Tuesday, October 22, 2013

William III commissioned Nicholas Hawksmoor and Sir Christopher Wren

William III commissioned Nicholas Hawksmoor and Sir Christopher Wren to conduct a large, final classical remodelling of the Upper Ward, but the king's early death caused the plan to be cancelled.[155SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C CPU Fan ] Queen Anne was fond of the castle, and attempted to address the lack of a formal garden by instructing Henry Wise to begin work on the Maestricht Garden beneath the North Terrace, which was never completed.[155] Anne also created the racecourse at Ascot and began the tradition of the annual Royal Ascot procession from the castle. HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan George I took little interest in Windsor Castle, preferring his other palaces at St James's, Hampton Court andKensington.[157] George II rarely used Windsor either, preferring Hampton Court.[158] Many of the apartments in the Upper Ward were given out as "grace and favour" privileges for the use of prominent widows or other friends of the Crown.[159] ACER eMachines G520 CPU Fan The Duke of Cumberland made the most use of the property in his role as the Ranger of Windsor Great Park.[160] By the 1740s, Windsor Castle had become an early tourist attraction; wealthier visitors who could afford to pay the castle keeper could enter, see curiosities such as the castle's narwhal horn,  HP GB0507PGV1-A CPU Fan

and by the 1750s buy the first guidebooks to Windsor, produced by George Bickham in 1753 and Joseph Pote in 1755.[161] [nb 9] As the condition of the State Apartments continued to deteriorate, even the general public were able to regularly visit the property.[163]

George III reversed this trend when he came to the throne in 1760.[159] IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan George disliked Hampton Court, and was attracted by the park at Windsor Castle.[159] George wanted to move into the Ranger's House by the castle, but his brother, Henry was already living in it and refused to move out.[164] Instead, George had to move into the Upper Lodge, later called the Queen's Lodge, HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan and started the long process of renovating the castle and the surrounding parks.[164] Initially the atmosphere at the castle remained very informal, with local children playing games inside the Upper and Lower Wards, and the royal family frequently seen as they walked around the grounds.[163] HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan

 As time went by, however, access for visitors became more limited.[157]

George's architectural taste shifted over the years.[165] As a young man, he favoured Classical, in particular Palladian styles, but the king came to favour a more Gothic style, both as a consequence of the Palladian style becoming overused and poorly implemented, HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan and because the Gothic form had come to be seen as a more honest, national style of English design in the light of the French revolution.[166] Working with the architect James Wyatt, George attempted to "transform the exterior of the buildings in the Upper Ward into a Gothic palace, while retaining the character of the Hugh May state rooms".[HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan The outside of the building was restyled with Gothic features, including new battlements and turrets.[167] Inside, conservation work was undertaken, and several new rooms constructed, including a new Gothic staircase to replace May's 17th-century version, complete with the Grand Vestibule ceiling above it.[ HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan New paintings were purchased for the castle, and collections from other royal palaces moved there by the king.The cost of the work came to over £150,000 (£100 million in 2008 terms).The king undertook extensive work in the castle's Great Park as well, laying out the new Norfolk and Flemish farms, HP 538340-001 CPU Fan

creating two dairies and restoring the Virginia Water lake, grotto and follies.[172]

At the end of this period Windsor Castle became a place of royal confinement. In 1788 the king first became ill during a dinner at Windsor Castle; diagnosed as suffering from madness, he was removed for a period to Kew, where he temporarily recovered.[173HP 535766-001 CPU Fan

] After relapses in 1801 and 1804, his condition became enduring from 1810 onwards and he was confined in the State Apartments of Windsor Castle, with building work on the castle ceasing the following year.George IV came to the throne in 1820 intending to create a set of royal palaces that reflected his wealth and influence as the ruler of an increasingly powerful Britain. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan

 George's previous houses, Carlton House and the Brighton Pavilion were too small for grand court events, even after expensive extensions.[175] George expanded the Royal Lodge in the castle park whilst he was Prince Regent, and then began a programme of work to modernise the castle itself once he became king.[175] HP 535441-001 CPU Fan George persuaded Parliament to vote him £300,000 for restoration (£245 million in 2008 terms).Under the guidance of George's advisor, Charles Long, the architect Jeffry Wyattville was selected, and work commenced in 1824.Wyattville's own preference ran to Gothic architecture, but George, HP 535439-001 CPU Fan who had led the reintroduction of the French Rococo style to England at Carlton House, preferred a blend of periods and styles, and applied this taste to Windsor.[177] The terraces were closed off to visitors for greater privacy and the exterior of the Upper Ward was completely remodelled into its current appearance.[178] HP 535438-001 CPU Fan The Round Tower was raised in height to create a more dramatic appearance; many of the rooms in the State Apartments were rebuilt or remodelled; numerous new towers were created, much higher than the older versions.[179] The south range of the ward was rebuilt to provide private accommodation for the king, away from the state rooms.[ HP 533736-001 CPU Fan The statue ofCharles II was moved from the centre of the Upper Ward to the base of the motte.[180] Sir Walter Scott captured contemporary views when he noted that the work showed "a great deal of taste and feeling for the Gothic architecture"; many modern commentators, including Prince Charles, IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan have criticised Wyattville's work as representing an act of vandalism of May's earlier designs.[181] The work was unfinished at the time of George IV's death in 1830, but was broadly completed by Wyattville's death in 1840. The total expenditure on the castle had soared to the colossal sum of over one million pounds (£817 million in 2008 terms) by the end of the project. ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan Queen Victoria and Prince Albert made Windsor Castle their principal royal residence, despite Victoria complaining early in her reign that the castle was "dull and tiresome" and "prison-like", and preferring Osborne and Balmoral as holiday residences.[182] ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan The growth of the British Empire and Victoria's close dynastic ties to Europe made Windsor the hub for many diplomatic and state visits, assisted by the new railways and steamships of the period.[183] Indeed, it has been argued that Windsor reached its social peak during the Victorian era, DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan seeing the introduction of invitations to numerous prominent figures to "dine and sleep" at the castle.[184] Victoria took a close interest in the details of how Windsor Castle was run, including the minutiae of the social events.[185] Few visitors found these occasions comfortable, both due to the design of the castle and the excessive royal formality.[186] HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan Prince Albert died in the Blue Room at Windsor Castle in 1861 and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum built at nearbyFrogmore, within the Home Park.[187] The prince's rooms were maintained exactly as they had been at the moment of his death and Victoria kept the castle in a state of mourning for many years, HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan becoming known as the "Widow of Windsor", a phrase popularised in the famous poem by Rudyard Kipling.[188] The Queen shunned the use of Buckingham Palace after Albert's death and instead used Windsor Castle as her residence when conducting official business near London.[189] HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan

 Towards the end of her reign plays, operas and other entertainments slowly began to be held at the castle again, accommodating both the Queen's desire for entertainment and her reluctance to be seen in public.[190]

Several minor alterations were made to the Upper Ward under Victoria. APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan Anthony Salvin rebuilt Wyattville's grand staircase, withEdward Blore constructing a new private chapel within the State Apartments.[191] Salvin also rebuilt the State Dining Room following a serious fire in 1853.[192] Ludwig Gruner assisted in the design of the Queen's Private Audience Chamber in the south range.[193] IBM 42W2403 CPU Fan Blore and Salvin also did extensive work in the Lower Ward, under the direction of Prince Albert, including the Hundred Steps leading down into Windsor town, rebuilding the Garter, Curfew and Salisbury towers, the houses of the Military Knights and creating a new Guardhouse.[194] ACER Aspire 9304WSMi CPU Fan

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