Thursday, August 29, 2013

This supports the work of D.Kaniewski

This supports the work of D.Kaniewski et al on "Late second–early first millennium BC abrupt climate changes in coastal Syria and their possible significance for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean".

Amos Nur postulates that earthquakes tend to occur in "sequences" or "storms",  DELL Vostro 1510 Laptop Keyboard

where a major earthquake above 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale can, in later months or years, set off second or subsequent earthquakes along the weakened fault line. He shows that when a map of earthquake occurrence is superimposed on a map of the sites destroyed in the Late Bronze Age, there is a very close correspondence. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

Ekrem Akurgal, Gustav Lehmann and Fritz Schachermeyer – following the views of Gaston Maspero – have argued for this view.

Evidence includes the widespread findings of Naue II-type swords (coming from South-Eastern Europe) throughout the region, and Egyptian records of invading "northerners from all the lands".TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

The Ugarit correspondence at the time mentions invasions by tribes of the mysterious Sea Peoples, who appear to have been a disparate mix of Luwians, Greeks andCanaanites, among others. Equally, the last Greek Linear B documents in the Aegean (dating to just before the collapse) reported a large rise in piracy, slave raiding and other attacks, HP G62-244CA Laptop Keyboard

particularly around Anatolia. Later fortresses along the Libyan coast, constructed and maintained by the Egyptians after the reign ofRamesses II, were built to reduce raiding.

This theory is strengthened by the fact that the collapse coincides with the appearance in the region of many new ethnic groups. HP AEAX8U00010 Laptop Keyboard

These include Indo-Europeantribes, such as the Phrygians, Proto-Armenians, Medes, Persians, Cimmerians, Lydians and Scythians, as well as the Pontic speaking Colchians, Hurro-Urartuansand Iranian Sarmatians. These groups settled or emerged in the Caucasus, Iran and Anatolia. HP Pavilion dv4-1242tx Laptop Keyboard

Thracians, Macedonians and Dorian Greeks seem to have arrived at this time – possibly from the north, usurping the earlier Greeks of Mycenae and Achaea. There also seems to have been widespread migration of Semitic peoples, such as Aramaeans, Chaldeans and Suteans – possibly from the South-East. HP 506782-001 Laptop Keyboard

The ultimate reasons for these migrations could include drought, developments in warfare/weaponry, earthquakes, or other natural disasters, meaning that the Migrations theory is not necessarily incompatible with the other theories mentioned here. HP AELX6U00210 Laptop Keyboard

The Bronze Age collapse may be seen in the context of a technological history that saw the slow, comparatively continuous spread of iron-working technology in the region, beginning with precocious iron-working in what is now Bulgaria and Romania in the 13th and 12th centuries BC.[15]  Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Leonard R. Palmer suggested that iron, while inferior to bronze weapons, was in more plentiful supply and so allowed larger armies of iron users to overwhelm the smaller armies of bronze-using maryannu chariotry.[16] This argument has been weakened of late with the finding that the shift to iron occurred after the collapse, not before.[ DELL PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

It now seems that the disruption of long distance trade, an aspect of "systems collapse", cut easy supplies of tin, makingbronze impossible to make. Older implements were recycled and then iron substitutes were used.

Robert Drews argues[17] that the appearance of massed infantry, HP Envy 15 Laptop Keyboard

using newly developed weapons and armor, such as cast rather than forged spearheads and long swords, a revolutionizing cut-and-thrust weapon,[18] and javelins, and the appearance of bronze foundries, suggest "that mass production of bronze artifacts was suddenly important in the Aegean". SONY VAIO VGN-FS742/W Laptop Keyboard

 (For example, Homer uses "spears" as a virtual synonym for "warriors".) Such new weaponry, in the hands of large numbers of "running skirmishers" who could swarm and cut down a chariot army, would destabilize states that were based upon the use of chariots by the ruling class and precipitate an abrupt social collapse as raiders began to conquer, loot, and burn the cities. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5366 Laptop Keyboard

A general systems collapse has been put forward as an explanation for the reversals in culture that occurred between the Urnfield culture of the 12–13th centuries BC and the rise of the Celtic Hallstatt culture in the 9th and 10th centuries BC.[22] This theory may, however, simply raise the question of whether this collapse was the cause of, SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

or the effect of, the Bronze Age collapse being discussed. General Systems Collapse theory, pioneered by Joseph Tainter,[23]hypothesizes how social declines in response to complexity may lead to a collapse resulting in simpler forms of society. SONY VAIO VGN-FS550 Laptop Keyboard

In the specific context of the Middle East, a variety of factors — including population growth, soil degradation, drought, cast bronze weapon and iron production technologies — could have combined to push the relative price of weaponry (compared to arable land) to a level unsustainable for traditional warrior aristocracies.  SONY VAIO VGN-CR520E Laptop Keyboard

In complex societies that were increasingly fragile and less resilient, this combination of factors may have contributed to the collapse.

"The growing complexity and specialization of the Late Bronze Age political, economic, and social organization in Carol Thomas and Craig Conant's phrase,[24] TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

is a weakness that could explain such a widespread collapse that was able to render the Bronze Age civilizations incapable of recovery. The critical flaws of the Late Bronze Age are its centralization, specialization, complexity and top-heavy political structure.

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These flaws then revealed themselves through socio-political factors (revolt of peasantry and defection of mercenaries), fragility of all kingdoms (Mycenaean, Hittite, Ugaritic and Egyptian), demographic crises (overpopulation), and wars between states. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 Laptop Keyboard

Other factors that could have placed increasing pressure on the fragile kingdoms include piratical disturbances of maritime trade by the Sea Peoples, drought, crop failures, famine, Dorian migration or invasion.

A more speculative theory is Jaynes' bicameralism which claims that the complexity of society at this time called for a large-scale shift in human cognition, LENOVO 25-011427 Laptop Keyboard

from instinctive and religious behaviour to logical reasoning. This is still a fringe theory, but has recently attracted the attention of several scholars and conferences.

The collapse occurred at around the time that Jewish and Christian scholars place the character of Moses. SAMSUNG NP-N150-JP01 Laptop Keyboard

Their text (the book of Exodus) describe a series of events similar to natural disasters and events in Egypt at this time, followed by a back migration of Semitic people from Egypt back into Canaan. The Harris Papyrus tells of the expulsion of Asiatics by Setnakhte in the chaos at the end of the 19th Dynasty. TOSHIBA NSK-TBD01 Laptop Keyboard

The Greek Iliad's historicity is still disputed, but is currently usually assumed to be based on events in Troy VII also around the time of the collapse

Societal collapse usually refers to the disappearance of human societies along with their life support systems.  DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Societal collapse broadly includes both quite abrupt societal failures typified by collapses (such as that of the Mayan Civilization), as well as more extended gradual declines of superpowers (like theRoman empire in Western Europe). The general subject arises in anthropology, history, sociology, politics and other fields, and more recently in complex systemsscience. HP Envy 15-1015tx Laptop Keyboard

What distinguishes the more dramatic failures of human societies, seeming to deserve the term "collapse", from less dramatic long term decline is not widely agreed on. The subject may include any other long term decline of a culture, its civil institutions or other major characteristics of it as a society or acivilization. SONY VAIO VGN-CR140F Laptop Keyboard

Common factors that may contribute to societal collapse are economic, environmental, social and cultural, but they manifest combined effects like a whole system out of balance. In some cases a natural disaster (e.g. tsunami, earthquake, massive fire or climate change) may seem to be an immediate cause. HP Pavilion dv6-2108sa laptop keyboard

Other factors such as a Malthusian catastrophe, overpopulation or resource depletion might be the proximate cause of collapse. Significant inequity may combine with lack of loyalty to a central power structure and result in an oppressed lower class rising up and taking power from a smaller wealthy elite. TOSHIBA Satellite A500-ST5607 laptop keyboard

The diversity of forms that societies evolve corresponds to diversity in their failures too.

In the general study of cultural change and population dynamics, a whole system displays complex ecosystem changes. Organizational adaptability relates importantly to organizational diversity. SAMSUNG R20 laptop keyboard

Several key features of human societal collapse can be related to population dynamics[1]

Reversion/Simplification: A society's adaptive capacity may be reduced by either a rapid change in population or societal complexity, destabilizing its institutions and causing massive shifts in population and other social dynamics. SAMSUNG R522 Laptop Keyboard

In cases of collapse civilizations tend to revert to less complex, less centralized socio-political forms using simpler technology. These are characteristics of a Dark Age. Examples of such societal collapse are: the Hittite Empire, the Mycenaean civilization, the Western Roman Empire,  Compaq Presario CQ42-228LA Laptop Keyboard

the Mauryan and Gupta Empires in India, the Mayas, the Angkor in Cambodia, and the Han and Tang dynasties in China.

Incorporation/Absorption: Alternately, a society may be gradually incorporated into a more dynamic, more complex inter-regional social structure. DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

This happened in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Levantine cultures, the Mughal and Delhi Sultanates in India, Sung China, the Aztec culture in Mesoamerica, theInca culture in South America, and the modern civilizations of China, Japan, and India, as well as many modern states in the Middle East and Africa. COMPAQ Presario CQ61 Laptop Keyboard

Destratification: Complex societies stratified on the basis of class, gender, race or some other salient factor become much more homogeneous or horizontally structured. In many cases past social stratification slowly becomes irrelevant following collapse and societies become more egalitarian. HP Pavilion G6-1223TX Laptop Keyboard

Despecialization: One of the most characteristic features of complex civilizations (and in many cases the yardstick to measure complexity) is a high level of job specialization. The most complex societies are characterized by artisans and tradespeople who specialize intensely in a given task. HP 550 Laptop Keyboard

Indeed, the rulers of many past societies were hyper-specialized priests or priestesses who were completely supported by the work of the lower classes. During societal collapse the social institutions supporting such specialization are removed and people tend to become more generalized in their work and daily habits. Lenovo 3000 N200 Laptop Keyboard

Decentralization: As power becomes decentralized people tend to be more self-regimented and have many more personal freedoms. In many instances of collapse there is a slackening of social rules and etiquette. Geographically speaking, communities become more parochial or isolated. For example, TOSHIBA Satellite L755-SP5102CL Laptop Keyboard

following the collapse of the Mayan civilization many Maya returned to their traditional hamlets, moving away from the large cities that had been the centers of the empire.

Destructuralization: Epiphenomena, institutions, processes, and artifacts are all manifest in the archaeological record in abundance in large civilizations. HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

After collapse, evidence of epiphenomena, institutions, and types of artifacts change dramatically as people are forced to adopt more self-sufficient lifestyles.

Depopulation: Societal collapse is almost always associated with a population decline. In extreme cases, the collapse in population is so severe that the society disappears entirely, DELL 0PVDG3 Laptop Keyboard

such as happened with the Greenland Vikings, or a number of Polynesian islands. In less extreme cases, populations are reduced until a demographic balance is re-established between human societies and the depleted natural environment. A classic example is the case of Ancient Rome,  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

which had a population of about 1.5 million during the reign of Trajan in the early 2nd century CE, but had only 15,000 inhabitants by the 9th century.

The decline of the Roman Empire is one of the events traditionally marking the end of Classical Antiquity and the beginning of the European Middle Ages.  FUJITSU Amilo Mini Ui 3520 Laptop Keyboard

Throughout the 5th century, the Empire's territories in western Europe and northwestern Africa, including Italy, fell to various invading or indigenous peoples in what is sometimes called the Barbarian invasions, although the eastern half still survived with borders essentially intact for another two centuries (until the Arab expansion). COMPAQ Presario CQ60-104TU Laptop Keyboard

This view of the collapse of the Roman Empire is challenged, however, by modern historians who see Rome as merely transforming from the Western Empire into barbarian kingdoms as the Western Emperors delegated themselves out of existence, and the East transforming into the Byzantine Empire, which only fell in 1453 CE. Lenovo 45N2071 Laptop Keyboard

North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Bedouin tribes of Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal.[2] Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert.[3]  Lenovo 04W0872 Laptop Keyboard

In the brutal pillaging that followed Mongol invasions, the invaders decimated the populations of China, Russia, the Middle East, and Islamic Central Asia. Later Mongol leaders, such as Timur, though he himself became a Muslim, destroyed many cities, slaughtered thousands of people and did irreparable damage to the ancient irrigation systems of Mesopotamia. Lenovo 45N2106 Laptop Keyboard

These invasions transformed a civil society to a nomadic one.[4]

Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. Smallpox ravagedMexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlán alone, including the emperor, and Peru in the 1530s,  HP 576835-001 Laptop Keyboard

aiding the European conquerors.[5] Some believe that the death of up to 95% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases.

The coupled breakdown of economic, cultural and social institutions with ecological relationships is perhaps the most common feature of collapse. HP COMPAQ 486654-001 laptop keyboard

The most accessible and thorough discussions of the subject are the review of the scientific anthropology literature by J.A. Tainter and the popular but thorough book of similar title by Jared Diamond. According to Jared Diamond's theory, there are five interconnected occurrences that may reinforce each other: DELL Inspiron 9300 laptop keyboard

non-sustainable exploitation of resources, climate changes, diminishing support from friendly societies, hostile neighbors, and inappropriate attitudes for change.[7]

Joseph Tainter theorizes that societies essentially exhausted their own designs, and were unable to adapt to natural diminishing returns for what they knew as their method of survival. TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4050 laptop keyboard

It matches closely Toynbee's idea that "they find problems they can't solve".

Modern social critics commonly interpret things like sedentary social behavior as symptomatic of societal decay, and link what appears to be laziness with the depletion of important non-renewable resources. COMPAQ Presario CQ50Z-100 CTO laptop keyboard

However, many primitive cultures also have high degrees of leisure, so if that is a cause in one place it may not be in another—leisure or apparent laziness is then not a sufficient cause.

What produces modern sedentary life, unlike nomadic hunter-gatherers, is extraordinary modern economic productivity. ACER NSK-H3M1D laptop keyboard

Tainter argues that exceptional productivity is actually more the sign of hidden weakness, both because of a society's dependence on it, and its potential to undermine its own basis for success by not being self limiting as demonstrated in Western culture's ideal of perpetual growth.  ACER Extensa 5235 laptop keyboard

As a population grows and technology makes it easier to exploit depleting resources, the environment's diminishing returns are hidden from view. Societalcomplexity is then potentially threatened if it develops beyond what is actually sustainable, and a disorderly reorganization were to follow.  Lenovo 45N2071 laptop keyboard

The scissors model of Malthusian collapse, where the population grows without limit and resources do not, is the idea of great opposing environmental forces cutting into each other.

For the modern world economy, for example, the growing conflict between food and fuel, depending on many of the same finite and diminishing resources is visible in the recent major commodity price shocks HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

It is one of the key relationships people, since the early studies of the Club of Rome, have been most concerned with.Jared Diamond pursues these themes in his 2005 book Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. ACER Aspire 3623WXMi laptop keyboard

A related economic model is proposed by Thomas Homer-Dixon[8] and by Charles Hall[9] in relation to our declining productivity of energy extraction, or energy return on energy invested (EROEI). This measures the amount of surplus energy a society gets from using energy to obtain energy.  TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

There would be no surplus if EROEI approaches 1:1. What Hall showed is that the real cutoff is well above that, estimated to be 3:1 to sustain the essential overhead energy costs of a modern society. Part of the mental equation is that the EROEI of our generally preferred energy source, petroleum, SONY KFRMBA220A laptop keyboard

has fallen in the past century from 100:1 to the range of 10:1 with clear evidence that the natural depletion curves all are downward decay curves. An EROEI of more than ~3, then, is what appears necessary to provide the energy for societally important tasks, such as maintaining government, legal and financial institutions, SONY VAIO VGN-N38Z/W laptop keyboard

a transportation infrastructure, manufacturing, building construction and maintenance and the life styles of the rich and poor that a society depends on.

The EROEI figure also affects the number of people needed for sustainable food production. In the pre-modern world,  HP 576835-001 laptop keyboard

it was often the case that 80% of the population was employed in agriculture to feed a population of 100%, with a low energy budget. In modern times, the use of cheap fossil fuels with an exceedingly high EROEI enabled 100% of the population to be fed with only 4% of the population employed in agriculture. TOSHIBA Satellite L355-S7905 laptop keyboard

Diminishing EROEI making fuel more expensive relative to other things may require food to be produced using less energy, and so increases the number of people employed in food production again.

According to Joseph Tainter[10] (1990), too many scholars offer facile explanations of societal collapse by assuming one or more of the following three models in the face of collapse:  DELL AEGM7U00110 laptop keyboard

The Dinosaur, a large-scale society in which resources are being depleted at an exponential rate and yet nothing is done to rectify the problem because the ruling elite are unwilling or unable to adapt to those resources' reduced availability: In this type of society, rulers tend to oppose any solutions that diverge from their present course of action. SONY VAIO VGN-SR220J/H laptop keyboard

They will favor intensification and commit an increasing number of resources to their present plans, projects, and social institutions.

The Runaway Train, a society whose continuing function depends on constant growth (cf. Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis): IBM 42T3265 laptop keyboard

This type of society, based almost exclusively on acquisition (e.g., pillage or exploitation), cannot be sustained indefinitely. The Assyrian and Mongol Empires, for example, both fractured and collapsed when no new conquests were forthcoming. TOSHIBA NB100 laptop keyboard

Tainter argues that capitalism can be seen as an example of the Runaway Train model in that generally accepted accounting practices require publicly traded companies, along with many privately held ones, to exhibit growth as measured at some fixed interval (often three months). SONY VAIO VGN-N11S laptop keyboard

Moreover, the ethos of consumerism on the demand side and the practice of planned obsolescence on the supply side encourage the purchase of an ever-increasing number of goods and services even when resource extraction and food production are unsustainable if continued at current levels. DELL NSK-DD101 laptop keyboard

The House of Cards, a society that has grown to be so large and include so many complex social institutions that it is inherently unstable and prone to collapse. This type of society has been seen with particular frequency among Eastern bloc and other communist nations,  Compaq Mini 730EA laptop keyboard

in which all social organizations are arms of the government or ruling party, such that the government must either stifle association wholesale (encouraging dissent and subversion) or exercise less authority than it asserts (undermining its legitimacy in the public eye).

By contrast, as Alexis de Tocqueville observed,  SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

when voluntary and private associations are allowed to flourish and gain legitimacy at an institutional level, they complement and often even supplant governmental functions: They provide a "safety valve" for dissent, assist with resource allocation, provide for social experimentation without the need for governmental coercion, SONY VAIO VGN-AR320E laptop keyboard

and enable the public to maintain confidence in society as a whole even during periods of governmental weakness.

Tainter argues that these models, though superficially useful, cannot severally or jointly account for all instances of societal collapse. HP Pavilion dv6-3015tx laptop keyboard

Often they are seen as interconnected occurrences that reinforce each other.

For example, the failure of Easter Island's leaders to remedy rapid ecological deterioration ("Dinosaur") cannot be understood without reference to the other models above. The islanders, who erected large statues called moai as a form of religious reverence to their ancestors, HP Pavilion dv6-2070eo laptop keyboard

used felled trees as rollers to transport them. Because the islanders firmly believed that their displays of reverence would lead to increased future prosperity, they had a deeply entrenched incentive to intensify moai production ("Runaway Train"). Because Easter Island's geographic isolation made its resources hard to replenish and made the balance of its overall ecosystem very delicate ("House of Cards"),HP Mini 110-1036TU laptop keyboard

deforestation led to soil erosion and insufficient resources to build boats for fishing or tools for hunting. Competition for dwindling resources resulted in warfare and many casualties (an additional "Runaway Train" iteration). Together these events led to the collapse of the civilization, but no single factor above provides an adequate account. SONY VAIO VGN-NW11S/S laptop keyboard

Mainstream interpretations of the history of Easter Island also include the slave raiders who abducted a large proportion of the population and epidemics that killed most of the survivors (see Easter Island History#Destruction of society and population.) Again, no single point explains the collapse; only a complex and integrated view can do so. HP Pavilion dv5-1026eo laptop keyboard

Tainter's position is that social complexity is a recent and comparatively anomalous occurrence requiring constant support.

The British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, in his 12-volume magnum opus A Study of History (1961), theorized that all civilizations pass through several distinct stages: HP Mini 110-1140TU laptop keyboard

genesis, growth, time of troubles, universal state, and disintegration. (Carroll Quigley would expand on this theory in his The Evolution of Civilizations.)

Toynbee argues that the breakdown of civilizations is not caused by loss of control over the environment, over the human environment, or attacks from outside. HP Mini 210 laptop keyboard

Rather, ironically, societies that develop great expertise in problem solving become incapable of solving new problems by overdeveloping their structures for solving old ones.

The fixation on the old methods of the "Creative Minority" leads it to eventually cease to be creative and degenerates into merely a "Dominant minority" ASUS X53S laptop keyboard

 (that forces the majority to obey without meriting obedience), failing to recognize new ways of thinking. He argues that creative minorities deteriorate due to a worship of their "former self," by which they become prideful, and fail to adequately address the next challenge they face. HP 633183-001 laptop keyboard

He argues that the ultimate sign a civilization has broken down is when the dominant minority forms a "Universal State," which stifles political creativity. He states: First the Dominant Minority attempts to hold by force - against all right and reason - a position of inherited privilege which it has ceased to merit; Lenovo 3000 C200 laptop keyboard

and then the Proletariat repays injustice with resentment, fear with hate, and violence with violence when it executes its acts of secession. Yet the whole movement ends in positive acts of creation - and this on the part of all the actors in the tragedy of disintegration. The Dominant Minority creates a universal state, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 laptop keyboard

the Internal Proletariat a universal church, and the External Proletariat a bevy of barbarian war-bands.

He argues that, as civilizations decay, they form an "Internal Proletariat" and an "External Proletariat." The Internal proletariat is held in subjugation by the dominant minority inside the civilization, HP Pavilion dv6-2124el laptop keyboard

and grows bitter; the external proletariat exists outside the civilization in poverty and chaos, and grows envious. He argues that as civilizations decay, there is a "schism in the body social," whereby:

  • abandon and self-control together replace creativity, and

truancy and martyrdom together replace discipleship by the creative minority.  HP 605344-001 laptop keyboard

He argues that in this environment, people resort to archaism (idealization of the past), futurism (idealization of the future), detachment (removal of oneself from the realities of a decaying world), and transcendence (meeting the challenges of the decaying civilization with new insight, as a Prophet). HP G42-466LA laptop keyboard

He argues that those who Transcend during a period of social decay give birth to a new Church with new and stronger spiritual insights, around which a subsequent civilization may begin to form after the old has died.

Toynbee's use of the word 'church' refers to the collective spiritual bond of a common worship, or the same unity found in some kind of social order.  HP HDX18-1050EB laptop keyboard

The great irony expressed by these and others like them is that civilizations that seem ideally designed to creatively solve problems find themselves doing so self-destructively.

Researchers, as yet, have very little ability to identify internal structures of large distributed systems like human societies, which is an important scientific problem.  Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

Genuine structural collapse seems, in many cases, the only plausible explanation supporting the idea that such structures exist. However, until they can be concretely identified, scientific inquiry appears limited to the construction of scientific narratives,[11] using systems thinking for careful story telling about systemic organization and change. Compaq Presario CQ42 laptop keyboard

History includes many examples of the appearance and disappearance of human societies with no obvious explanation. The abrupt dissolution of the Soviet Union in the course of a few months, without any external attack, was evidently caused by some kind of structural change in its internal complex system.  SAMSUNG X20 Laptop Keyboard

Although a societal collapse is generally an endpoint for the administration of a culture's social and economic life, societal collapse can also be seen as simple a change of administration within the same culture. Russian culture would seem to have outlived both the society of Imperial Russia and the society of the Soviet Union, for example. HP Pavilion dv6-3178ee Laptop Keyboard

Frequently the societal collapse phenomenon is also a process of decentralization of authority after a 'classic' period of centralized social order, perhaps replaced by competing centers as the central authority weakens. HP 605344-001 Laptop Keyboard

For example, the black plague contributed to breaking the hold of European feudal society on its underclass in the 15th century, societal failure may also result in a degree of empowerment for the lower levels of a former climax society, who escape from the burden of onerous taxes and control by exploitative elites. HP Pavilion DV7-3065dx Laptop Keyboard,HP G56-118CA Laptop Keyboard, ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

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