Saturday, August 10, 2013

It argues that in many ways

It argues that in many ways, the image of Shaka has been "invented" in the modern era according to whatever agenda persons hold. This "imagining of Shaka" it is held, should be balanced by a sober view of the historical record, and allow greater scope for the contributions of indigenous African discourse.[24] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard Military historians of the Zulu War must also be considered for their description of Zulu fighting methods and tactics, including authors like Ian Knight and Robert Edgerton. General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J. D. Omer-Cooper's "The Zulu Aftermath", which advances the traditional Mfecane theory. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard The increased military efficiency led to more and more clans being incorporated into Shaka's Zulu empire, while other tribes moved away to be out of range of Shaka's impis. The ripple effect caused by these mass migrations would become known (though only in the twentieth century) as the Mfecane (annihilation). HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard Some groups which moved off (like the Hlubi and Ngwane to the north of the Zulus) could have been impelled by the Ndwandwe, not the Zulu. Some moved south (like the Chunu and the Thembe), but never suffered much in the way of attack; it was precautionary, and they left many people behind in their traditional homelands.  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard At the time of his death, Shaka ruled over 250,000 people and could muster more than 50,000 warriors. His 10-year-long kingship resulted in a massive number of deaths, mostly due to the disruptions the Zulu caused in neighbouring tribes, although the exact death toll is a matter of scholarly dispute.[25][26] Further unquantifiable deaths occurred during mass tribal migrations to escape his armies. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard The Mfecane produced Mzilikazi of the Khumalo, a general of Shaka's. He fled Shaka's employ, and in turn conquered an empire in Zimbabwe, after clashing with European groups like the Boers. The settling of Mzilikazi's people, the AmaNdebele or Matabele, GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard in the south of Zimbabwe with the concomitant driving of the AmaShona into the north caused a tribal conflict which still resonates today. Other notable figures to arise from the Mfecane include Shoshangane, who expanded from the Zulu area into what is now Mozambique.  HP 646568-001 Laptop Keyboard The theory of the Mfecane holds that the aggressive expansion of Shaka's armies caused a brutal chain reaction across the southern areas of the continent, as dispossessed tribe after tribe turned on their neighbours in a deadly cycle of fight and conquest. This theory must be treated with caution, SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard some scholars hold, as it generally neglects several other factors such as the impact of white encroachment, slave trading and expansion in that area of Southern Africa around the same time. The development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies.[26] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard Other scholars acknowledge distortion of the historical record by apartheid supporters and shady white traders seeking to cover their tracks, but dispute the revisionist approach, noting that stories of cannibalism, raiding, burning of villages, or mass slaughter were not developed out of thin air but based on the clearly documented accounts of hundreds of black victims and refugees.  DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from 1827–36 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.[27] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard William Rubinstein wrote that "Western guilt over colonialism, have also accounted for much of this distortion of what pre-literate societies actually were like, as does the wish to avoid anything which smacks of racism, even when this means distorting the actual and often appalling facts of life in many pre-literate societies".[28] TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard Rubinstein also notes: "One element in Shaka's destruction was to create a vast artificial desert around his domain... 'to make the destruction complete, organized bands of Zulu murderers regularly patrolled the waste, hunting for any stray men and running them down like wild pig'... An area 200 miles to the north of the center of the state, 300 miles to the west, and 500 miles to the south was ravaged and depopulated..."[28] HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard Other writers such as Dan Wylie (2011) express skepticism of the portrayal of Shaka as a pathological monster destroying everything within reach. They note that attempts to distort his life and image have been systematic- beginning with the first white visitors to his kingdom. One (Nathaniel Isaccs) wrote to Fynn: Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard [Fynn] stated that Shaka had killed 'a million people.' You will still find this figure, and higher, repeated in today's literature. However, Fynn had no way of knowing any such thing: it was a thumb-suck based in a particular view of Shaka - Shaka as a kind of genocidal maniac, an unresting killing-machine. But why the inventive lie? .. HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard . Fynn was bidding for a stretch of land, which allegedly had been depopulated by Shaka... (he insinuated), Shaka didn't deserve that land anyway because he was such a brute, while he - Fynn - was a lonely, morally upright pioneer of civilisation.[30] DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard He attacked some enemies, but he also left numerous tribes in place, and maintained a network of dependent states in peaceful tributary relations, or as allied client states. The massive killing sprees alleged are distorted - Shaka was not the only operator in the area. There were other tribes and leaders of the era, each on the move with their own conflicts, that created turmoil, not merely Shaka. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard Others included the Ndwandwe, and the Mabhudu who built a polity that outlasted Shaka's and were: "partly responsible for pushing the Diamini-Swazi Tlokwa and Ngwane groups west across the Lubombo hills on to the highveld... the Ndwandwe would become easily the most aggressive of all groups, certainly surpassong the Zulu."[31] SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard Wylie also notes that the Zulu themselves were born in circumstances of threat even before Shaka was born as the Mthethwa protectors of the small Zulu clan, jockeyed against regional rivals like the Ndwandwe, the Chunu and the Thembu. His war operations did not spring out of a vacuum.[32]  Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard Wylie also argues that the view of Shaka as a monster who started the Mfecane does not hold up under hard analysis, and that regional upheavals and other factors were already in play in the environment when Shaka appeared. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard "In short, the geographic isolationism of the mainstream 'mfecane' model doesn't hold. Secondly, the 'mfecane' cannot be isolated in time. Major changes were happening over a longer period than just on the 1810s... a third reason why the 'mfecane' model doesn't hold is that political developments in response to the violence were not centered on Shaka's Zulu. Around 1750, HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard it is now clear, slaving, trade, violence, the use of defensive hilltop settlement, and more centralised and militarised groupings were developing all much the same time, right across the region."[33] SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat.[12] He was of medium height and his skin tone was dark brown. He was uncircumcised, which bucked a trend[clarification needed] in Zulu culture near that time. HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. He had a big nose, according to Baleka of the Qwabe, as told by her father.[12] He also had two prominent front teeth. Her father also told Baleka that Shaka spoke as though "his tongue were too big for his mouth." Many said that he spoke with a speech impediment. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at. Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead".[12] HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history. The current tendency appears to be to lionise him; popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal. Against this must be balanced the devastation and destruction that he wrought. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard Certain aspects of traditional Zulu culture still revere the dead monarch, as the typical praise song below attests. It should be noted that the praise song is one of the most widely used poetic forms in Africa, applying not only to gods but to men, animals, plants and even towns.[34] Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard Oral sources record that in this period of devastation, a singular Zulu, a man named Gala, eventually stood up to Shaka and objected to these measures, pointing out that Nandi was not the first person to die in Zululand. Taken aback by such candid talk, the Zulu king is supposed to have called off the destructive edicts, SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard rewarding the blunt teller-of-truths with a gift of cattle.[35] The figure of Shaka thus remains an ambiguous one in African oral tradition, defying simplistic depictions of the Zulu king as a heroic, protean nation builder on one hand, or a depraved monster on the other. This ambiguity continues to lend the image of Shaka its continued power and influence, almost two centuries after his death.[24] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard In late March 2008, the FLN sought for the parliament to adopt a law guaranteeing them ‘provisional immunity’ from arrest. This would cover ordinary crimes, but not grave violations of international humanitarian law like war crimes or crimes against humanity .[35] Even though the government has granted this in the past to people, the FLN has been unable to obtain the provisional immunity. Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard On April 17, 2008, the FLN bombarded Bujumbura. The Burundian army fought back and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A new ceasefire was signed on May 26, 2008. In August 2008, President Nkurunziza met with the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa, with the mediation of Charles Nqakula, South Africa’s Minister for Safety and Security. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard This was the first direct meeting since June 2007. Both agree to meet twice a week to establish a commission to resolve any disputes that might arise during the peace negotiations.[36] Refugee camps are now closing down, and 450,000 refugees have returned. The economy of the country is shattered – as of 2011 Burundi has one of the lowest per capita gross incomes in the world. With the return of refugees, amongst others, property conflicts have started. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard Burundi now participates in African Union peackeeping missions, including the mission to Somalia against Al-Shahab militants.[37] Burundi's political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi.[8] On March 13, 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution,[38] which provided for a multi-party political process[39] and reflected multi-party competition. TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.[40] Burundi's legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2004, the Transitional National Assembly consists of 170 members, with the Front for Democracy in Burundi holding 38% of seats, and 10% of the assembly is controlled by UPRONA. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard Fifty-two seats are controlled by other parties. Burundi's constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Hutu, 40% Tutsi, and 30% female members, as well as three Batwa members.[8] Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve for five-year terms.[41] HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard The Transitional Senate has fifty-one members, and three seats are reserved for former presidents. Due to stipulations in Burundi's constitution, 30% of Senate members must be female. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard Members of the Senate are elected by electoral colleges, which consist of members from each of Burundi's provinces and communes.[8] For each of Burundi's seventeen provinces, one Hutu and one Tutsi senator are chosen. One term for the Transitional Senate is five years.[41] Together, Burundi's legislative branch elect the President to a five-year term.[41] Burundi's president appoints officials to his Council of Ministers,  ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard which is also part of the executive branch.[40] The president can also pick fourteen members of the Transitional Senate to serve on the Council of Ministers.[8] Members of the Council of Ministers must be approved by two-thirds of Burundi's legislature. The president also chooses two vice-presidents.[41] As of 2010, the President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza. The First Vice President is Therence Sinunguruza, and the Second Vice President is Gervais Rufyikiri.[42] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard The Court Supreme (Supreme Court) is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunals.[40] TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard Burundi is divided into 17 provinces,[9] 117 communes,[8] and 2,638 collines (hills).[43] Provincial governments are structured upon these boundaries. In 2000, the province encompassing Bujumbura was separated into two provinces, Bujumbura Rural and Bunjumbura Mairie.[6] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the East African Rift. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is 5,600 feet (1,707 m), with lower elevations at the borders. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard The highest peak, Mount Heha at 8,810 feet (2,685 m),[44] lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The source of the Nile River is in Bururi province, and is linked from Lake Victoria to its headwaters via the Ruvyironza River[45][clarification needed] Lake Victoria is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River.[46][47] Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner.[48] HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard 49] Deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 230 square miles (600 km2) remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum.[50] There are two national parks, Kibira National Parkto the northwest (a small region of rain forest, SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Ruvubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations.[51] IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, owing in part to its landlocked geography,[9] poor legal system, lack of economic freedom, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 80% of Burundi's population lives in poverty.[52] Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Burundi, most notably in the 20th century,[10] and according to the World Food Programme, DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard 56.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition.[53] One scientific study of 178 nations rated Burundi's population as having the lowest satisfaction with life in the world.[54] As a result of poverty, Burundi is dependent on foreign aid.[9] GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for 58% of the GDP in 1997. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture.[55] The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports.[56] Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum.[57] Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap. Burundi's currency is the Burundian franc (BIF); as of May 26, 2012, 1,371.00 Burundian franc were equivalent to one United States dollar.[58] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard Lack of access to financial services is a serious problem for the majority of the population, particularly in the densely populated rural areas: only 2% of the total population holds bank accounts, and fewer than 0.5% use bank lending services.Microfinance, however, plays a larger role,  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard with 4% of Burundians being members of microfinance institutions – a larger share of the population than that reached by banking and postal services combined. 26 licensed microfinance institutions (MFIs) offer savings, deposits, and short- to medium-term credit. Dependence of the sector on donor assistance is limited.[59] Burundi is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation. Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard、 As of July 2012, Burundi is projected to have an estimated population of 10,557,259 people. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country.[9] Over 500,000 have been displaced due to the disease.[6] Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war. In 2006, the United States accepted approximately 10,000 Burundian refugees.[60] HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard Most Burundians live in rural areas, while 11% of the population lived in urban areas in 2010.[9] The population density of around 315 people per square kilometer (753 per sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.[8] Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, and fewer than 1% are indigenous Twa/Pygmies.[61] Burundi has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 6.08 children born/woman (2012 estimates).[9] HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard Sources estimate the Christian population to be 75%, with Roman Catholics representing the largest group at 60%.Protestant and Anglican practitioners constitute the remaining 15%. An estimated 20% of the population adheres to traditional indigenous religious beliefs. The Muslim population is estimated to be at 5%, the majority of whom live in urban areas. Sunnis make up the majority of the Muslim population, the remainder being Shi'a.[62] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard There is less health care in Burundi than in most other countries. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 59.24 years.[9] A large proportion of the population is undernourished. There were 3 physicians per 100,000 persons in 2004.[9] TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard The World Health Organization estimated that HIV/AIDS prevalence in Burundi was 3.3% of the adult population in 2009.[63] Demographic and Health Surveys completed two surveys in Burundi in 1987 and 2010 .[64] Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard Burundi's culture is based on local tradition and the influence of neighboring countries, though cultural prominence has been hindered by civil unrest. Since farming is the main industry in Burundi, a typical Burundian meal consists of sweet potatoes,corn, and peas. Due to the expense, meat is eaten only a few times per month. When several Burundians of close acquaintance meet for a gathering they drink impeke, Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard a beer, together from a large container to symbolize unity. Notable Burundians include the footballer Mohammed Tchité and singer Jean Pierre Nimbona, popularly known as Kidumu (who is based in Nairobi, Kenya).[65] SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard Crafts are an important art form in Burundi and are attractive gifts to many tourists. Basket weaving is a popular craft for Burundian artisans.[66] Other crafts such as masks, shields, statues and pottery are made in Burundi.[67]  HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard Drumming is an important part of the Burundian cultural heritage. The world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi, who have performed for over forty years, are noted for traditional drumming using the karyenda, amashako, ibishikiso, and ikiranya drums.[68] Dance often accompanies drumming performanceACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. The abatimbo, which is performed at official ceremonies and rituals, and the fast-paced abanyagasimbo are some famous Burundian dances. Some musical instruments of note are the flute, zither,ikembe, indonongo, umuduri, inanga, and the inyagara.[67] HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard Kirundi, French, and Swahili are spoken throughout Burundi.[9] Burundi's oral tradition is strong, relaying history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Imigani, indirimbo, amazina, and ivyivugo are types of literary genres existing in Burundi.[69] HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard Basketball and track and field are noted sports in Burundi. Martial Arts are popular, as well. There are five major Judo Clubs: Club Judo de l'Entente Sportive, located in Downtown, and four others located throughout the city.[70] Football(soccer) is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard Most Christian holidays are celebrated in Burundi, with Christmas being the largest.[71] Burundian Independence Day is celebrated annually on July 1.[72] In 2005, the Burundian government declared Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic holiday, to be a public holiday.[73] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard In April 2009, the government of Burundi changed the law to criminalise homosexuality. Persons found guilty of consensual same-sex relations risk two to three years in prison and a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 Burundian francs. Amnesty International has condemned the action, calling it a violation of Burundi’s obligations under international and regional human rights law, HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard and against Burundi’s constitution, which guarantees the right to privacy.[74] In 2009, the adult literacy rate in Burundi was estimated to be 67% (73% male and 61% female), with a literacy rate of 77% and 76%, respectively, for men and women between the ages of 15 to 24.[75] Literacy among adult women in Burundi has increased by 17% since 2002. ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard Ten percent of Burundian boys are allowed a secondary education.[77] Burundi has the University of Burundi. There are several museums in the cities, such as the Burundi Geological Museum inBujumbura and the Burundi National Museum and the Burundi Museum of Life in Gitega. ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard,ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

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