Tuesday, October 29, 2013
Economy of Brazil
http://www.all-laptopfan.com/,http://www.all-keyboard.com/ Brazil has the sixth largest economy by nominal GDP in the world, and seventh largest by purchasing power parity. The Brazilian economy is characterized by moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Brazil’s economy is the largest of the Latin American nations and the second largest in the western hemisphere. ACER Aspire 4743 CPU Fan Brazil is one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5 percent. In future decades, Brazil is expected to become one of the five largest economies in the world. According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil was the top country in upward evolution of competitiveness in 2009, gaining eight positions among other countries, overcoming Russia for the first time, and partially closing the competitiveness gap with India and China among the BRIC economies. HP Pavilion dv6-2170us CPU Fan Important steps taken since the 1990s toward fiscal sustainability, as well as measures taken to liberalize and open the economy, have significantly boosted the country’s competitiveness fundamentals, providing a better environment for private-sector development. In 2011 Forbes ranked Brazil as having the 8th largest number of billionaires in the world, a number much larger than what is found in other Latin American countries, and even ahead of Japan. Toshiba Satellite L675-S7018 CPU Fan Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur, Unasul, G8+5, G20, WTO, and the Cairns Group. When the Portuguese explorers arrived in the 15th century, the native tribes of current-day Brazil, totaling about 2.5 million people, had lived virtually unchanged since the Stone Age. ASUS F80Q CPU Fan From Portugal's colonization of Brazil(1500-1822) until the late 1930s, the market elements of the Brazilian economy relied on the production of primary products for exports. Within the Portuguese Empire, Brazil was a colony subjected to an imperial mercantilepolicy, which had three main large-scale economic production cycles - sugar, gold and, from the early 19th century on, coffee. ACER TravelMate 4200 CPU Fan The economy of Brazil was heavily dependent on African enslaved labour until the late 19th century (about 3 million imported African enslaved individuals in total). In that period Brazil was also the colony with the largest amount of European settlers (most of them being ethnic Portuguese, but also Dutch (see Dutch Brazil) and some Azoreans, Madeirans, HP 434678-001 CPU Fan Spaniards, English, French, Germans, Flemish, Danish, Scottish refugees and sephardic Jews). Since then, Brazil experienced a period of strong economic and demographic growth accompanied by mass immigration from Europe (mainly from Portugal, Italy, the Azores, Spain, Germany, Poland, Ukraine,Switzerland, Madeira, Austria and Russia. But also from the Netherlands, France, HP G70-120EA CPU Fan Finland, Iceland and theScandinavian countries, Lithuania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Greece, Latvia, England, Ireland, Scotland,Croatia, Czech Republic, Malta, Macedonia and Luxembourg), the Middle East (mainly from Lebanon, Syria andArmenia), Japan, smaller amounts from the United States and some Afrikaners from South Africa) until the 1930s. Toshiba Satellite A300-034 CPU Fan In the New World, the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Australia, Uruguay, New Zealand, Chile, Mexico, Cuba, Venezuela, Paraguay, Puerto Rico and Peru (in descending order) were the countries that received most immigrants. In Brazil's case, statistics show that 4.5 million people emigrated to the country between 1882 and 1934. HP 606609-001 CPU Fan Currently, with a population of over 190 million and abundant natural resources, Brazil is one of the ten largest markets in the world, producing tens of millions of tons of steel, 26 million tons of cement, 3.5 million television sets, and 3 million refrigerators. In addition, about 70 million cubic meters of petroleum were being processed annually into fuels, lubricants, propane gas, and a wide range of hundred petrochemicals. Compaq Presario CQ60-301sl CPU Fan Furthermore, Brazil has at least 161,500 kilometers of paved roads and more than 93 Gigawatts of installed electric power capacity. Its real per capita GDP has surpassed US$ 10,500 in 2008, due to the strong and continued appreciation of the realfor the first time this decade. Its industrial sector accounts for three fifths of the Latin American economy's industrial production. TOSHIBA Satellite L300 CPU Fan The country’s scientific and technological development is argued to be attractive toforeign direct investment, which has averaged US$ 30 billion per year the last years, compared to only US$ 2 billion per year last decade, thus showing a remarkable growth. The agricultural sector, locally called theagronegócio (agrobusiness), has also been remarkably dynamic: ASUS Eee PC 701 CPU Fan for two decades this sector has kept Brazil amongst the most highly productive countries in areas related to the rural sector. The agricultural sector and the mining sector also supported trade surpluses which allowed for massive currency gains (rebound) and external debt paydown. Due to downturn in Western economies Brazil found itself in 2010 trying to halt the appreciation of the real. Compaq Presario CQ60-305sa CPU Fan Data from the Asian Development Bank and the Tax Justice Network show the untaxed "shadow" economy of GDP for Brazil is 39%. The economic history of Brazil covers various economic events and traces the changes in the Brazilian economy over the course of the history of Brazil. HP 637607-001 CPU Fan Portugal, which first colonized the area in the 16th century, enforced a colonial pact with Brazil, an imperial mercantile policy, which drove development for the subsequent three centuries. Independence was achieved in 1822. Slavery was fully abolished in 1889. Important structural transformations began in the 1930s, when important steps were taken to change Brazil into a modern, industrialized economy. HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan A socioeconomic transformation took place rapidly after World War II. In the 1940s, only 31.3% of Brazil's 41.2 million inhabitants resided in towns and cities; by 1991, of the country's 146.9 million inhabitants 75.5% lived in cities, and Brazil had two of the world's largest metropolitan centers – São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The share of the primary sector in the gross national product declined from 28% in 1947 to 11% in 1992. HP Pavilion dv5-1210ez CPU Fan In the same 1947-92 period, the contribution of industry to GNP increased from less than 20% to 39%. The industrial sector produces a wide range of products for the domestic market and for export, including consumer goods, intermediate goods, and capital goods. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the Brazilian economy suffered from rampant inflation that subdued economic growth. Compaq Presario CQ50-211nr CPU Fan After several failed economic initiativescreated by the government, in 1994 the Plano Real was introduced. This plan brought stability and enabled Brazil to sustain economic growth over that of the global economy through the coming decade. Despite this rapid development the country still suffers from high levels of corruption, violent crime, functional illiteracy and poverty. HP G56-114SA CPU Fan Portugal's exploitation of Brazil stemmed from the European commercial expansion of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Blocked from the lucrative hinterland trade with the Far East, which was dominated by Italian cities, Portugal began in the early fifteenth century to search for other routes to the sources of goods valued in European markets. SONY Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N CPU Fan Portugal discovered the maritime passage to the East Indies around the southern tip of Africa and established a network of trade outposts throughout Africa and Asia. After the discovery of America, it competed with Spain in occupying the New World. Initially, the Portuguese did not find mineral riches in their American colony, but they never lost the hope of someday finding such riches there. HP Pavilion dv7-4060eo CPU Fan Meanwhile, in order to settle and defend the colony from European intruders, the Portuguese established a pioneer colonial enterprise: the production of sugar in the Northeast. Beginning in about 1531, cattle began arriving in Brazil, and a cattle industry developed rapidly in response to the needs of the sugar industry for transportation and food for workers. Toshiba Satellite M70-252 CPU Fan The discovery of precious metals in the colony's Center-South (Centro-Sul), a relatively undefined region encompassing the present-day Southeast (Sudeste) and South (Sul) regions, came only in the eighteenth century. By the mid-sixteenth century, Portugal had succeeded in establishing a sugar economy in parts of the colony's northeastern coast. Toshiba Satellite A100-455 CPU Fan Sugar production, the first large-scale colonial agricultural enterprise, was made possible by a series of favorable conditions. Portugal had the agricultural and manufacturing know-how from its Atlantic islands and manufactured its own equipment for extracting sugar from sugarcane. Furthermore, being involved in the African slave trade, it had access to the necessary manpower. HP Pavilion dv5-2112br CPU Fan Finally, Portugal relied on the commercial skills of the Dutch and financing from Holland to enable a rapid penetration of sugar in Europe's markets. Until the early seventeenth century, the Portuguese and the Dutch held a virtual monopoly on sugar exports to Europe. However, between 1580 and 1640 Portugal was incorporated into Spain, a country at war with Holland. DELL BFB0505HA CPU Fan The Dutch occupied Brazil's sugar area in the Northeast from 1630 to 1654, establishing direct control of the world's sugar supply. When the Dutch were driven out in 1654, they had acquired the technical and organizational know-how for sugar production. Their involvement in the expansion of sugar in the Caribbean contributed to the downfall of the Portuguese monopoly. HP Pavilion dv6-3299en CPU Fan The Caribbean sugar boom brought about a steady decline in world sugar prices. Unable to compete, Brazilian sugar exports, which had peaked by the mid-seventeenth century, declined sharply. Between the fourth quarter of the seventeenth century and the early eighteenth century, Portugal had difficulties in maintaining its American colony. The downfall of sugar revealed a fragile colonial economy, which had no commodity to replace sugar. SONY Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T CPU Fan Paradoxically, however, the period of stagnation induced the settlement of substantial portions of the colony's territory. With the decline of sugar, the cattle sector, which had evolved to supply the sugar economy with animals for transport, meat, and hides, assimilated part of the resources made idle, becoming a subsistence economy. Because of extensive cattle production methods, large areas in the colony's interior were settled. Toshiba Satellite L550-20W CPU Fan Realizing that it could maintain Brazil only if precious minerals were discovered, Portugal increased its exploratory efforts in the late seventeenth century. As a result, early in the eighteenth century gold and other precious minerals were found. The largest concentration of this gold was in the Southeastern Highlands, mainly in what is now Minas Gerais State. HP Pavilion dv7-4183sf CPU Fan Despite Brazil's economic troubles, the early nineteenth century was a period of change. First, the Napoleonic Wars forced the Portuguese royal family to flee to Portugal's colony of Brazil in 1808, and for a short period the colony became the seat of the Portuguese empire. Moreover, in 1808 Britain persuaded Portugal to open the colony to trade with the rest of the world, and Portugal rescinded its prohibition against manufacturing (Strangford Treaty). HP Pavilion dv7-3190ev CPU Fan Indeed, during this period, the Portuguese royal family and the noblemen who had established themselves in the territory, started many reforms which developed the educational, cultural and economical sectors of Brazil. By 1814, the Portuguese and their allies had defeated Napoleon's armies in the Peninsular War, after had been victorious in the war against the French invasion of Portugal by 1811. HP KSB06105HA CPU Fan However, the King of Portugal remained in Brazil until the Liberal Revolution of 1820, which started in Porto, demanded his return to Lisbon in 1821, but his son Pedro remained in Rio de Janeiro as regent and governor of the newly created Kingdom of Brazil, a Portuguese possession within the new United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822). These events paved the way for Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Brazil's early years as an independent nation were extremely difficult. Exports declined, and the domestic economy was depressed. The only segment that expanded was the subsistence economy. Resources (land, slaves, and transport animals) made idle by the decline of the export economy were absorbed into mostly self-consumption activities. In 1870 Brazil’s trade with America was valued at about 31 million dollars while the combined trade of all the South American countries was valued at about 29 million. HP Pavilion dv7-3190ei CPU Fan Brazil was a significant producer of coffee and because of this the United States imported about four times as much as it exported to Brazil. In 1885 Brazil was producing more than one half of the world’s supply of coffee. Brazil’s trade in 1890 was more than 71 million while that of Argentina and Chile was $14 million and $6 million respectively. Soon after 1896, the production of coffee started to surpass consumption and prices began to fall in Brazil. HP G62-244CA CPU Fan Brazil then stored their coffee instead of selling all of it, and when there was bad season of coffee production they would use what they had previously stored from the year before.