestock. Brazil is a net exporter of agricultural and food products, which account for about 35% of the country's exports. Half of Brazil is covered by forests, with the largest rain forest in the world located in the Amazon Basin. HP 608772-001 CPU Fan Recent migrations into the Amazon and large-scale burning of forest areas have placed the international spotlight on the country and damaged Brazil's image. The government has reduced incentives for such activity and is beginning to implement an ambitious environmental plan - and has just adopted an Environmental Crimes Law that requires serious penalties for infractions. Toshiba Satellite A100-194 CPU Fan Brazil is the biggest exporter of coffee, soybeans, beef, sugar cane, ethanol and frozen chickens. Since the indigenous people with their primitive farming, there has been a gradual increase in the process of agriculture and exporting. Brazil has been expanding its agricultural role to the point where agriculture is one of the highlights of the economy, with potential to expand further by improving the quality of production. HP Pavilion tx1205/ CT CPU Fan The natives of Brazil farmed cassava, peanuts, tobacco, sweet potatoes and maize, in addition to extracting the essence from other local plants such as the pequi and the babassu. Some were for food and others for different products such as straw ormadeira. They also cultivated local fruits such as jabuticaba, cashews, Spondias mombin, Goiabas and many others. HP Pavilion dv6640ep CPU Fan With the arrival of the Europeans, the Indians did not just receive a stronger and more dominant culture. They also influenced the incomers. The Portuguese nourished themselves with wood-flour, slaughtered the big game to eat, packed their nets and imitated the rough, free life in the words of Pedro Calmon.[4] Until crops began to be exported, the supply of Brazilian wood was the main reason for Portugal to try to gain the new territory. COMPAQ Presario CQ42-401TU CPU Fan One of the practices used by the indigenous people was to open clearing for cultivation by the use of fire. In addition to rapid land clearance, this provided ashes for use as fertilizer and a covering for the soil. Scholars such as Monteiro Lobato have considered this practice to be a harmful legacy of the Indians. However, burning had been part of agriculture in Brazil for 12,000 years before the Europeans arrived without disturbing the balance of nature. Toshiba Satellite A300D CPU Fan It only became a problem when the Europeans adopted the practice aggressively around 1500, and also introduce the division of land into farms, the crop monoculture etc., and together these new farming methods decimated the native flora.[6] The land management of the Indians wasn't based solely on fire. They also created garden areas in locations carefully selected to allow interaction with the surrounding nature. HP Pavilion dv8397ea CPU  Fan They conserved the environment in exchange for hunting the animals and protecting themselves against pests. This has been lost, as Darcy Ribeiro says: Thus they passed millennia, until they came up against the armed agents of our civilisation, with their capacity to attack and mortally wound the miraculous balance achieved by those complex lifeforms. HP Pavilion dv9821ea CPU Fan Brazil in 2005 slaughtered over 28 million head of cattle,[9] producing in the process around 8.7 million tonnes (19.1 billion pounds) of beef.[10] The country also became world leader in beef exports in 2003 after surpassing Australia.[11] The cattle herds are concentrated in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and Minas Gerais; together they account to over 46% of Brazilian cattle with more than 87 million head.[8] HP COMPAQ TC4200 CPU Fan According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Brazilian beef production grew on average 6.1% a year from 1990 to 2003, and reached 7.6 million tonnes.[11] In 2003, Brazil exported over 1.4 million tonnes of beef, exports which earned the country around $1.5 billion.[11] Also that year, total exports of the leather complex passed the $1 billion mark. SONY Vaio VGN-NW228F CPU Fan Seventy-five percent of Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions are the result of deforestation and changes in land use to pave the way for production of livestock and crops.[24] Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture have increased 41 percent between 1990 and 2005.[25] Cattle are a major factor for these emissions. An estimate carried out by Friends of the Earth-Amazonia (Amigos da Terra - Amazônia Brasileira), HP G62-b16ST CPU Fan the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the University of Brasília concluded fully half of Brazil's greenhouse gas emissions between 2003 and 2008 came from the cattle sector.[26] If all parts of the "cattle chain" had been included, the researchers add, the proportion of greenhouse gases attributable to Brazil's cattle would have been even larger.[24] HP 580696-001 CPU Fan Brazil's cattle and soy production are concentrated in the Legal Amazon and Cerrado grasslands regions, and have resulted in considerable biodiversity loss,deforestation, and water pollution.[27] As of 2007, about 74 million cattle, or 40 percent of Brazil's herd, were living in what is known as the "Legal Amazon."[28] Almost a million square km (386,000 sq mi), or nearly half of the Cerrado, HP Pavilion dv6-3049tx CPU Fan have been burned and are now cattle pasture, or are cultivated for soybeans, corn (both primary ingredients in livestock feed), and sugarcane, for ethanol production.[29] According to Brazilian journalist Washington Novaes, "if we consider the viable fragments of the Cerrado, those with at least two continuous hectares (5 acres), only 5 percent of it is left. It's a very severe level of habitat loss."[30] At least one quarter of Brazil's grain is grown in the Cerrado region. HP G42-380LA CPU Fan Brazil has the second biggest industrial sector in the Americas. Accounting for 28.5 percent of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. With increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from U.S. firms. Toshiba Qosmio G30-167 CPU Fan Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector accounted for as much as 16 percent of the GDP. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazil's financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan On May 8, 2008, the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa) and the São Paulo-based Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange (BM&F) merged, creating BM&FBOVESPA, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. Also, the previously monopolistic reinsurance sector is being opened up to third party companies.[26] As of 31 December 2007, there were an estimated 21,304,000 broadband lines in Brazil. Compaq Presario CQ40-408AX CPU Fan Over 75 percent of the broadband lines were via DSL and 10 percent via cable modems. Proven mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese reserves are important sources of industrial raw materials and export earnings. Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, uranium, bauxite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, gold, and other minerals are exploited. HP Mini 110-1110ET CPU Fan High-quality cooking-grade coal required in the steel industry is in short supply. Brazilian industry has its earliest origin in workshops dating from the beginning of the 19th century. Most of the country's industrial establishments appeared in the Brazilian southeast (mainly in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and, later, São Paulo), and, according to the Commerce, Agriculture, HP Pavilion dv7-1157cl CPU Fan Factories and Navigation Joint, 77 establishments registered between 1808 and 1840 were classified as “factories” or “manufacturers”. However, most, about 56 establishments, would be considered workshops by today's standards, directed toward the production of soap and candles of tallow, snuff, spinning andweaving, foods, melting of iron and metals, wool and silk, amongst others. They used both slaves and free laborers.[1] HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan There were twenty establishments that could be considered in fact manufacturers, and of this total, thirteen were created between the years 1831 and 1840. All were, however, of small size and more resembled large workshops than proper factories. Still, the manufactured goods were quite diverse: hats, combs, farriery and sawmills, spinning and weaving, soap and candles,glasses, carpets, oil, etc. HP Pavilion dv9740us CPU Fan Probably because of the instability of the regency period, only nine of these establishments were still functioning in 1841, but these nine were of great size and could be considered to “presage a new era for manufactures”.[2] The advent of real manufacturing before the 1840s was extremely limited, due to the self-sufficiency of the regions of the country (mainly farms producing coffee and sugar cane, which produced their own food, clothes, equipment, etc.), HP COMPAQ NX9420 CPU Fan the lack of capital, and high costs of production that made it impossible for national manufactures to compete with foreign products. Costs were high because most of the raw materials were imported, even though some of the plants already used machines. The promulgation of the Alves Branco tariff would modify this picture. HP Pavilion dv7-4150ec CPU Fan This tariff succeeded in increasing State revenues and stimulating growth of national industry.[4][5] The sudden proliferation of capital was directed to investments in the areas of urban services, transports, commerce, banks, industries, etc.[6] Most of the capital invested in industries was directed toward textiles.[7] With unprecedented industrial growth, multiple manufacturing establishments appeared, HP Pavilion dv5-1102tu CPU Fan dedicated to such diverse products as melting of iron and metal, machinery, soap and candles, glasses, beer, vinegar, gallons of gold and silver, shoes, hats and cotton fabric.[8]One of the main establishments created at this period was the metallurgical factory Ponta da Areia (In English: Sand Tip), in the city of Niterói, that also constructed steamships.[9] It is likely that the textile industry benefited most by the virtue of being the oldest in the country. SONY VGN-SZ220 CPU Fan It first appeared in 1830, with the founding of the Santo Antonio do Queimado plant in the city of Salvador, capital of the province of Bahia. The textile sector was quite dynamic in the monarchic period and received large investments until 1890, when it entered into decline. Various modernizations occurred, principally between 1840 and 1860, when factories with a high level of technological capability were created, able to compete with other major international centers. HP Pavilion dv7-6011tx CPU Fan Other improvements came with the establishment of factories and forges geared for the production of equipment and pieces for textile manufacture.[10] And now Brazil ranks second in the world’s largest producer of denim, the third – for the production of knitted fabrics, the fifth – for the manufacture of clothing and seventh – for the production of yarns and fibers.[ HP Pavilion dv5-1040eb CPU Fan The concentration of industry that emerged in the province of Bahia considerably expanded its economic scope, reaching the south of Ceará, Piauí and even Minas Gerais.[11] The extinction of the traffic in African slaves in 1850, contrary to what many authors allege, did not "liberate" credit for industrial development. That claim has no documentary basis whatever.[12] ASUS F3Jv CPU Fan On the contrary, capital employed in the trade was had already been directed to sectors such as enterprises of urban services, transport, banking and trade. But it is possible that there was an indirect contribution to the growth of the industrial sector through banking loans.[13] In 1850, there were 50 factories with a capital of at least Rs 7.000:000$000.[14] IBM ThinkPad R50p 2887 CPU Fan The imperial government created several incentives for the industrialization of the country. The earliest of these date from the reign of Dom Pedro I, through awards of government grants. The first establishment to receive such a grant was the Fábrica das Chitas (In English: Chitas Factory), devoted to paper and printing, by a decree of 26 June 1826.[15] The practice was resumed in the 1840s, when new industrial establishments received subsidies. SONY VGN-CS36GJ/R CPU Fan in 1857, seven factories benefited from this practice of incentives, among them, the Ponta da Areia mentioned above and that was owned by Irineu Evangelista de Sousa (later Viscount of Mauá). One of the criteria for the granting of these subsidies was the exclusive employment of free workers.[16] The goal, then, was not only the transition from the old colonial economic system to that of the modern capitalist, but also from slave labor to free. Toshiba Satellite A215-S4807 CPU Fan Other incentives arose, such as the decree of 8 August 1846 that exempted manufactured products from certain transport taxes (internally as well as externally), shielded from military recruitament a determinate number of employees of industrial establishments and eliminated tariffs on parts and machinery imported for textile factories. Toshiba Satellite Pro M10-SP405 CPU Fan The following year in June, a new decree stated that all industrial establishments on national soil would be free of taxes on imported raw materials.[9][17] Thus, production costs of domestic industry dropped considerably, allowing it to compete with foreign products. The Alves Branco tariff underwent modification in 1857, reducing to 15% the tax on imported products.[18][19] HP Pavilion dv4-1120us CPU Fan Later, under the Rio Branco cabinet at the beginning of the 1870s, the tariff on foreign products was newly raised to 40%, and new raw materials were exempted from import taxes. At the end of the 1860s, came a new industrial surge caused by two armed conflicts: the American Civil War and the Paraguayan War. Because of the first, U.S. production of cotton was interrupted by the blockade of the Union forces against the Confederacy. Compaq Presario C550EM CPU Fan The second resulted in the emission of currency and an increase in import tariffs to cover the costs of war. This resulted in a great stimulus not only for the textile industry, but also for other sector, such as chemicals, cigars, glass, paper, leather, and optical and nautical instruments.[12] During the 1870s, thanks to the decline of the coffee region of the Paraíba Valley and some areas of sugar production, Toshiba Qosmio E15-AV101 CPU Fan many owners of plantations invested not only in the cotton textile industry, but also in other manufacturing sectors. Deployment of a railway network throughout the national territory also stimulated the emergence of new industrial activities, mainly in São Paulo.[20] Industry also experienced a major impetus in this period. From the 1870s onward, the great expansion of industrialization became a constant in Brazil.[21] Toshiba Satellite L645D-S4056 CPU Fan In 1866, there were 9 textile factories with 795 workers.[22] In 1881, there were 46 textile factories through the country: 12 in Bahia; 11 in Rio de Janeiro; 9 in São Paulo; 9 in Minas Gerais; and 5 in other provinces.[23] The number of establishments diminished a little by 1885 to 42 textile factories with 3,172 workers. However, it did not harm the overall growth in the sector up to 1889.[22] Toshiba Satellite A305-S6837 CPU Fan In 1880 the Industrial Association was established, with its first board elected the following year. The Association supported new industrial incentives and propagandized against the defenders of an essentially agricultural Brazil.[24] 9.6% of the capital of the Brazilian economy was directed toward industry by 1884, and by 1885, 11.2%. HP Pavilion dv7-4087cl CPU Fan This figure dropped sharply during the republican period, falling to 5% between 1895 and 1899, and improving slightly to 6% between 1900 and 1904. Still, it would take many years to return to the level that prevailed during the Empire.[25] At the time of its downfall in 1889, monarchical Brazil had 636 factories (representing an annual rate of increase of 6.74% from 1850) with a capital of Rs 401.630:600$000 (annual growth rate of 10.94% since 1850).[14] HP Pavilion dv5-1118es CPU Fan Of this amount, 60% were employed in the textile sector, 15% in food, 10% in the chemical, 4% in timber, 3.5% in clothing and 3% in metallurgy.Most large industry is concentrated in the south and south east. The north east is traditionally the poorest part of Brazil, but it is beginning to attract new investment.Brazil has the third most advanced industrial sector in The Americas. Toshiba Satellite A665-S6050 CPU Fan Accounting for one-third of GDP, Brazil's diverse industries range from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables. With the increased economic stability provided by the Plano Real, Brazilian and multinational businesses have invested heavily in new equipment and technology, a large proportion of which has been purchased from U.S. firms. HP Pavilion G72-259WM CPU Fan Brazil has a diverse and sophisticated services industry as well. During the early 1990s, the banking sector accounted for as much as 16% of GDP. Although undergoing a major overhaul, Brazil's financial services industry provides local businesses with a wide range of products and is attracting numerous new entrants, including U.S. financial firms. HP Pavilion dv6-3109ca  CPU  Fan The São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro stock exchanges are undergoing a consolidation and the reinsurance sector is about to be privatized. The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported oil. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but in 2006 Brazil has achieved oil self-sufficiency. HP Pavilion dv6782eg CPU Fan Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity of about 58,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 92% of the nation's electricity. Two large hydroelectric projects, the 12,600 megawattItaipu Dam on the Paraná River—the world's largest dam—and the Tucurui Dam in Para in northern Brazil, are in operation. SONY UDQF2PH52CF0 CPU Fan Brazil's first commercial nuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Angra II is under construction and, after years of delays, is about to come on line. An Angra III is planned. The three reactors would have combined capacity of 3,000 megawatts when completed. Proven mineral resources are extensive. Large iron and manganese reserves are important sources of industrial raw materials and export earnings. Toshiba UDQFRPH33CCM CPU Fan Deposits of nickel, tin, chromite, bauxite, beryllium, copper, lead, tungsten, zinc, gold, and other minerals are exploited. High-quality coking-grade coal required in the steel industry is in short supply.The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became self-sufficient in oil in 2006-2007. Toshiba Satellite A505-S6980 CPU Fan Brazil is one of the world's leading producers of hydroelectric power, with a current capacity of about 260,000 megawatts. Existing hydroelectric power provides 90 percent of the nation's electricity. Two large hydroelectric projects, the 19,900 megawatt Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River (the world's largest dam) and the Tucurui Dam in Pará in northern Brazil, are in operation. HP Pavilion dv7-2025es CPU Fan Brazil's first commercialnuclear reactor, Angra I, located near Rio de Janeiro, has been in operation for more than 10 years. Angra II was completed in 2002 and is in operation too. AnAngra III has its planned inauguration scheduled for 2014. The three reactors would have combined capacity of 9,000 megawatts when completed. The government also plans to build 19 more nuclear plants by the year 2020. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan,HP G62-a10EJ CPU Fan,DELL R859C CPU Fan

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