Friday, August 2, 2013

Apartheid in South Africa

Apartheid (Afrikaans pronunciation: [ɐˈpɑːrtɦɛit]; from Afrikaans[1] "the state of being apart") was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. Sony  VAIO VGN-FZ31M Battery

Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organisations and was practised also in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966 via United Nations Resolution 2145[2]), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990.[3] Sony Vaio VGN-FZ19VN Battery

Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under Dutch[4] and British rule. However, apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948. New legislation classified inhabitants into fourracial groups ("native", "white", "coloured", and "Asian"),[5] and residential areas were segregated, sometimes by means of forced removals. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery

Non-white political representation was completely abolished in 1970, and starting in that year black people were deprived of their citizenship, legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self-governinghomelands called bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ39VN Battery

The government segregated education, medical care, beaches, and other public services, and provided black people with services inferior to those of white people.[6]

Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as a long arms and trade embargo against South Africa.[7] Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ZR Battery

Since the 1950s, a series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders. As unrest spread and became more effective and militarised, state organisations responded with repression and violence. This, along with the sanctions placed on South Africa by the West made it increasingly difficult for the government to maintain the regime. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31SR Battery

Reforms to apartheid in the 1980s failed to quell the mounting opposition, and in 1990 President Frederik Willem de Klerkbegan negotiations to end apartheid,[8] culminating in multi-racial democratic elections in 1994, which were won by theAfrican National Congress under Nelson Mandela. Sony Vaio VGN-FZ31ER Battery

The vestiges of apartheid still shape South African politics and society. Although the official abolishment of Apartheid occurred in 1990 with repeal of the last of the remaining Apartheid laws, the end of Apartheid is widely regarded as arising from the 1994 democratic general elections.

Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation[9] the new British colonial rulers were required to Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

respect the previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law[10] and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy. The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were then launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery

In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. However, in 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden ofSwellendam and Graaff-Reinett (the Dutch colonial governing authority) extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that allKhoikhoi (Hottentots) moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes.[4] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery

 This was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official.[4] Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work.[4] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

 These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans. However, other Africans were still forced to carry passes.

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery

To comply with the Slavery Abolition Act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835 which effectively changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848 which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery

The various South African colonies then passed legislation throughout the rest of the nineteenth century to limit the freedom of unskilled workers, to increase the restrictions on indentured workers and to regulate the relations between the races.

The Franchise and Ballot Act of 1892 instituted limits based on financial means and education to the black franchise,[11] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

 and the Natal Legislative Assembly Bill of 1894 deprived Indians of the right to vote.[12] In 1905 the General Pass Regulations Bill denied blacks the vote altogether, limited them to fixed areas and inaugurated the infamous Pass System.[13] Then followed the Asiatic Registration Act (1906) requiring all Indians to register and carry passes.[14] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery

In 1910 theUnion of South Africa was created as a self-governing dominion that continued the legislative programme: the South Africa Act (1910) that enfranchised whites, giving them complete political control over all other racial groups while removing the right of blacks to sit in parliament,[15] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery

 the Native Land Act (1913) which prevented all blacks, except those in the Cape, from buying land outside "reserves",[15] the Natives in Urban Areas Bill (1918) designed to force blacks into "locations",[16] the Urban Areas Act (1923) which introduced residential segregation and provided cheap labour for industry led by white people, the Colour Bar Act (1926), Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

preventing anyone black from practising skilled trades, the Native Administration Act (1927) that made the British Crown, rather than paramount chiefs, the supreme head over all African affairs,[17] the Native Land and Trust Act (1936) that complemented the 1913 Native Land Act and, in the same year, the Representation of Natives Act, Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery

which removed previous black voters from the Cape voters' roll and allowed them to elect three whites to represent them in Parliament.[18] One of the first pieces of segregating legislation enacted by the Jan Smuts' United Party government was the Asiatic Land Tenure Bill (1946), which banned any further land sales to Indians.[19] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery

The United Party government began to move away from the rigid enforcement of segregationist laws during World War II.[20] Amid fears integration would eventually lead the nation to racial assimilation, the legislature established the Sauer Commission to investigate the effects of the United Party's policies. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery

The commission concluded that integration would bring about a "loss of personality" for all racial groups.

In the run-up to the 1948 elections, the main Afrikaner nationalist party, the Herenigde Nasionale Party (Reunited National Party) under the leadership of Protestant cleric Daniel Francois Malan, campaigned on its policy of apartheid.[21][22] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

The NP narrowly defeated Smuts's United Party and formed a coalition government with another Afrikaner nationalist party, the Afrikaner Party. Malan became the first apartheid prime minister, and the two parties later merged to form the National Party (NP).

National Party leaders argued that South Africa did not comprise a single nation, but was made up of four distinct racial groups: white, black, coloured, and Indian. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

These groups were split further into thirteen nations or racial federations. White people encompassed the English and Afrikaans language groups; the black populace was divided into ten such groups.

The state passed laws which paved the way for "grand apartheid", which was centred on separating races on a large scale, Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

by compelling people to live in separate places defined by race (This strategy was in part adopted from "left-over" British rule that separated different racial groups after they took control of the Boer republics in the Anglo-Boer war. This created the so called black only "townships" or "locations" where blacks were relocated in their own towns). Sony VPCW11S1E/P Battery

In addition, "petty apartheid" laws were passed. The principal apartheid laws were as follows:[23]

The first grand apartheid law was the Population Registration Act of 1950, which formalised racial classification and introduced an identity card for all persons over the age of eighteen, specifying their racial group.[24] Sony VPCW11S1E/T Battery

Official teams or Boards were established to come to an ultimate conclusion on those people whose race was unclear.[25] This caused difficulty, especially for coloured people, separating their families as members were allocated different races.[26]

The second pillar of grand apartheid was the Group Areas Act of 1950.[27] Sony VPCW11S1E/W Battery

Until then, most settlements had people of different races living side by side. This Act put an end to diverse areas and determined where one lived according to race. Each race was allotted its own area, which was used in later years as a basis of forced removal.[28] Sony VPCW12S1E/P Battery

The Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act of 1951 allowed the government to demolish black shackland slums and forced white employers to pay for the construction of housing for those black workers who were permitted to reside in cities otherwise reserved for white people.[29]

The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act of 1949 prohibited marriage between persons of different races, Sony VPCW12S1E/T Battery

and the Immorality Act of 1950 made sexual relations with a person of a different race a criminal offence.

Under the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act of 1953, municipal grounds could be reserved for a particular race, creating, among other things, separate beaches, buses, hospitals, schools and universities. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery

Signboards such as "whites only" applied to public areas, even including park benches.[30]Black people were provided with services greatly inferior to those of whites, and, to a lesser extent, to those of Indian and coloured people.[6]

Further laws had the aim of suppressing resistance, especially armed resistance, to apartheid. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery

TheSuppression of Communism Act of 1950 banned any party subscribing to Communism. The act defined Communism and its aims so sweepingly that anyone who opposed government policy risked being labelled as a Communist. Since the law specifically stated that Communism aimed to disrupt racial harmony, it was frequently used to legally gag opposition to apartheid. Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery

Disorderly gatherings were banned, as were certain organisations that were deemed threatening to the government.

Education was segregated by means of the 1953 Bantu Education Act, which crafted a separate system of education for African students and was designed to prepare black people for lives as a labouring class.[31Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/T Battery

]In 1959 separate universities were created for black, coloured and Indian people. Existing universities were not permitted to enroll new black students. The Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974 required the use ofAfrikaans and English on an equal basis in high schools outside the homelands.[32] Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery

The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 created separate government structures for black and white citizens and was the first piece of legislation established to support the government's plan of separate development in the Bantustans. The Promotion of Black Self-Government Act of 1959 entrenched the National Party's policy of nominally independent "homelands" for black people. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

So-called "self–governing Bantu units" were proposed, which would have devolved administrative powers, with the promise later of autonomy and self-government. It also abolished the seats of white representatives of Africans and removed the few blacks still qualified to vote from the rolls altogether. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S Battery

The Bantu Investment Corporation Act of 1959 set up a mechanism to transfer capital to the homelands in order to create employment there. Legislation of 1967 allowed the government to stop industrial development in "white" cities and redirect such development to the "homelands". The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 marked a new phase in the Bantustan strategy. Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery

It changed the status of black people living in South Africa so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa, but became citizens of one of the ten autonomous territories. The aim was to ensure a demographic majority of white people within South Africa by having all ten Bantustans achieve full independence. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

Interracial contact in sport was frowned upon, but there were no segregatory sports laws.

The government tightened existing pass laws compelling black South Africans to carry identity documents, to prevent the immigration of blacks from other countries into South Africa. To reside in a city, black people had to be in employment there. Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

Until 1956 women were for the most part excluded from these passrequirements, as attempts to introduce pass laws for women were met with fierce resistance.

In 1950, D F Malan announced the NP's intention to create a Coloured Affairs Department.[34] J.G. Strijdom, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery

Malan's successor as Prime Minister, moved to strip voting rights from black and coloured residents of the Cape Province. The previous government had first introduced the Separate Representation of Voters Bill in parliament in 1951; however, a group of four voters, G Harris, WD Franklin, WD Collins and Edgar Deane, challenged its validity in court with support from the United Party.[35] Sony  VGP-BPS13 Battery

The Cape Supreme Court upheld the act, but the Appeal Court reversed on appeal, finding the act invalid because a two-thirds majority in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament was needed in order to change the entrenched clauses of the Constitution.[36] The government then introduced the High Court of Parliament Bill (1952), which gave parliament the power to overrule decisions of the court.[37] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery

 The Cape Supreme Court and the Appeal Court declared this invalid too.[38]

In 1955 the Strijdom government increased the number of judges in the Appeal Court from five to eleven, and appointed pro-Nationalist judges to fill the new places.[39] In the same year they introduced the Senate Act, which increased the senate from 49 seats to 89.[40] Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

Adjustments were made such that the NP controlled 77 of these seats.[41] The parliament met in a joint sitting and passed the Separate Representation of Voters Act in 1956, which transferred coloured voters from the common voters' roll in the Cape to a new coloured voters' roll.[42] Immediately after the vote, the Senate was restored to its original size. Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery

The Senate Act was contested in the Supreme Court, but the recently enlarged Appeal Court, packed with government-supporting judges, rejected the application by the Opposition and upheld the Senate Act, and also the Act to remove coloured voters.[43]

The 1956 law allowed Coloureds to elect four whites to represent them in Parliament, Sony  VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery

but a 1969 law abolished those seats and stripped Coloureds of their right to vote. Since Asians had never been allowed to vote, this resulted in whites being the sole enfranchised group in the country.

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