Wednesday, August 28, 2013

History of the United States

The history of the United States as covered in American schools and universities typically begins with either Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage to the Americas or with the prehistory of the Native peoples, with the latter approach having become increasingly common in recent decades.[1] DELL XPS 15 L502X Laptop Keyboard

Indigenous populations lived in what is now the United States before European colonists began to arrive, mostly from England, after 1600. By the 1770s, thirteen British colonies contained two and a half million people. They were prosperous and growing rapidly, and had developed their own autonomous political and legal systems. DELL Vostro 1015 Laptop Keyboard

The British Parliament asserted its authority over these colonies by imposing new taxes, which the Americans insisted were unconstitutional because they were not represented in Parliament. Growing conflicts turned into full-fledged war beginning in April 1775. HP 643263-001 Laptop Keyboard

On July 4, 1776, the colonies declared independence under a document written by Thomas Jefferson from the Kingdom of Great Britain and became the United States of America.

With large-scale military and financial support from France and military leadership by General George Washington, the Patriots won the Revolutionary War and peace came in 1783. SAMSUNG N140 Laptop Keyboard

During and after the war, the 13 states were united under a weak federal government established by the Articles of Confederation. When these proved unworkable, a new Constitution was adopted in 1789; it remains the basis of the United States federal government, and later included a Bill of Rights. TOSHIBA Mini NB 505-SP0160 Laptop Keyboard

With Washington as the nation's first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief financial advisor, a strong national government was created. In theFirst Party System, two national political parties grew up to support or oppose Hamiltonian policies. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana IBM 42T4026 laptop keyboard

Territory from France, doubling the size of American territorial holdings. A second and last war with Britain was fought in 1812. The main result of that war was the end of European support for Native American (Indian) attacks on western settlers.

Under the sponsorship of the Jeffersonian Democrats and the Jacksonian Democrats, Lenovo 3000 G530 4151 laptop keyboard

the nation expanded to the Louisiana purchase and all the way to California and Oregon, and a quest for inexpensive land for Yeoman farmers and slave owners who promoted democracy and expansion, at the cost of violence and a disdain for European culture.  Packard Bell Easynote TM98 laptop keyboard,SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

The expansion, under the rubric of Manifest Destiny was a rejection of the advice of Whigs who wanted to deepen and modernize the economy and society rather than merely expand the geography. Slavery was abolished in all states north of the Mason–Dixon line by 1804, but it flourished in the Southern states largely due to heavy demand for cotton. HP Pavilion DV7T-4100 laptop keyboard

After 1820, a series of compromises postponed a showdown on the issue of slavery. In the mid-1850s, the new Republican power took political control of the North and promised to stop the expansion of slavery, which implied its eventual death. The 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln triggered the secession of eleven slave states to found the Confederacy in 1861. SONY VAIO VGN-FS215E laptop keyboard

The American Civil War (1861-1865) was the centerpiece of American history. After four years of bloody warfare, the Union, under President Lincoln and Ulysses S. Grant as the commanding general defeated the South with Robert E. Lee as its foremost general The Union was saved, slavery was abolished, and the South was impoverished. SONY Vaio PCG-K23 laptop keyboard

In the Reconstruction era (1863–77), the United States ended slavery and extended legal and voting rights to the Freedmen. The national government was much stronger, and because of the Fourteenth Amendment it now had the explicit duty to protect individual rights. Reconstruction ended in 1877 and from the 1890s to the 1960s the system of Jim Crow kept blacks in segregation. DELL NSK-DB301 laptop keyboard

The entire South remained poor until the 2nd half of the 20th century, while the North and West grew rapidly and prospered. The per capita income in the South remained under half the national average until after 1945.[2] TOSHIBA P205-S7469 laptop keyboard

The United States became the world's leading industrial power at the turn of the 20th century due to an outburst of entrepreneurship in the North and the arrival of millions of immigrant workers and farmers from Europe. The national railroad network was completed, and large scale mining and factories industrialized the Northeast and Midwest. HP 6730S laptop keyboard

Middle class dissatisfaction with corruption, inefficiency and traditional politics stimulated the Progressive movement from the 1890s to 1920s, which pushed for reforms and allowed for women's suffrage and the prohibition of alcohol. Initially neutral in World War I, the U.S. declared war on Germany in 1917, and funded the Allied victory the following year. SONY VAIO VGN-NW110D laptop keyboard

After a prosperous decade in the 1920s, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 marked the onset of the decade-long world-wide Great Depression. Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt became president and implemented his New Deal programs for relief, recovery, and reform, defining modern American liberalism. SONY VAIO VGN-N250E/B laptop keyboard

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States enteredWorld War II alongside the Allies and helped defeat Nazi Germany in Europe and, with the detonation of newly invented atomic bombs, Japan in the Far East. HP G42-475TU laptop keyboard

The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as opposing superpowers after World War II and began the Cold War, confronting one another indirectly in the arms race and Space Race. U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War was built around the containment of Communism, and the country participated in the wars in Koreaand Vietnam to achieve this goal. HP G62-a25SI laptop keyboard

 Liberalism won numerous victories in the days of the New Deal and again in the mid-1960s, especially in the success of thecivil rights movement, but conservatism made its comeback in the 1980s under Ronald Reagan. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, leaving the United States the only superpower. IBM Thinkpad R40 laptop keyboard

As the 21st century began, international conflict centered around the Middle East and heightened significantly following the September 11 attacks and the War on Terrorism that was subsequently declared. The United States experienced its worst economic recession since World War IIin the late 2000s, which has been followed by slower than usual rates of economic growth during the 2010s. HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl laptop keyboard

It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and the present-day United States. The prevailing theory proposes that people migrated from Eurasia across Beringia, a land bridge that connected Siberia to present-day Alaska, and then spread southward throughout the Americas. SONY VAIO VGN-N320E/W laptop keyboard

This migration may have begun as early as 30,000 years ago[3] and continued through to about 10,000+ years ago, when the land bridge became submerged by the rising sea level caused by the ending of the last glacial period.[4] These early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. Lenovo ThinkPad Edge E520 laptop keyboard

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period. HP Pavilion dv6-2170eo laptop keyboard

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus' voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history ofAmerican indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.  TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5153 laptop keyboard

After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations, the first settlements were established in 1607.[5]Europeans brought horses, cattle, and hogs to the Americas and, in turn, took back to Europe maize, turkeys, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and squash. HP Pavilion DV7-3067cl laptop keyboard

The disease environment was deadly for many explorers and early settlers exposed to new diseases. The impact of new disease was even worse on the Native Americans, especially smallpox and measles. They died in very large numbers, usually before large-scale European settlement beganHP Pavilion DV7-3180us laptop keyboard

Spanish explorers were the first Europeans with Christopher Columbus' second expedition, which reached Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493; others reached Florida in 1513.[8] Quickly Spanish expeditions reached the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon[9] and the Great Plains. SONY VAIO VGN-FW11S laptop keyboard

In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of Southeast. Also in 1540 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explored from Arizona to central Kansas.[10] The Spanish sent some settlers, creating the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States at St. Augustine, HP Pavilion dv6-2170ee laptop keyboard

Florida in 1565, but it attracted few permanent settlers. Spanish settlements that grew to become important cities include Santa Fe, Albuquerque, San Antonio, Tucson, San Diego, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and San Francisco.

New Netherland was the 17th century Dutch colony centered on present-day New York City and the Hudson River Valley.HP Pavilion DV6-1122us laptop keyboard

, where they traded furs with the Native Americans to the north and were a barrier to Yankee expansion from New England. The Dutch were Calvinists who built the Reformed Church in America, but they were tolerant of other religions and cultures. The colony was taken over by Britain in 1664. SONY VAIO VGN-FS315M laptop keyboard

It left an enduring legacy on American cultural and political life, including a secular broadmindedness and mercantile pragmatism in the city, a rural traditionalism in the countryside typified by the story of Rip Van Winkle, and politicians such as Martin Van Buren, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt.[12]  DELL PK130801B00 laptop keyboard

New France was the area colonized by France from 1534 to 1763. There were few permanent settlers outside Quebec and Acadia, but the Wabanaki Confederacy became military allies of New France through the four French and Indian Wars with the British colonies who were allied with the Iroquois Confederacy. TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5163 laptop keyboard

During the French and Indian War, New England fought successfully against Acadia and the British removed Acadians from Acadia (Nova Scotia) and replaced them with New England Planters.[13]Eventually, some Acadians resettled in Louisiana, where they developed a distinctive rural Cajun culture that still exists. HP Pavilion dv5t-1200se CTO laptop keyboard

They became American citizens in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase.[14] Other French villages along the Mississippi andIllinois rivers were absorbed when the Americans started arriving after 1770.

The strip of land along the eastern seacoast was settled primarily by English colonists in the 17th century, along with much smaller numbers of Dutch and Swedes.  COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Colonial America was defined by a severe labor shortage that employed forms of unfree labor such as slavery and indentured servitude, and by a British policy of benign neglect (salutary neglect) that permitted the development of an American spirit distinct from that of its European founders.[17]  HP G72-b60US Laptop Keyboard

Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants.[18]

The first successful English colony was established in 1607, on the James River at Jamestown which began the American Frontier. It languished for decades until a new wave of settlers arrived in the late 17th century and established commercial agriculture based on tobacco. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

Between the late 1610s and the Revolution, the British shipped an estimated 50,000 convicts to their American colonies.[19] A severe instance of conflict was the 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia, in which Native Americans killed hundreds of English settlers. COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

The largest conflict between Native Americans and English settlers in the 17th century was King Philip's War in New England,.[20] The Yamasee War in South Carolina was as bloody.

New England was initially settled primarily by Puritans who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, although there was a small earlier settlement in 1620 by a similar group, Lenovo Thinkpad T420 Laptop Keyboard

the Pilgrims, at Plymouth Colony. The Middle Colonies, consisting of the present-day states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were characterized by a large degree of diversity. The first attempted English settlement south of Virginia was the Province of Carolina, with Georgia Colony the last of the Thirteen Colonies established in 1733.[22] TOSHIBA Satellite A305 Laptop Keyboard

The colonies were characterized by religious diversity, with many Congregationalists in New England, German and Dutch Reformed in the Middle Colonies, Catholics in Maryland, and Scotch Irish Presbyterians on the frontier. Many royal officials and merchants were Anglicans.[23] Compaq Presario CQ57 Series Laptop Keyboard

Religiosity expanded greatly after the First Great Awakening, a religious revival in the 1740s led by preachers such asJonathan Edwards. American Evangelicals affected by the Awakening added a new emphasis on divine outpourings of the Holy Spirit and conversions that implanted within new believers an intense love for God.  Lenovo 39T7417 Laptop Keyboard

Revivals encapsulated those hallmarks and forwarded the newly created evangelicalism into the early republic, setting the stage for the Second Great Awakeningbeginning in the late 1790s.[24]

Each of the 13 American colonies had a slightly different governmental structure. DELL Vostro 3450 Laptop Keyboard

Typically a colony was ruled by a governor appointed from London who controlled the executive administration and relied upon a locally elected legislature to vote taxes and make laws. By the 18th century, the American colonies were growing very rapidly because of ample supplies of land and food, and low death rates. HP Mini 210-1014TU Laptop Keyboard

They were richer than most parts of Britain, and attracted a steady flow of immigrants, especially teenagers who came as indentured servants. The tobacco and rice plantations imported black slaves from the British colonies in the West Indies, and by the 1770s they comprised a fifth of the American population. HP Pavilion DV6-1002tx Laptop Keyboard

The question of independence from Britain did not arise as long as the colonies needed British military support against French and Spanish power; those threats were gone by 1765. London regarded the American colonies as existing merely for the benefit of the mother country, a policy known as mercantilism. HP 519265-001 Laptop Keyboard

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a watershed event in the political development of the colonies. It was also part of the larger Seven Year World War. The influence of the main rivals of the British Crown in the colonies and Canada, the French and North American Indians, was significantly reduced. DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

Moreover, the war effort resulted in greater political integration of the colonies, as reflected in the Albany Congress and symbolized by Benjamin Franklin's call for the colonies to "Join or Die". Franklin was a man of many inventions-one of which was the concept of a United States of America, which emerged after 1765 and was realized in July 1776.[26] DELL PK130801B00 Laptop Keyboard

Following Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763with the goal of organizing the new North American empire and protecting the native Indians from colonial expansion into western lands. In ensuing years, strains developed in the relations between the colonists and the Crown. HP Pavilion DV6-1030us Laptop Keyboard

The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act of 1765, imposing a tax on the colonies without going through the colonial legislatures. The issue was drawn: did Parliament have this right to tax Americans who were not represented in it? Crying "No taxation without representation," the colonists refused to pay the taxes as tensions escalated in the late 1760s and early 1770s. HP Probook 4520S Laptop Keyboard

The Boston Tea Party in 1773 was a direct action by activists in the town of Boston to protest against the new tax on tea. Parliament quickly responded the next year with the Coercive Acts, stripping Massachusetts of its historic right of self-government and putting it under army rule, which sparked outrage and resistance in all thirteen colonies. SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

Patriot leaders from all 13 colonies convened the First Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance to the Coercive Acts. The Congress called for a boycott of British trade, published a list of rights and grievances, and petitioned the king for redress of those grievances.[28] SONY 147963021 Laptop Keyboard

The appeal to the Crown had no effect, and so theSecond Continental Congress was convened in 1775 to organize the defense of the colonies against the British Army.

Ordinary folk became insurgents against the British even though they were unfamiliar with the ideological rationales being offered. ASUS F3M Laptop Keyboard

They held very strongly a sense of ”rights” that they felt the British were deliberately violating – rights that stressed local autonomy, fair dealing, and government by consent. They were highly sensitive to the issue of tyranny, which they saw manifested in the arrival in Boston of the British Army to punish the Bostonians. Lenovo 63Y0047 Laptop Keyboard

This heightened their sense of violated rights, leading to rage and demands for revenge. They had faith that God was on their side.[29]

The American Revolutionary War began at Concord and Lexington in April 1775 when the British tried to seize ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders.  HP Pavilion dv6-3107ax Laptop Keyboard

The Thirteen Colonies began a rebellion against British rule in 1775 and proclaimed their independence in 1776 as the United States of America. In the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) the American capture of the British invasion army at Saratoga in 1777 secured the Northeast and encouraged the French to make a military alliance with the United States. SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard

France brought in Spain and the Netherlands, thus balancing the military and naval forces on each side as Britain had no allies.[30]

General George Washington (1732–1799) proved an excellent organizer and administrator, who worked successfully with Congress and the state governors, HP 488590-001 Laptop Keyboard

selecting and mentoring his senior officers, supporting and training his troops, and maintaining an idealistic Republican Army. His biggest challenge was logistics, since neither Congress nor the states had the funding to provide adequately for the equipment, munitions, clothing, paychecks, or even the food supply of the soldiers. TOSHIBA P000482730 Laptop Keyboard

As a battlefield tactician Washington was often outmaneuvered by his British counterparts. As a strategist, however, he had a better idea of how to win the war than they did. The British sent four invasion armies. Washington's strategy forced the first army out of Boston in 1776, and was responsible for the surrender of the second and third armies at Saratoga (1777) and Yorktown (1781).  SONY 147977821 Laptop Keyboard

He limited the British control to New York and a few places while keeping Patriot control of the great majority of the population.

The Loyalists, whom the British counted upon too heavily, comprised about 20% of the population but never were well organized. TOSHIBA Tecra M9-S5514 Laptop Keyboard

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As the war ended, Washington watched proudly as the final British army quietly sailed out of New York City in November 1783, taking the Loyalist leadership with them. Washington astonished the world when, instead of seizing power for himself, he retired quietly to his farm in Virginia.[31] Political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset observes, FUJITSU Lifebook P1510 Laptop Keyboard

"The United States was the first major colony successfully to revolt against colonial rule. In this sense, it was the first 'new nation'."

On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, declared the independence of "the United States of America" in the Declaration of Independence.  FUJITSU Lifebook P1610 Laptop Keyboard

July 4 is celebrated as the nation's birthday. The new nation was founded onEnlightenment ideals of liberalism in what Thomas Jefferson called the unalienable rights to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness," and dedicated strongly to republican principles. Republicanism emphasized the people are sovereign (not hereditary kings), demanded civic duty, feared corruption, and rejected any aristocracy.  DELL Precision M4500 Laptop Keyboard

The American Revolution was the main source of the non-denominational American civil religion that has shaped patriotism and the memory and meaning of the nation's birth ever since. Battles are not central (as they are for the Civil War) but rather certain events and people have been celebrated as icons of certain virtues (or vices),  SONY VAIO VGN-N325QE/W Laptop Keyboard

As historians have noted, the Revolution produced a Moses-like leader (George Washington), prophets (Thomas Jefferson, Tom Paine) and martyrs (Boston Massacre, Nathan Hale), as well as devils (Benedict Arnold), sacred places (Valley Forge, Bunker Hill), rituals (Boston Tea Party), emblems (the new flag),  TOSHIBA Satellite A205-S4618 Laptop Keyboard

sacred holidays (July 4) and a holy scripture whose every sentence is carefully studied and applied in current law cases (The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights).

In the 1780s the national government was able to settle the issue of the western territories, HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

which were ceded by the states to Congress and became territories; with the migration of settlers to the Northwest, soon they became states. Nationalists worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or even internal revolts such as the Shays' Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts. HP G61-424CA laptop keyboard

Nationalists—most of them war veterans—organized in every state and convinced Congress to call the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. The delegates from every state wrote a newConstitution that created a much more powerful and efficient central government, one with a strong president, and powers of taxation. Compaq Presario CQ56-102SE laptop keyboard

The new government reflected the prevailing republican ideals of guarantees of individual liberty and of constraining the power of government through a system ofseparation of powers.[35]

The Congress was given authority to ban the international slave trade after 20 years (which it did in 1807). HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

The electoral vote of the South was enhanced by counting three-fifths of the number of slaves in each state's total population. As slavery expanded in the South during the following decades, this provision increased the political power of southern representatives in Congress. TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6841 laptop keyboard

To assuage the Anti-Federalists who feared a too-powerful national government, the nation adopted the United States Bill of Rights in 1791. Comprising the first ten amendments of the Constitution, it guaranteed individual liberties such as freedom of speech and religious practice, jury trials, and stated that citizens and states had reserved rights (which were not specified). HP Mini 210-1081NR laptop keyboard

George Washington—a renowned hero of the American Revolutionary War, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and president of the Constitutional Convention—became the first President of the United States under the new Constitution in 1789. HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

The national capital moved from New York to Philadelphia and finally settled in Washington DC in 1800.

The major accomplishments of the Washington Administration were creating a strong national government that was recognized without question by all Americans.[37TOSHIBA Satellite A305-S6829 laptop keyboard

]His government, following the vigorous leadership of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, assumed the debts of the states (the debt holders received federal bonds), created the Bank of the United States to stabilize the financial system, and set up a uniform system of tariffs (taxes on imports) and other taxes to pay off the debt and provide a financial infrastructure. TOSHIBA PK13AT10600 laptop keyboard

To support his programs Hamilton created a new political party—the first in the world based on voters—the Federalist Party.

Thomas Jefferson and James Madison formed an opposition Republican Party (usually called the Democratic-Republican Party by political scientists). Hamilton and Washington presented the country in 1794 with the Jay Treaty that reestablished good relations with Britain. SONY VGN-FE21B laptop keyboard

The Jeffersonians vehemently protested, and the voters aligned behind one party or the other, thus setting up the First Party System. Federalists promoted business, financial and commercial interests and wanted more trade with Britain. Republicans accused the Federalists of plans to establish a monarchy, turn the rich into a ruling class, and making the United States a pawn of the British.[38] COMPAQ Presario CQ50-210US laptop keyboard

The treaty passed, but politics became intensely heated.[39]

The Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, when western settlers protested against a federal tax on liquor, was the first serious test of the federal government. Washington called out the state militia and personally led an army, as the insurgents melted away and the power of the national government was firmly established.[40] DELL V119525BS1 laptop keyboard

Washington refused to serve more than two terms—setting a precedent—and in his famous farewell address, he extolled the benefits of federal government and importance of ethics and morality while warning against foreign alliances and the formation of political parties.[41] TOSHIBA 9J.N9282.W01 laptop keyboard

John Adams, a Federalist, defeated Jefferson in the 1796 election. War loomed with France and the Federalists used the opportunity to try to silence the Republicans with the Alien and Sedition Acts, build up a large army with Hamilton at the head, and prepare for a French invasion. SONY KFRMBA151B laptop keyboard

However, the Federalists became divided after Adams sent a successful peace mission to France that ended the Quasi-War of 1798.

During the first two decades after the Revolutionary War, there were dramatic changes in the status of slavery among the states and an increase in the number of freed blacks. TOSHIBA Satellite l25-s1196 laptop keyboard

Inspired by revolutionary ideals of the equality of men and their lesser economic reliance on it, northern states abolished slavery, although some had gradual emancipation schemes. States of the Upper South made manumission easier, resulting in an increase in the proportion of free blacks in the Upper South from less than one percent in 1792 to more than 10 percent by 1810.  HP Pavilion DV6-1205ee laptop keyboard

By that date, a total of 13.5 percent of all blacks in the United States were free.[43]After that date, with the demand for slaves on the rise with the development of the Deep South for cotton cultivation, the rate of manumissions declined sharply, and an internal slave trade became an important source of wealth for many planters and traders. SAMSUNG Q320 laptop keyboard

Thomas Jefferson defeated Adams for the presidency in the 1800 election. Jefferson's major achievement as president was theLouisiana Purchase in 1803, which provided U.S. settlers with vast potential for expansion west of the Mississippi River.[44]

Jefferson, a scientist himself, supported expeditions to explore and map the new domain, TOSHIBA Satellite M645-S4070 Laptop Keyboard

most notably the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[45] Jefferson believed deeply in republicanism and argued it should be based on the independent yeoman farmer and planter; he distrusted cities, factories and banks. He also distrusted the federal government and judges, and tried to weaken the judiciary.  HP Probook 4515S Laptop Keyboard

However he met his match in John Marshall, a Federalist from Virginia. Although the Constitution included aSupreme Court, its functions were vague until Marshall, the Chief Justice (1801–35), defined them, especially the power to overturn acts of Congress that violated the Constitution, first enunciated in 1803 in Marbury v. Madison. SONY VAIO VGN-AR630E Laptop Keyboard

Americans were increasingly angry at the British violation of American ships' neutral rights in order to hurt France, theimpressment (seizure) of 10,000 American sailors needed by the Royal Navy to fight Napoleon, and British support for hostile Indians attacking American settlers in the Midwest. SONY VAIO PCG-FR315M Laptop Keyboard

They may also have desired to annex all or part of British North America.[47][48].[49][50][51] Despite strong opposition from the Northeast, especially from Federalists who did not want to disrupt trade with Britain, Congress declared war in June 1812.[52]

The war was frustrating for both sides. Both sides tried to invade the other and were repulsed.

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The American high command remained incompetent until the last year. The American militia proved ineffective because the soldiers were reluctant to leave home and efforts to invade Canada repeatedly failed. The British blockade ruined American commerce, bankrupted the Treasury, and further angered New Englanders, HP Pavilion G6-1B59WM Laptop Keyboard

who smuggled supplies to Britain. The Americans under General William Henry Harrison finally gained naval control of Lake Erie and defeated the Indians under Tecumseh in Canada,[53] while Andrew Jackson ended the Indian threat in the Southeast. The Indian threat to expansion into the Midwest was permanently ended. HP G62-367DX Laptop Keyboard

The British invaded and occupied much of Maine.

The British raided and burned Washington, but were repelled at Baltimore in 1814—where the "Star Spangled Banner" was written to celebrate the American success. In upstate New York a major British invasion of New York State was turned back. DELL V119525BS1 Laptop Keyboard

Finally in early 1815 Andrew Jackson decisively defeated a major British invasion at the Battle of New Orleans, making him the most famous war hero.[54]

With Napoleon (apparently) gone, the causes of the war had evaporated and both sides agreed to a peace that left the prewar boundaries intact.  SONY Vaio PCG-K33 Laptop Keyboard

Americans claimed victory in early 1815 as news came almost simultaneously of Jackson's victory of New Orleans and the peace treaty that left the prewar boundaries in place. Americans swelled with pride at success in the "second war of independence"; the naysayers of the antiwar Federalist Party were put to shame and it never recovered. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

The Indians were the big losers; they never gained the independent nationhood Britain had promised and no longer posed a serious threat as settlers poured into the Midwest.

As strong opponents of the war, the Federalists held the Hartford Convention in 1814 that hinted at disunion. SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

National euphoria after the victory at New Orleans ruined the prestige of the Federalists and they no longer played a significant role.[55] President Madison and most Republicans realized they were foolish to let the Bank of the United States close down, for its absence greatly hindered the financing of the war. TOSHIBA Satellite L755-S5216 laptop keyboard

So they chartered the Second Bank of the United States in 1816.[56][57]

The Republicans also imposed tariffs designed to protect the infant industries that had been created when Britain was blockading the U.S. With the collapse of the Federalists as a party, the adoption of many Federalist principles by the Republicans,  HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 laptop keyboard

and the systematic policy of President James Monroe in his two terms (1817–25) to downplay partisanship, the nation entered an Era of Good Feelings, with far less partisanship than before (or after), and closed out the First Party System.[56][57]  HP Pavilion dv6-3142se laptop keyboard

The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States' opinion that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere in the Americas. This was a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States. The Monroe Doctrine was adopted in response to American and British fears over Russian and French expansion into the Western Hemisphere. TOSHIBA Satellite P300-ST3712 laptop keyboard

In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which authorized the president to negotiate treaties that exchanged Native American tribal lands in the eastern states for lands west of the Mississippi River.[59] Jacksonian Democratsdemanded the forcible removal of native populations who refused to acknowledge state laws to reservations in the West; HP G42-265LA laptop keyboard

Whigs and religious leaders opposed the move as inhumane, as seen in the Trail of Tears.[60] Many of the Seminole Indians in Florida refused to move west; they fought the Army for years in the Seminole Wars.

The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant revival movement that affected the entire nation during the early 19th century and led to rapid church growth. SONY VAIO VGN-FS620 laptop keyboard

The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800, and, after 1820 membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the 1840s.[61]

It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. HP Pavilion dv3-2155mx laptop keyboard

Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements—including abolitionism and temperance designed to remove the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ. TOSHIBA PK130BH2A00 laptop keyboard

After 1840 the growing abolitionist movement redefined itself as a crusade against the sin of slave ownership. It mobilized support (especially among religious women in the Northeast affected by the Second Great Awakening).William Lloyd Garrison published the most influential of the many anti-slavery newspapers, SONY VAIO VGN-CR123E laptop keyboard

The Liberator, whileFrederick Douglass, an ex-slave, began writing for that newspaper around 1840 and started his own abolitionist newspaper North Star in 1847.[63] The great majority of anti-slavery activists, such as Abraham Lincoln, rejected Garrison's theology and held that slavery was an unfortunate social evil, not a sin. Lenovo ThinkPad T510-4339 laptop keyboard

The American colonies and the new nation grew very rapidly in population and area, as pioneers pushed the frontier of settlement west.[66] The process finally ended around 1890-1910 as the last major farmlands and ranch lands were settled. Native American tribes in some places resisted militarily, HP Pavilion dv6-2130ca laptop keyboard

but they were overwhelmed by settlers and the army and after 1830 were relocated to reservations in the west. The highly influential "Frontier Thesis" argues that the frontier shaped the national character, with its boldness, violence, innovation, individualism, and democracy.[67]

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Recent historians have emphasized the multicultural nature of the frontier. Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the "Wild West" of the second half of the 19th century. As defined by Hine and Faragher, "frontier history tells the story of the creation and defense of communities, the use of the land, the development of markets, and the formation of states". HP Pavilion DV6z artist edition 2 Laptop Keyboard

They explain, "It is a tale of conquest, but also one of survival, persistence, and the merging of peoples and cultures that gave birth and continuing life to America."[67]

Through wars and treaties, establishment of law and order, building farms, ranches, and towns, marking trails and digging mines, and pulling in great migrations of foreigners, HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

the United States expanded from coast to coast fulfilling the dreams of Manifest Destiny. As the American frontier passed into history, the myths of the west in fiction and film took firm hold in the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. America is exceptional in choosing its iconic self-image.  DELL Vostro PP37L Laptop Keyboard

"No other nation," says David Murdoch, "has taken a time and place from its past and produced a construct of the imagination equal to America’s creation of the West."[68]

From the early 1830s to 1869, the Oregon Trail and its many offshoots were used by over 300,000 settlers. '49ers (in the California Gold Rush), ranchers, farmers, SONY VAIO VGN-C2S Series Laptop Keyboard,HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

and entrepreneurs and their families headed to California, Oregon, and other points in the far west. Wagon-trains took five or six months on foot; after 1869, the trip took 6 days by rail.

Manifest Destiny was the belief that American settlers were destined to expand across the continent. HP G42-364LA Laptop Keyboard

This concept was born out of "A sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven."[70] The phrase itself meant many different things to many different people and was rejected by modernizers who wanted to build cities and factories—not more farms.  TOSHIBA 9J.N7482.901 Laptop Keyboard

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