Sunday, October 27, 2013

Many Palauans also have some Asian ancestry

Many Palauans also have some Asian ancestry, from intermarriage between settlers and Palauans beginning in the 19th and 20th centuries. Palauans with mixed Japanese ancestry accounted for the largest group. Some also had some Chineseor Korean ancestry. Filipinos form the second largest ethnic group. IBM MCF-217PAM05 CPU Fan HP Pavilion dv6-3385la CPU Fan The official languages of Palau are Palauan and English, except for two states (Sonsorol and Hatohobei) where the local language, along with Palauan, is official. Japanese is spoken widely amongst older Palauans and is an official language in the State of Angaur.[53][54] Tagalog is not official in Palau, but is the fourth-largest spoken language. HP Pavilion tx2510us  CPU  Fan The German and Japanese occupations of Palau both subsidized missionaries to follow the Spanish. Three quarters of the population are Christians (mainly Roman Catholics and Protestants), while Modekngei (a combination of Christianity, traditional Palauan religion and fortune telling) and the ancient Palauan religion are commonly observed. HP G62-b55EV CPU Fan Japanese rule brought Mahayana Buddhism and Shinto to Palau, which were the majority religions among Japanese settlers. However, following Japan's World War II defeat, the remaining Japanese largely converted to Christianity, while the remainder continued to observe Buddhism, but stopped practicing Shinto rites.[55] HP Pavilion dv6-2145sf CPU Fan According to the 2005 census[56] 49.4% of the population is Roman Catholic, 21.3% Protestant, 8.7% Modekngei and 5.3% Seventh-day Adventist. Only 1% of the population was estimated to be Buddhist in 2010, with the Chinese community also practicing Chinese folk religion as well.[57] The small Jewish community in 2009 sent 3 members to the 18th Maccabiah Games. HP Pavilion dv7-1120ew CPU Fan A branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints holds services in Kororand operates a Family History Center there. There are also approximately 400 Bengali Muslims in Palau. Palauan society, much like the island's language, has always been unique to the islands. Palauan society follows a very strict matrilineal system. HP 538340-001 CPU Fan Matrilineal practices are seen in nearly every aspect of Palauan traditions, especially in funeral, marriage, inheritance and the passing of traditional titles. The cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans and the locals are joined by foreign tourists. HP 535766-001 CPU Fan Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza and pasta. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken. The rest of Micronesia is similar with much less tourism, leading to fewer restaurants. HP 535442-001 CPU Fan Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on such islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree; the drink made from the roots of the kava; and the chewing of betel nuts. The Filipino presence in the islands supports the presence of that cuisine. The Palauan people respect their traditions. HP 535441-001 CPU Fan The traditional government system still influences the nation's affairs, leading the federal government to repeatedly attempt to limit its power. Many of these attempts took the form of amendments to the constitution that were supported by the corporate sector to protect what they deemed should be free economic zones. HP 535439-001 CPU Fan One such example occurred in early 2010, where the Idid clan, the ruling clan of the Southern Federation, under the leadership of Bilung, the Southern Federation's queen, raised a civil suit against the Koror State Public Lands Authority (KSPLA). The Idid clan laid claim over Malakal Island, a major economic zone and Palau's most important port, citing documents from the German Era. HP 535438-001 CPU Fan The verdict held that the Island belonged to the KSPLA. The present day "traditional" government of Palau is a continuation of its ancestor, composed of practices that span thousands of years. Traditionally, Palau was organized hierarchically. The lowest level is the village or hamlet, then the chiefdom (now politically referred to as a state) and finally alliances of chiefdoms. HP 533736-001 CPU Fan In ancient times, numerous federations divided power, but upon the 17th century introduction of firearms by the British, an imbalance of power occurred. Palau became divided into northern and southern federations. The Northern Federation is headed by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling clan Uudes of Melekeok state, the Reklai and Ebilreklai. IBM 13R2760 CPU Fan They are commonly referred to as the king and queen of the Northern Federation. This northern federation comprises the state of Kayangel, Ngerchelong, Ngardmau, Ngiwal, Ngaraard, Ngatpang, Ngeremlengui, Melekok, Aimeliik, Ngchesar and Airai. The Southern Federation is likewise represented by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling Idid of Koror state. ACER LU.S040A.067 CPU Fan The Southern Federation comprises the states of Koror, Peleliu and Angaur. However, fewer and fewer Palauans have knowledge of the concept of federations, and the term is slowly dying out. Federations were established as a way of safeguarding states and hamlets who shared economic, ACER LU.S050B.078 CPU Fan social, and political interests, but with the advent a federal government, safeguards are less meaningful. It is interesting to note however, that in international relations, the king of Palau is synonymous with the Ibedul of Koror. This is because Koror is the industrial capital of the nation, elevating his position over the Reklai of Melekeok. DELL Studio 1535 CPU Fan It is a misconception that the king and queen of Palau, or any chief and his female counterpart for that matter are married. Traditional leaders and their female counterparts have always been related and unmarried (marrying relatives was a traditional taboo). Usually, a chief and his female counterpart are brother and sister, or close cousins, and have their own spouses. HP Pavilion dv6736nr CPU Fan Palauan cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans. Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza, pasta, etc. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken. HP Envy 15-1050ca CPU Fan The rest of Micronesia has a similar cuisine except that the rest of Micronesia has less tourism and fewer restaurants. Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on less visited islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree, the drink made from the roots of the Kava Plant, and the chewing of betel nuts. HP Pavilion dv7-6100et CPU Fan Palau International Airport provides scheduled direct flights to Guam, Manila, Seoul and Taipei and since December 2010, Tokyo-Narita. In addition, the states of Angaur and Peleliu have regular service to international destinations. Freight, military and cruise ships often call at Malakal Harbor, on Malakal Island outside Koror. The country has no railways, and of the 61 km or 38 mi of highways, only 36 km or 22 mi are paved. Driving is on the right and the speed limit is 40 km/h (25 mph). APPLE 661-4951 CPU Fan Taxis are available in Koror. They are not metered and fares are negotiable. Only Koror offers bus service. Transportation between islands mostly relies on private boats and domestic air services. Palau was initially settled over 3,000 years ago, and perhaps 4,500 years ago, probably by migrants from the Philippines. British traders became prominent visitors in the 18th century, IBM 42W2403 CPU Fan followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century. Following its defeat in the Spanish-American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the rest of the Caroline Islands to Germany in 1899. Control passed to Japan in 1914 and during World War II the islands were taken by the United States in 1944, ACER Aspire 9304WSMi CPU Fan with the costly Battle of Peleliu between September 15 and November 25 with more than 2,000 Americans and 10,000 Japanese killed. The islands passed formally to the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. HP 610773-001 CPU Fan Four of the Trust Territory districts formed a single federated Micronesian state in 1979, but the districts of Palau and the Marshall Islands declined to participate. Palau, the westernmost cluster of the Caroline Islands, instead opted for independent status in 1978, approved a new constitution and became the Republic of Palau in 1981, IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan and signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States in 1982. After eight referendums and an amendment to the Palauan constitution, the Compact was ratified in 1993 and went into effect on October 1, 1994, marking Palau independent de jure (after Palau was independent de factosince May 25, 1994, when the trusteeship cancelled). IBM ThinkPad T61 8898 CPU Fan Legislation making Palau an "offshore" financial center was passed by the Senate in 1998. In 2001, Palau passed its first bank regulation and anti-money laundering laws. The Palauan language is an outlier among the Austronesian languages, and so does not shed much light on the origins of the modern population. IBM ThinkPad R50p 2889 CPU Fan However, there are some indications that it may derive from the Sunda Islands (modern Indonesia). For thousands of years, Palauans have had a well established matrilineal society, believed to have descended from Javanese precedents.Traditionally land, money, and titles passed through the female line. IBM ThinkPad R50p 1830 CPU Fan Clan lands continue to be passed through titled women and first daughters[2] but there is also a modern patrilineal sentiment introduced by imperial Japan. The Japanese government attempted to confiscate and redistribute tribal land into personal ownership during World War II, and there has been little attempt to restore the old order. IBM ThinkPad R50 1829 CPU Fan Legal entanglements continue amongst the various clans. Historians take note of the early navigational routes of European explorers in the Pacific. There is disagreement as to whether Spaniard Ruy L√≥pez de Villalobos, who landed in several Caroline Islands, spotted the Palau archipelago in 1543. IBM ThinkPad R50P CPU Fan IBM Thinkpad W500 CPU Fan No conclusive evidence exists, but some believe he could have seen the tip of a southernmost island in the group.Palau had limited relations before the 18th century, mainly with Yap and Java. Had it not been for shipwrecked islanders who took refuge in the Philippines, Europeans likely would not have found Palau until much later. Compaq Presario CQ41-206TU CPU Fan EnglishmanHenry Wilson, captain of the East India Company's packet Antelope, was shipwrecked off the island of Ulong in 1783. The King of Palau allowed Captain Wilson to take his son, Prince Lee Boo, to England, where he arrived in 1784. However, the prince died soon after of smallpox. The East India Company erected a monument over his grave in St Mary's Churchyard, Rotherhithe.  SONY Vaio VPC-EB4X1E/BQ CPU Fan It was Wilson who gave the archipelago the name "Pelew Islands". In the late 19th century, possession of the islands was claimed by Britain, Spain, and Imperial Germany. In 1885, the matter was brought to Pope Leo XIII for a decision. The Pope recognized the Spanish claim, but granted economic concessions to Britain and Germany. HP G62-374CA CPU Fan Palau then became part of the Spanish East Indies, along with the Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands. and the rest of theCaroline Islands. They were all administered from the Philippines. Under the Spanish administration, Palau underwent its first forms of extreme foreign influence. Catholicism is the most highlighted amongst all these forms, HP Pavilion dv5-1203eg CPU Fan having been introduced to the native population and accepted rather easily, despite the fact that Palauans were ardent followers of their traditional faith. Elements from the Spanish language were also integrated into the Palauan lexicon; the Palauan word for hammer, "martiliong", is derived from the Spanish "martillo". HP Pavilion dv7-3131ez CPU Fan Even with these forms of influence, Palau has predominantly very little influence from the Spanish occupation compared to other islands within the region, such as Guam. This is partly due to the reason that, aside from Spanish Jesuit missionaries, Spain had very little economic and colonization activity on the islands. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan After being defeated in 1898 in the Spanish-American War and losing possession of the Philippine Islands, Spain sold the Palau archipelago to Imperial Germany in the 1899 German-Spanish Treaty. Palau was administered from German New Guinea, and a period of economic development began. SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan German engineers began exploiting the islands' deposits of bauxite and phosphate, and a rich harvest in copra was made. Although the German occupation had lasted a mere 15 years, major changes in Palauan society had occurred. Many traditional practices among the natives had been outlawed by German administrators, specifically the acts of tattooing and mengol. HP Pavilion dv6-3043tx CPU Fan Tattooing had been a practice reserved for members of higher castes, and the Spanish had tried on numerous occasions to banish the practice. Unlike the Spanish, the Germans had a major foothold on the local traditional government, given the economic benefits many clan heads were gaining. The art of tattooing was banished completely by the late 19th century, and the last tattooed native died in the early 1960s. HP Pavilion dv6-3163eo CPU Fan The practice of mengol is one very unique to the islands, and one that was greatly discouraged by all foreign administrations. In mengol young unmarried women from one village are sent to male clubhouses in another or other villages, whether enemy or ally, as a sign of peace or friendship. HP Pavilion dv7-1003eo CPU Fan The actions of these mengol ranged from simple companionship of the men of the clubhouse, much like the Japanese geisha, to sexual favors. However, the mengol were not prostitutes, as even the unmarried daughters of clan heads could be sent off as mengol. Under the terms of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, the Empire of Japan declared war on the German Empire in 1914 and invaded German overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean. Dell Vostro 3450 CPU Fan Palau was seized by ships of the Japanese navy. After the war, the League of Nations awarded Palau to Japan as a Class C League of Nations Mandate.[5] Japan incorporated the islands as an integral part of its empire, establishing the Nanyo-cho government with Koror Island as the capital.[6]  HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan From 1914 to 1922, the Japanese Imperial Navy had been in control. Civilian control was introduced from 1922, and Palau was one of six administrative districts within the Mandate. Japan mounted an aggressiveeconomic development program and promoted large scale immigration by Japanese, Okinawans and Koreans. SONY Vaio VGN-CR23/N CPU Fan Native Palauans soon became a small minority in their own homeland. The Japanese continued the German mining activities, and also established bonito (skipjack tuna) canning and copra processing plants in Palau. Japanese economic activity was so extreme during their occupation, that the industrial capital, HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan Koror, was once termed by Japanese officials and tourists as "chiisai Tokyo", meaning "little Tokyo." The Japanese had perhaps the most profound impact on Palauan society. Under the Japanese government, Palau underwent extreme social, economic, and political changes. Unlike other parts of the Japanese Empire, HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan the local Japanese administration recognized the benefits of utilizing the traditional government to their advantage, given the extreme adherence the natives followed towards their clans and traditions. Under the Japanese government, heads of the Palauan traditional government were replaced by more "Japanese" natives, as a way of securing the obedience of the Palauan people. Compaq Presario CQ60-417DX CPU Fan This proved rather successful, as more and more Palauans so the benefits the Japanese government was providing. Under the Japanese administration, all Palauan children were required to attend school, and by the 1930s, nearly all Palauan children were literate in Japanese, with the exception of children in outlier islands, specifically the Southwest Islands. HP Pavilion dv7-3080eg CPU Fan The Japanese presence made Palau a major target for the Allied forces in World War II. Peleliu was a scene of intense fighting between American and Japanese forces in 1944. The battle ended in an Allied victory, but at a high cost for both sides. All surviving Japanese were repatriated after the end of the war. HP Pavilion dv9233ca CPU Fan There are still about 100 American servicemen listed as Missing In Action in Palau. Starting in 1993, a small group of American volunteers called The BentProp Project has searched the waters and jungles of Palau for information that could lead to the identification and recovery of these remains. In 1947, the United Nations decided the United States would administer Palau as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. HP Envy 14-1195la CPU Fan In 1979, Palauans voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and the Marianas (except Guam) because of language and cultural differences. A long period of transition occurred between 1979 and 1994, specifically in the capital, Koror, on the topic of relations with the United States. HP Pavilion dv6-2115sf CPU Fan During this period, Palau underwent its first form of civil unrest since the last inter-village war in 1879. This civil unrest had escalated into extreme violence, resulting in numerous bombings of homes of powerful politicians, intellectuals, influential locals, and the death of two presidents. At one point, the civil struggle had resulted to the point of anarchy, HP Pavilion dv7-3067nr CPU Fan and the King of the Southern Federation of Palau, the Ibedul, assumed responsibility over governing the Palauan islands which thereby established a temporary state of absolute monarchy. After a long period of transition, including the violent deaths of two presidents (Haruo Remeliik in 1985 and Lazarus Salii in 1988), HP Pavilion dv7-1129wm CPU Fan Palau voted in 1994 to freely associate with the United States while retaining independence under the Compact of Free Association.A Compact of Free Association (COFA) defines the relationship that each of three sovereign states—the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau—have entered into as associated states with the United States. HP Pavilion G72-b15EV CPU Fan Now sovereign nations, the three freely associated states were formerly part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations trusteeship administered by the United States Navy from 1947 to 1951 and by the United States Department of the Interior from 1951 to 1986 (to 1994 for Palau). HP Pavilion dv6-2140se CPU Fan Under the COFA relationship, the United States provides guaranteed financial assistance over a 15-year period administered through the Office of Insular Affairs in exchange for full international defense authority and responsibilities. The freely associated states actively participate in all Office of Insular Affairs technical assistance activities. SONY Vaio VGN-SZ6RXN/C CPU Fan The U.S. treats these nations uniquely by giving them access to many U.S. domestic programs, including disaster response and recovery and hazard mitigation programs under the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and services provided by the National Weather Service, the United States Postal Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, HP Pavilion dv7-2130ev CPU Fan the Federal Communications Commission, and U.S. representation to the International Frequency Registration Board of the International Telecommunication Union.[1] The Compact area, while outside the customs area of the United States, is mainly importable duty-free.[2] ACER eMachines G520 CPU Fan Most citizens of the associated states may live and work in the United States, and most U.S. citizens and their spouses may live and work in the associated states.[3][4] In 1996, the U.S. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act included removing Medicaid benefits for resident aliens from these states. (Most other resident aliens have a five-year waiting period.) HP Pavilion dv5-2132dx CPU Fan The COFA allows the United States to operate armed forces in Compact areas, to demand land for operating bases (subject to negotiation), and excludes the militaries of other nations without U.S. permission. The U.S. in turn becomes responsible for protecting its affiliate nations and responsible for administering all international defense treaties and affairs, Compaq Presario CQ60-307ea CPU Fan though it may not declare war on their behalf. It is not allowed to use nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons in Palau territory. In the territories of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia it is not allowed to store such weapons except in times of national emergency, state of war, HP Pavilion dv6-2010sa CPU Fan or when necessary to defend against an actual or impending attack on the U.S., the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia.[6] Commentators have noted that the ongoing presence and recruitment efforts of the U.S. military in the Compact areas may have resulted in the high level of military enlistment by Compact citizens. Toshiba Satellite A40-702 CPU Fan For example, in 2008, the Federated States of Micronesia had a higher per-capita enlistment rate than any U.S. state, and had more than five times the national per-capita average of casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. In 2003, the Compacts with the RMI and FSM were renewed for 20 years. SONY Vaio VGN-AR21B CPU Fan

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