The Egyptian Ebers Papyrus from 1550 BCE and the Kahun Papyrus from 1850 BCE have within them some of the earliest documented descriptions of birth control: the use of honey, acacia leaves and lint to be placed in the vagina to block sperm. Ancient Egyptian drawings also show the use of condoms. The Book of Genesis references withdrawal, Sony VGN-P11Z/W Battery
or coitus interruptus, as a method of birth control when Onan "spills his seed" (ejaculates) on the ground so as to not father a child with his deceased brother's wife Tamar. It is believed that in Ancient Greece silphium was used as birth control which, due to its effectiveness and thus desirability, was harvested into extinction. In medieval Europe, any effort to halt pregnancy was deemed immoral by theCatholic Church. Sony VGN-P21S/W Battery
It is believed that women of the time still used a number of birth control measures such as coitus interruptus and inserting lily root and rue into the vagina (and, in addition, infanticide after birth). Casanova (1725-1798), during the Italian Renaissance described the use of a lambskin covering to prevent pregnancy; however, condoms were not widely available until the 20th century. Sony VGN-P21Z/G Battery
In 1909, Richard Richter developed the first intrauterine device made from silkworm gut, which was further developed and marketed in Germany by Ernst Gräfenberg in the late 1920s. In 1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States which resulted in her arrest. This was followed in 1921 by the first clinic in the UK, opened by Marie Stopes. Sony VGN-P21Z/R Battery
Gregory Pincus and John Rock with help from the Planned Parenthood Federation of America developed the first birth control pills in the 1950s which became publicly available in the 1960s. Medical abortion became an alternative to surgical abortion with the availability ofprostaglandin analogs in the 1970s and mifepristone in the 1980s. Sony VGN-P29VN/Q Battery
Human rights agreements require most governments to provide family planning and contraceptive information and services. These include the requirement to create a national plan for family planning services, remove laws that limit access to family planning, ensure that a wide variety of safe and effective birth control methods are available including emergency contraceptives, Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery
make sure there are appropriately trained healthcare providers and facilities at an affordable price, and create a process to review the programs implemented. If governments fail to do the above it may put them in breach of binding international treaty obligations. Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery
In 2010, the United Nations launched the Every Woman Every Child movement to assess the progress toward meeting women's contraceptive needs. The initiative has set a goal of increasing the number of users of modern birth control by 120 million women in the world's 69 poorest countries by the year 2020. Additionally, they aim to eradicate discrimination against girls and young women who seek contraceptives. Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery
Religions vary widely in their views of the ethics of birth control. The Roman Catholic Church officially only accepts natural family planning in certain cases, although large numbers of Catholics in developed countries accept and use modern methods of birth control. Among Protestants there is a wide range of views from supporting none to allowing all methods of birth control. HP 448007-001 battery
Views in Judaism range from the stricter Orthodox sect to the more relaxed Reform sect. Hindus may use both natural and artificial contraceptives. A common Buddhist view is that preventing conception is acceptable, while intervening after conception has occurred is not.
In Islam, contraceptives are allowed if they do not threaten health, although their use is discouraged by some.HP Pavilion DV7 battery
The Quran does not make any explicit statements about the morality of birth control, but contains statements encouraging having children. Prophet Muhammad also is reported to have said "marry and procreate".
The 26th of September is World Contraception Day, devoted to raising awareness and improving education about sexual and reproductive health, with a vision of a world where every pregnancy is wanted. HP DV6-1120SA battery
It is supported by a group of governments and international NGOs, including the Asian Pacific Council on Contraception, Centro Latinamericano Salud y Mujer, the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health, the German Foundation for World Population, the International Federation of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, HP DV6-1210SA battery
International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, the Population Council, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and Women Deliver.
There are a number of common misconceptions regarding sex and pregnancy. Douching after sexual intercourse is not an effective form of birth control. Compaq CQ50 battery
Additionally, it is associated with a number of health problems and thus is not recommended. Women can become pregnant the first time they have sexual intercourse and in any sexual position. It is possible, although not very likely, to become pregnant during menstruation.
Improvements of existing birth control methods are needed, as around half of those who get pregnant unintentionally are using birth control at the time. HP Pavilion DV8 battery
A number of alterations of existing contraceptive methods are being studied, including a better female condom, an improved diaphragm, a patch containing only progestin, and a vaginal ring containing long-acting progesterone. This vaginal ring appears to be effective for three or four months and is currently available in some areas of the world. Compaq HSRNN-I57C Battery
A number of methods to perform sterilization via the cervix are being studied. One involves putting quinacrine in the uterus which causes scarring and infertility. While the procedure is inexpensive and does not require surgical skills, there are concerns regarding long-term side effects. Another substance, polidocanol, which functions in the same manner is being looked at.[145Compaq HSTNN-153C Battery
] A device called Essure, which expands when placed in the fallopian tubes and blocks them, was approved in the United States in 2002.
Methods of male birth control include condoms, vasectomies and withdrawal. Between 25 and 75% of males who are sexually active would use hormonal birth control if it was available for them.[ Compaq HSTNN-A14C Battery
A number of hormonal and non-hormonal methods are in trials, and there is some research looking at the possibility of contraceptive vaccines.
A reversible surgical method under investigation is reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG) which consists of injecting a polymer gel, styrene maleic anhydride in dimethyl sulfoxide, into the vas deferens. Compaq HSTNN-B071 Battery
An injection with sodium bicarbonate washes out the substance and restores fertility. Another is an intravas device which involves putting a urethane plug into the vas deferens to block it. A combination of an androgen and a progestin seems promising, as doselective androgen receptor modulators. Ultrasound and methods to heat the testicles have undergone preliminary studies. Compaq HSTNN-CB25 Battery
Neutering or spaying, which involves removing some of the reproductive organs, is often carried out as a method of birth control in household pets. Many animal shelters require these procedures as part of adoption agreements. In large animals the surgery is known as castration. Birth control is also being considered as an alternative to hunting as a means of controlling the overpopulation in wild animals. Compaq HSTNN-CB72 Battery
Contraceptive vaccines have been found to be effective in a number of different animal populations.
Globally approximately 45% of those who are married and able to have children use contraception. As of 2007, IUDs were used by about 17% of women of child bearing age in developing countries and 9% in developed countries or more than 180 million women worldwide. Compaq HSTNN-DB02 Battery
Avoiding sex when fertile is used by about 3.6% of women of childbearing age, with usage as high as 20% in areas of South America. As of 2005, 12% of couples are using a male form of contraception (either condoms or a vasectomy) with rates of up to 30% in the developed world.
As of 2012, 57% of women of child bearing age wanted to avoid pregnancy (867 of 1520 million). Compaq HSTNN-DB17 Battery
About 222 million women however were not able to access birth control, 53 million of whom were in sub-Saharan Africa and 97 million of whom were in Asia. Many countries limit access to birth control due to the religious and political reasons.
Contraceptive use among women in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen from about 5% in 1991 to about 30% in 2006. Compaq HSTNN-DB35 Battery
However due to extreme poverty, lack of access to birth control, and restrictive abortionlaws many women still resort to clandestine abortion providers for unintended pregnancy, resulting in about 3% obtainingunsafe abortions each year. South Africa, Botswana, and Zimbabwe have successful family planning programs, Compaq HSTNN-DB36 Battery
but other central and southern African countries continue to encounter extreme difficulties in achieving higher contraceptive prevalence and lower fertility for a wide variety of compounding reasons.
The one-child policy of the People's Republic of China requires couples to have no more than one child. Beginning in 1979, the policy was implemented to control rapid population growth. Compaq HSTNN-DB53 Battery
Chinese women receive free contraception and family planning services. Greater than 70% of those of childbearing age use contraception. Since the policy was put into place in 1979, over 400 million births have been prevented. Because of various exemptions, fertility rate is about 1.7 children per woman, down from 5.9 in the 1960s. Compaq HSTNN-IB04 Battery
A strong preference for boys and free access to fetus sex determination and abortion has resulted in an artificially high proportion of males in both rural and urban areas.
Awareness of contraception is near-universal among married women in India. However, the vast majority of married Indians (76% in a 2009 study) reported significant problems in accessing a choice of contraceptive methods. Compaq HSTNN-IB09 Battery
In 2009, 48.3% of married women were estimated to use a contraceptive method, i.e. more than half of all married women did not. About three-fourths of these were using female sterilization, which is by far the most prevalent birth-control method in India.Condoms, at a mere 3%, were the next most prevalent method. Compaq HSTNN-IB17 Battery
Meghalaya, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh had the lowest usage of contraception among all Indian states with rates below 30%.
In 2011 just one in five Pakistani women aged 15 to 49 used modern birth control. In 1994, Pakistan pledged that by 2010 it would provide universal access to family planning. but contraception is shunned under traditional social norms. Most women who say they do not want any more children or would like to wait a period of time before their next pregnancy do not have the contraceptive resources available to them in order to do so. Compaq HSTNN-IB72 Battery
In the 1990s, women increasingly reported wanting fewer children, and 24 percent of recent births were reported to be unwanted or mistimed. The rate of unwanted pregnancies is higher for women living in poor or rural environments; with two-thirds of women live in rural areas. While 96 percent of married women were reported to know about at least one method of contraception, only half of them had ever used it. Compaq HSTNN-N50C Battery
The most commonly reported reasons for married women electing not to use family planning methods include the belief that fertility should be determined by God (28%); opposition to use by the woman, her husband, others or a perceived religious prohibition (23%); infertility (15%); and concerns about health, side effects or the cost of family planning (12%).Compaq HSTNN-OB53 Battery
Contraception has been available for free under the National Health Service since 1974, and 74% of reproductive age women use some form of contraception. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system has been massively popular. Sterilization is popular in older age groups, among those 45-49, 29% of men and 21% of women have been sterilized. Compaq HSTNN-OB77 Battery
Female sterilization has been declining since 1996, when the intrauterine system was introduced. Emergency contraception has been available since the 1970s, a product was specifically licensed for emergency contraception in 1984, and emergency contraceptives became available over the counter in 2001. Since becoming available over the counter it has not reduced the use of other forms of contraception, as some moralists feared it might. Compaq HSTNN-OB80 Battery
In any year only 5% of women of childbearing age use emergency hormonal contraception. Despite widespread availability of contraceptives, almost half of pregnancies were unintended circa 2005. Abortion was legalized in 1967.
In the United States 98% of women have used birth control at some point in time and 62% of those of reproductive age are currently using birth control. Compaq HSTNN-OB81 Battery
The two most common methods are the pill (11 million) and sterilization (10 million). Despite the availability of highly effective contraceptives, about half of US pregnancies are unintended. In the United States, contraceptive use saves about $19 billion in direct medical costs each year. Usage of the IUD has more than tripled between 2002 and 2011 in the United States. Compaq HSTNN-OB84 Battery
In 2011, IUDs made up 10% of all birth control methods, with women increasingly viewing the IUD as the most convenient, safe, and effective yet reversible form of contraception.
The Ebers Papyrus from 1550 BCE and the Kahun Papyrus from 1850 BCE have within them some of the earliest documented descriptions of birth control, the use of honey, acacia leaves and lint to be placed in the vagina to block sperm. Compaq HSTNN-Q05C Battery
The Book of Genesisreferences withdrawal, or coitus interruptus, as a method of contraception when Onan "spills his seed" (ejaculates) on the ground so as to not father a child with his deceased brother's wife Tamar. In Ancient Greece it is believed that silphium was used as birth control which due to its effectiveness and thus desirability was harvested into extinction. Compaq HSTNN-UB02 Battery
In medieval Europe any efforts to halt pregnancy were deemed immoral by the Catholic Church. It is believed that women of the time still used a number of birth control measures such coitus interruptus, inserting lily root and rue into the vagina and infanticide after birth. Casanova, during the Italian Renaissance described the use of a lambskin covering to prevent pregnancy however general availability of condoms did not occur until the 20th century. Compaq HSTNN-W06C Battery
In 1909, Richard Richter developed the first intrauterine device made from silkworm gut which was further developed and marketed in Germany by Ernst Gräfenberg in the late 1920s. In 1916 Margaret Sangeropened the first birth control clinic in the United States which resulted in her arrest. This was followed in 1921 by the first clinic in the UK, opened by Marie Stopes. Compaq HSTNN-W48C Battery
Gregory Pincus and John Rock with help from the Planned Parenthood Federation of America developed the first birth control pills in the 1950s which became publicly available in the 1960s. Medical abortion became an alternative to surgical abortion with the availability of prostaglandin analogs in 1970s and the availability of mifepristone in the 1980s. Compaq HSTNN-XB77 Battery