Wednesday, August 28, 2013

 Howe argues that, "Nevertheless American imperialism

 Howe argues that, "Nevertheless American imperialism did not represent an American consensus; it provoked bitter dissent within the national polity."[71]That is, Democrats favored expansion, and most Whigs were opposed. Manifest destiny did, however, provide the rhetorical tone for the largest acquisition of U.S. territory. HP 597635-001 Laptop Keyboard

After a bitter debate in Congress the Republic of Texas was annexedin 1845, which Mexico had warned meant war. War broke out in 1846, with the homefront polarized as Whigs opposed and Democrats supported the war. The U.S. army, using regulars and large numbers of volunteers, Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

easily won the Mexican-American War (1846–48) were at its beginning the term American Empire was coined. Public sentiment in the US was divided as Whigs and anti-slavery elements opposed the war. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded California, New Mexico, DELL Vostro 1014 Laptop Keyboard

Arizona, Nevada, and adjacent areas to the United States, with the residents given full citizenship. Simultaneously gold was discovered, pulling over 100,000 men to northern California in a matter of months in the California Gold Rush.

The central issue after 1848 was the expansion of slavery, pitting the anti-slavery elements that were a majority in the North, Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

against the pro-slavery elements that overwhelmingly dominated the white South. A small number of very active Northerners were abolitionists who declared that ownership of slaves was a sin (in terms of Protestant theology) and demanded its immediate abolition. Much larger numbers were against the expansion of slavery,  HP Pavilion zv6223ea Laptop Keyboard

seeking to put it on the path to extinction so that America would be committed to free land (as in low-cost farms owned and cultivated by a family), free labor (no slaves), and free speech (as opposed to censorship rampant in the South.) Southern whites insisted that slavery was of economic social and cultural benefit to all whites (and even to the slaves themselves), and denounced all antislavery spokesmen as "abolitionists."[73]  Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

Religious activists split on slavery, with the Methodists and Baptists dividing into northern and southern denominations. In the North, the Methodists, Congregationalists and Quakers included many abolitionists, especially among women activists. The Catholic, Episcopal and Lutheran denominations largely ignored the slavery issue.[74] ACER Aspire 4736Z laptop keyboard

The issue of slavery in the new territories was seemingly settled by the Compromise of 1850 brokered by Whig Henry Clay and Democrat Stephen Douglas; the Compromise included admission of California as a free state. The sore point was the Fugitive Slave Act to make it easier for masters to reclaim runaway slaves.  HP Pavilion DV7t-3100 laptop keyboard

Abolitionists fastened on the Act to attack slavery, as in Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe.[75]

The Compromise of 1820 was repealed in 1854 with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, promoted by Senator Douglas in the name of "popular sovereignty" and democracy. It permitted settlers to decide on slavery in each territory, HP Pavilion dv6-2150es laptop keyboard

and allowed Douglas to say he was neutral on the slavery issue. Antislavery forces rose in anger and alarm, forming the new Republican Party. Pro and anti-forces rushed to Kansas to vote slavery up or down, resulting in a mini civil war called Bleeding Kansas. HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax laptop keyboard

By the late 1850s the young Republican Party dominated nearly all northern states and thus the electoral college, and insisted that slavery would never be allowed to expand (and thus would slowly die out).[76]

The southern slave societies had become wealthy based on their cotton and other commodity production,  SONY VAIO VGN-FS415E laptop keyboard

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and some particularly profited from the internal slave trade. They were tied to northern cities such as Boston and New York by banking, shipping, and manufacturing. By 1860, there were four million slaves in the South, nearly eight times as many as the total slaves nationwide in 1790. SONY VAIO VGN-NW25GF laptop keyboard

The plantations were highly profitable because of the heavy European demand for raw cotton; most of the profits were invested in new lands and new slaves drawn from the declining tobacco regions. For 50 of the nation's first 72 years a slaveholder served as president of the United States and, during that period, Compaq Presario CQ71-317EA laptop keyboard

only slaveholding presidents were re-elected to second terms.[77] In addition, southern states benefited by their increased apportionment in Congress due to the partial counting of slaves in their populations.

Slave rebellions were planned or actually took place —including by Gabriel Prosser (1800), HP Pavilion dv6-2129ev laptop keyboard

Denmark Vesey (1822), Nat Turner (1831), and John Brown (1859) —but they all failed. They led southern states to establish tighter slave oversight as well as reducing rights of free blacks. The Supreme Court's 1857 decision inDred Scott v. Sandford took the Southern position of making slavery legal everywhere, which outraged northerners. FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 laptop keyboard

After Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election, seven Southern states seceded from the union between late 1860 and 1861, establishing a new government, the Confederate States of America, on February 8, 1861. When Lincoln called for troops to suppress the Confederacy in April 1861, four more states seceded and joined the Confederacy. SONY VAIO VGN-FS640/W laptop keyboard

Along with the northwestern portion of Virginia, which becameWest Virginia, four of the five northernmost "slave states" did not secede and became known as the Border States.

The Civil War began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U.S. military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina.  HP 405963-001 laptop keyboard

In response to the attack, on April 15, Lincoln called on the states to send detachments totaling 75,000 troops to recapture forts, protect the capital, and "preserve the Union", which in his view still existed intact despite the actions of the seceding states. The two armies had their first major clash at the First Battle of Bull Run,  HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

ending in a Union defeat, but, more importantly, proved to both the Union and Confederacy that the war would be much longer and bloodier than originally anticipated.[79]

The war soon divided into two theaters: Eastern and Western. In the western theater, the Union was quite successful, with major battles, such as Perryville and Shiloh, SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M Laptop Keyboard

producing strategic Union victories and destroying major Confederate operations.

Warfare in the Eastern theater started poorly for the Union as the Confederates won at Manassas Junction (Bull Run), just outside Washington. Major General George B. McClellan was put in charge of the Union armies. TOSHIBA Satellite C650-182 Laptop Keyboard

 After reorganizing the new Army of the Potomac, McClellan failed to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia in his Peninsula Campaign and retreated after attacks from newly appointed Confederate General Robert E. Lee.[81] SONY VGN-FE21H laptop keyboard

Feeling confident in his army after defeating the Union at Second Bull Run, Lee embarked on an invasion of the north that was stopped by McClellan at the bloody Battle of Antietam. Despite this, McClellan was relieved from command for refusing to pursue Lee's crippled army.  HP G72-b60SF laptop keyboard

The next commander, General Ambrose Burnside, suffered a humiliating defeat by Lee's smaller army at the Battle of Fredericksburg late in 1862, causing yet another change in commanders. Lee won again at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, while losing his top aide, Stonewall Jackson. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

But Lee pushed too hard and ignored the Union threat in the west. Lee invaded Pennsylvania in search of supplies and to cause war weariness in the North. In perhaps the turning point of the war, Lee's army was badly beaten at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863, and barely made it back to Virginia. LENOVO IdeaPad S10 20015 laptop keyboard

Simultaneously on July 4, 1863, Union forces under the command of General Ulysses S. Grantgained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy. Lincoln made General Grant commander of all Union armies.

The last two years of the war were bloody for both sides, with Grant launching a war of attrition against General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. HP Mini 110-3180sv laptop keyboard

This war of attrition was divided into three main campaigns. The first of these, the Overland Campaign forced Lee to retreat into the city of Petersburg where Grant launched his second major offensive, the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign in which he besieged Petersburg. After a near ten-month siege, Petersburg surrendered. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E125 laptop keyboard

However, the defense of Fort Gregg allowed Lee to move his army out of Petersburg. Grant pursued and launched the final, Appomattox Campaign which resulted in Lee surrendering his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House. Other Confederate armies followed suit and the war ended with no postwar insurgency. HP Pavilion dv6-3230us laptop keyboard

Based on 1860 census figures, about 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% from the North and 18% from the South,[83] establishing the American Civil War as the deadliest war in American history. Its legacy includes ending slavery in the United States, restoring the Union, and strengthening the role of the federal government. ACER K052030A1 laptop keyboard, DELL Inspiron 6400 Laptop Keyboard

Reconstruction lasted from Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 to the Compromise of 1877.[84]

The major issues faced by Lincoln were the status of the ex-slaves (called "Freedmen"), the loyalty and civil rights of ex-rebels, the status of the 11 ex-Confederate states, TOSHIBA NSK-TAJ01 Laptop Keyboard

the powers of the federal government needed to prevent a future civil war, and the question of whether Congress or the President would make the major decisions.

The severe threats of starvation and displacement of the unemployed Freedmen were met by the first major federal relief agency, the Freedman's Bureau, operated by the Army.[85] ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Three "Reconstruction Amendments" were passed to expand civil rights for black Americans: the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal rights for all and citizenship for blacks; the Fifteenth Amendmentprevented race from being used to disfranchise men.SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard,HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

Ex-Confederates remained in control of most Southern states for over two years, but that changed when the Radical Republicansgained control of Congress in the 1866 elections. President Andrew Johnson, who sought easy terms for reunions with ex-rebels, was virtually powerless; he escaped by one vote removal through impeachment. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

Congress enfranchised black men and stripped many ex-Confederate leasers of the right to hold office. New Republican governments came to power based on a coalition of Freedmen made up of Carpetbaggers (new arrivals from the North), andScalawags (native white Southerners).  TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

They were backed by the US Army. Opponents said they were corrupt and violated the rights of whites. State by state they lost power to a conservative-Democratic coalition, which gained control of the entire South by 1877. In response to Radical Reconstruction, the Ku Klux Klan(KKK) emerged in 1867 as a white-supremacist organization opposed to black civil rights and Republican rule. HP G42-380LA Laptop Keyboard

President Ulysses Grant's vigorous enforcement of the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1870 shut down the Klan, and it disbanded. However, there were other paramilitary groups, such as the White League and Red Shirts that worked to regain white political power in states across the South during the 1870s.[86] GATEWAY NV-53 Laptop Keyboard

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Reconstruction ended after the disputed 1876 election between Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes and Democratic candidate Samuel J. Tilden. With a compromise Hayes won the election, the federal government withdrew its troops from the South, and Southern Democrats re-entered the national political scene.[87]After 1890 southern states effectively disfranchised black voters. Blacks were segregated in public places and remained second class citizens in a system known as Jim Crow until the successes of the Civil Rights movement in 1964-65.  ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

The latter half of the nineteenth century was marked by the United States' development and settlement of the West, first by wagon trains and then aided by the completion of the transcontinental railroad and frequent wars with Native Americans as settlers encroached on their traditional lands. HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

Gradually the US purchased their lands and extinguished their claims, forcing most tribes onto restricted reservations. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894),

The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. ACER Aspire One D150-1920 Laptop Keyboard

They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians.。

The "Gilded Age" was a term that Mark Twain used to describe the period of the late 19th century when there had been a dramatic expansion of American wealth and prosperity. Reform of the Age included the Civil Service Act,  HP AEUT5U00010 Laptop Keyboard

which mandated a competitive examination for applicants for government jobs. Other important legislation included the Interstate Commerce Act, which ended railroads' discrimination against small shippers, and the Sherman Antitrust Act, which outlawed monopolies in business. APPLE A1278 Laptop Keyboard

Twain believed that this age was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices.[91]

By 1890 American industrial production and per capita income exceeded those of all other world nations. ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

In response to heavy debts and decreasing farm prices, wheat and cotton farmers joined the Populist Party.[92] An unprecedented wave of immigration from Europe served to both provide the labor for American industry and create diverse communities in previously undeveloped areas. HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

From 1880 to 1914, peak years of immigration, more than 22 million people migrated to the United States.[93] The workers' demand for control of their workplace led to the often-violent rise of the labor movement in the cities and mining camps. Industrial leaders included John D. Rockefeller in oil and Andrew Carnegie in steel; ACER 9J.N0F82.A1D Laptop Keyboard

both became leaders of philanthropy, giving away their fortunes to create the modern system of hospitals, universities, libraries, and foundations.

A severe nationwide depression broke out in 1893; it was called the Panic of 1893 and impacted farmers, workers, and businessmen who saw prices, wages, and profits fall.[95]  HP G72-b66US Laptop Keyboard

Many railroads went bankrupt. The resultant political reaction fell on the Democratic Party, whose leader President Grover Cleveland shouldered much of the blame. Labor unrest involved numerous strikes, most notably the violent Pullman Strike of 1894, which was shut down by federal troops under Cleveland's orders. HP Mini 110-3180sv Laptop Keyboard

The Populist Party gained strength among cotton and wheat farmers, as well as coal miners, but was overtaken by the even more popular Free Silver movement, which demanded using silver to enlarge the money supply, leading to inflation that the silverites promised would end the depression.[96] Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

he financial, railroad, and business communities fought back hard, arguing that only the gold standard would save the economy. In the most intense election in the nation's history, conservative Republican William McKinley defeated silverite William Jennings Bryan, who ran on the Democratic, Populist, and Silver Republican tickets. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Bryan swept the South and West, but McKinley ran up landslides among the middle class, industrial workers, cities, and among upscale farmers in the Midwest.[97]

Prosperity returned under McKinley, the gold standard was enacted, and the tariff was raised. By 1900 the US had the strongest economy on the globe.  DELL Vostro 3550 Laptop Keyboard

Apart from two short recessions (in 1907 and 1920) the overall economy remained prosperous and growing until 1929. Republicans, citing McKinley's policies, took the credit.

Dissatisfaction on the part of the growing middle class with the corruption and inefficiency of politics as usual, and the failure to deal with increasingly important urban and industrial problems, HP Pavilion dv6-2125ef laptop keyboard

led to the dynamic Progressive Movement starting in the 1890s. In every major city and state, and at the national level as well, and in education, medicine, and industry, the progressives called for the modernization and reform of decrepit institutions, the elimination of corruption in politics, and the introduction of efficiency as a criterion for change. HP Pavilion dv6-2110ev laptop keyboard

Leading politicians from both parties, most notably Theodore Roosevelt,Charles Evans Hughes, and Robert LaFollette on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan on the Democratic side, took up the cause of progressive reform. Women became especially involved in demands for woman suffrage, prohibition, and better schools; SONY VAIO VGN-N31Z/W laptop keyboard

their most prominent leader was Jane Addams of Chicago. Progressives implemented anti-trust laws and regulated such industries of meat-packing, drugs, and railroads. Four new constitutional amendments—the Sixteenththrough Nineteenth—resulted from progressive activism, bringing the federal income tax, ACER TravelMate 6252 laptop keyboard

direct election of Senators, prohibition, and woman suffrage.[99] The Progressive Movement lasted through the 1920s; the most active period was 1900–1918.

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