Friday, August 30, 2013

The warmest temperature recorded in the state

The warmest temperature recorded in the state is 100 °F (38 °C) (making it tied with Alaska as the lowest high temperature recorded in a U.S. state) in Pahala on April 27, 1931. Hawaii's all-time record low temperature is 12 °F(−11 °C) observed in May 1979 on the summit of Mauna Kea. Hawaii is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover, so resorts concentrate on sunny leeward coasts. ACER Aspire 7741G Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii is one of four states, besides the original thirteen, that were independent prior to becoming part of the United States, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846), and one of two, along with Texas, that had formal diplomatic recognition internationally.[39] SONY KFRMBA152B Laptop Keyboard

The Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American (and some European) businessmen. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory, becoming a state in 1959.[40] HP Pavilion dv6-3001so Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harborand other military and naval installations on Oʻahu, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines, brought the United States into World War II. HP HDX18-1100 CTO Laptop Keyboard

The earliest habitation supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early as 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S9521D Laptop Keyboard

Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands may have first populated the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 500 CE. There is a great deal of debate regarding these dates.[41] SONY Vaio PCG-K315S laptop keyboard

Some archaeologists and historians believe that an early settlement from the Marquesas and a later wave of immigrants fromTahiti, c. 1000, introduced a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, TOSHIBA Satellite C655-S5141 laptop keyboard

the practice of human sacrifice and the building ofheiaus. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Paʻao. Other authors argue that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers, and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth. HP Pavilion dv6-2160ep laptop keyboard

Regardless of the question of Paʻao, historians agree that the history of the islands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, Packard Bell PEW91 laptop keyboard

called aliʻi, ruled their settlements and launched wars to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was acaste-based society much like that of the Hindus in India.[42] HP Pavilion dv6-2159tx laptop keyboard

There are questions as to whether Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century, two centuries before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778. Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines, with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. DELL 0M711P laptop keyboard

Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports seemed to describe the discovery of Hawaii or the Marshall Islands.[43] If it was Hawaii, Gaetano would have been the first European to find the islands. SONY VAIO VGN-CR13/B laptop keyboard

Some scholars have dismissed these claims as lacking credibility.[44][45] However, Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts islands in the latitude of Hawaii but with the longitude ten degrees east of the Islands. SONY 148701322 laptop keyboard

In this manuscript, the Island of Maui is named "La Desgraciada" (the unfortunate), and what appears to be the Island of Hawaii is named "La Mesa" (the table). Islands resembling Kahoolawe, Lanai, Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

and Molokai are named "Los Monjes" (the monks).[46] For two and a half centuries Spanish galleons crossed the Pacific along a route that passed south of Hawaii on their way to Manila. The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. HP Pavilion dv6-3001so laptop keyboard

The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was Hawaii’s first documented contact with European explorers. Cook named the islands the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. HP HDX18-1100 CTO laptop keyboard

He published the islands' location and reported the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho, after three Hawaiian members of a trapping party that went missing in that area. SONY VAIO VGN-N21E/W laptop keyboard

Cook visited the islands twice. Upon his departure during his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued, involving Cook's taking of temple idols and fencing as "firewood",[47] and the taking of a ship's boat by a minor chief and his men. Cook then abducted the King of the Big Island of Hawaii, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, HP Pavilion dv5-1118tx laptop keyboard

and held him as ransom aboard his ship for the return of the boat, a tactic that had worked for Cook in Tahiti and other islands.[48] Kalaniʻōpuʻu's supporters fought back and Cook and four Marines were killed as Cook's party retreated to the beach and launched their boats. HP AEUT5U00010 laptop keyboard

After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the flag of Hawaii which has the British Union Flag in the corner. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously[49] because native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, and measles, among others. SONY VGN-FE550G Laptop Keyboard

By 1820, Eurasian diseases, famine, and wars among the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population.[50] During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[51] Lenovo 45N2240 Laptop Keyboard

Historical records indicated that the earliest immigration of the Chinese came from Guangdong province: a few sailors in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, more in 1788 with Kaina, and some in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. Lenovo IdeaPad Y710 Laptop Keyboard

During the 1780s and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and forced cession of the island of Kauaʻi in 1810, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known asKing Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872. DELL Latitude D830 Laptop Keyboard

After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. Their influence ended many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. One prominent Protestant missionary, Hiram Bingham I, TOSHIBA Satellite U305-S2812 Laptop Keyboard

was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to future conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects. GATEWAY M-6319 Laptop Keyboard

Missionaries from other Christian denominations (such as Catholics, Mormons, and Episcopalians) were active, but never converted more than a minority of the Native Hawaiian population. Ezra T. Benson appeared to have been the earliest Mormon missionary to the islands. HP 634139-001 Laptop Keyboard

The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunaliloover Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. Perhaps "the People's King" (Lunalilo) wanted the people to choose his successor as they had chosen him. In 1874 the election was contested within the legislature TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 Laptop Keyboard

In 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, which stripped the king of much of his authority. There was a property qualification for voting, which disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers, and favored the wealthier white community. ACER Aspire 5742 Laptop Keyboard

Resident whites were allowed to vote, but resident Asians were excluded. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the "Bayonet Constitution". King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Liliʻuokalani, succeeded him on the throne. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. TOSHIBA Satellite A300 Laptop Keyboard

The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress followed with another investigation, TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

and submitted the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[53] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the debate over the events of 1893. SONY VGN-FE670G Laptop Keyboard

In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[56] HP COMPAQ NX6310 Laptop Keyboard

The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Republic of Hawaii. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii in 1885 as contract laborers for the sugar cane and pineapple plantations. DELL INSPIRON 1464 Laptop Keyboard

After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. HP Pavilion dv6-3050tx laptop keyboard

expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with three annexationists from Hawaii: Lorrin Thurston, Francis March Hatch and William Ansel Kinney. After negotiations, in June 1897, Secretary of State John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[57] SONY VGN-FE48E laptop keyboard

The treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. Instead, despite the opposition of a majority of Native Hawaiians,[58] the Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21. Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop keyboard

Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a world-wide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for the product from Hawaii. Hawaiian sugar plantation owners began to recruit the jobless, Compaq Presario CQ71-403SA laptop keyboard

but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. Two distinct waves of Korean immigration to Hawaii have occurred in the last century. The first arrived in between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965. HP Pavilion dv6-2150us laptop keyboard

In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors", known as the "Big Five", HP Pavilion dv6-2030ev laptop keyboard

found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5083 laptop keyboard

In the 1950s the power of the plantation owners was finally broken by descendants of immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were legal U.S. citizens. The Hawaii Republican Party, TOSHIBA Satellite L655-S5160 laptop keyboard

strongly supported by plantation owners, was voted out of office. The Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated politics for 40 years. Expecting to gain full voting rights, Hawaii's residents actively campaigned for statehood. Packard Bell Easynote TK85 laptop keyboard

In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law.[59] (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Lenovo 3000 G430 4152 laptop keyboard

Hawaii voted 17 to 1 to accept. The choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territory, without the option of independence.[60][61] The United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. Acer eMachines E640 laptop keyboard

After statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized via construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. TheHawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated programs such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture. HP Mini 110-3504tu laptop keyboard

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Hawaii was 1,374,810 on July 1, 2011, a 1.07% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, an increase of 13,070, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. SONY VGN-FE11H Laptop Keyboard

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of Oʻahu and Molokaʻi.[62] So many Hawaiianresidents have moved to Las Vegas that it has been referred to as the "ninth island" of Hawaii.[63][64] COMPAQ Presario C700 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million, due to large military and tourist populations. Oʻahu, nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and has the highest population density), ASUS F3Sr laptop keyboard

with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km2), about 1,650 people per square mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 square miles (19,210 km2) is the most-densely populated state in the Union with 1,134 people per square mile.)[65] TOSHIBA Satellite L200 laptop keyboard

Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (16,640 km2) (including many unpopulated islands), results in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile,[66] which makes Hawaii less densely populated than Ohio and Illinois.[67] TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 laptop keyboard

The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in 2000 was 79.8 years (77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than any other state.[68] HP Mini 1010LA laptop keyboard

According to the 2010 United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,360,301. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 38.6% Asian, 24.7% White (22.7% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 23.6% from Two or More Races, 10.0% Native Hawaiians and OtherPacific Islanders, 8.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 1.6% Black or African American, 1.2% from Some Other race, and 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native.[70] TOSHIBA Satellite L505-S5993 laptop keyboard

Hawaii is demographically unique because it has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and Multiracial Americans, as well as the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state. In 2011, non-Hispanic whites were involved in 14.5% of all the births.[71] Hawaii's Asian population mainly consists of 198,000 (14.6%) SONY VAIO VGN-CS160J/W laptop keyboard

Filipino Americans and 185,000 (13.6%) Japanese Americans. In addition, there are roughly 55,000 (4.0%) Chinese Americans and 24,000 (1.8%) Korean Americans. Indigenous Hawaiians number over 80,000, SONY VAIO VGN-FZ52B laptop keyboard

which is 5.9% of the population.[72] Including those with partial ancestry, Samoan Americansmake up 2.8% of Hawaii's population, and Tongan Americans comprise 0.6% of the state population.[73] SONY Vaio VGN-FW139E laptop keyboard

Over 120,000 (8.8%) Hispanic and Latino Americans make Hawaii their home. Mexicans number over 35,000 (2.6%); Puerto Ricansexceed 44,000 (3.2%). Multiracial Americans form almost one-quarter of Hawaii's population, exceeding 320,000 people.Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group; there are roughly 66,000 (4.9%) ACER Aspire 3022WLMi laptop keyboard

Eurasian Americans in Hawaii. The Non-Hispanic White population numbers at 310,000 and forms just over one-fifth of the population. The multiracial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10,000 people.[72] In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Hawaii's population as 38.8% white and 57.7% Asian and Pacific Islander.[74] TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST5N02 laptop keyboard

The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%), andItalian (2.7%). Approximately 82.2% of Hawaii's residents were born in the United States. SONY VAIO VGN-FS195VP laptop keyboard

Roughly 75.0% of the foreign-born residents hail from Asia. Hawaii is a majority-minority state, and is expected to be one of three states that will not have a white plurality in 2014, the other two being California and New Mexico.[75] HP Pavilion DV6-1160ed laptop keyboard

A large proportion of Hawaii's population is now of Asian ancestry (especially Chinese, Japanese andFilipino.) Many are descendants of those immigrants brought to work on the sugar plantations in the 1850s and after. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. IBM ThinkPad T42 laptop keyboard

They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and theTokugawa shogunate, by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885 after Kalākaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881.[78][79] DELL Inspiron N4050 laptop keyboard

Almost 13,000 Portuguese had come by 1899. They too worked on the sugar plantations.[80] By 1901, over 5,000 Puerto Ricans had made new homes on the four islands.[81] GATEWAY MT3707 laptop keyboard

The Hawaiian language has about 2000 native speakers, less than 0.1% of the total population.[83] According to theUnited States Census, there were over 24,000 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2006-2008.[84] HP Pavilion dv5-1211tx Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language family.[83] It is closely related to other Polynesian languages, such as Marquesan, Tahitian, Māori, Rapa Nui (the language of Easter Island), and less closely to Samoan, and Tongan. TOSHIBA NSK-TK001 Laptop Keyboard

According to Schütz (1994), the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly 300 AD[85] followed by later waves of immigration from the Society Islands and Samoa-Tonga. Those Polynesians remained in the islands, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Their languages, over time, became the Hawaiian language.[86] Kimura and Wilson (1983) also state, "Linguists agree that Hawaiian is closely related to Eastern Polynesian,  HP Mini 1010LA Laptop Keyboard

with a particularly strong link in the Southern Marquesas, and a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging between the Hawaiian and Society Islands."[87] Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, SONY VAIO VPCF12 Laptop Keyboard

the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820–1826. They assigned letters from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds. HP Pavilion G6-1C58DX Laptop Keyboard

Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools were established where all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian. HP 640436-001 Laptop Keyboard

Also, the University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. ACER Aspire 3022WLMi Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Also, Hawaiian uses theglottal stop as a consonant (ʻokina). It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or opening single quote. HP pavilion DV7-1000 Laptop Keyboard

Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834–1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. Theʻokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers. TOSHIBA Satellite L750-ST4N02 Laptop Keyboard

The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is quite high compared to most major cities in the United States. However, the cost of living in Honolulu is 6.7% lower than in New York City and 3.6% lower than in San Francisco.[99] TOSHIBA Satellite A110 Series Laptop Keyboard

These numbers may not take into account certain costs, such as increased travel costs for longer flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers "outside the continental United States". HP COMPAQ NX6320 laptop keyboard

While some online stores do offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii,[100] many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other US territories. ACER Aspire 5738ZG laptop keyboard

The median home value in Hawaii in the 2000 US Census was $272,700 while the national median home value was less than half of that, at $119,600. Hawaii home values were the highest of all states, including California with a median home value of $211,500.[101] More recent research from the National Association of Realtors places the 2010 median sale price of a single family home in Honolulu, ACER Aspire 4810T-8480 laptop keyboard

Hawaii at $607,600 and the US median sales price at $173,200. The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any US city in 2010, just above the "Silicon Valley" area of California ($602,000).[102] Lenovo Thinkpad T520 Laptop Keyboard

One of the most significant contributors to the high cost of living in Hawaii is the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (also known as the Jones Act), which prevents foreign-flagged ships from carrying cargo between two American ports (a practice known as cabotage). Most U.S. HP Pavilion DV7-3186cl Laptop Keyboard

consumer goods are manufactured in East Asia at present, but because of the Jones Act, foreign ships inbound with those goods cannot stop in Honolulu, offload Hawaii-bound goods, load mainland-bound Hawaii-manufactured goods, IBM Thinkpad T60 Laptop Keyboard

and continue to West Coast ports. Instead, they must proceed directly to the West Coast, where distributorsbreak bulk and send Hawaiian-bound Asian-manufactured goods back west across the ocean by U.S.-flagged ships. HP Pavilion DV9243EA Laptop Keyboard

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Hawaiian consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods again across the Pacific on U.S.-flagged ships subject to the extremely high operating costs imposed by the Jones Act. ACER TravelMate 6292 Laptop Keyboard

This also makes Hawaii less competitive with West Coast ports as a shopping destination for tourists from home countries with much higher taxes (like Japan), even though prices for Asian-manufactured goods in theory should be cheaper since Hawaii is much closer to Asia.[103][104] ACER AEZG5R00010 Laptop Keyboard

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