Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Blissett and Regis joined Viv Anderson

] Blissett and Regis joined Viv Anderson to form the first wave of Black footballers to play for the England national team. Although the number of players of African-Caribbean origin in the English league was increasing far beyond proportions in wider society, Sony VGN-P21Z/G Battery when Black players represented the English national team, they still had to endure racism from a section of England supporters. When selected to play for England, Cyril Regis received a bullet through the mail with the threat: "You'll get one of these through your knees if you step on our Wembley turf."[116] Sony VGN-P21Z/R Battery By the 1980s the British African-Caribbean community was well represented at all playing levels of the game. John Barnes, born in Jamaica, was one of the most talented players of his generation and one of the few footballers to win every honour in the domestic English game including the PFA Players' Player of the Year.[118] Sony VGN-P29VN/Q Battery Although Barnes played for England on 78 occasions between 1983 and 1991, his performances rarely matched his club standard.[119] Subsequently, Barnes identified a culture of racism in football during his era as a player.[118] Players of African-Caribbean origin continued to excel in English football, Sony VGP-BPS18 Battery in the 1990s Paul Ince - whose parents were from Trinidad - went on to captain Manchester United, Liverpool F.C. and the English national team. The contribution was reciprocated when a number of British born footballers including Robbie Earle, Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery Frank Sinclair and Darryl Powell represented theJamaica national football team in the 1998 World Cup finals. At the turn of the millennium, British-born Black footballers constituted about 13% of the English league,[120] and a number of groups including "Kick It Out" were highlighting issues of racism still in the game.[121] Sony VGP-BPL18 Battery In the 2006 World Cup finals, Theo Walcott, a striker of English and Jamaican parents,[122] became the youngest ever player to join an England world cup squad - a side that included African-Caribbean players in every department, goal-keeping, defence, midfield and attack.Sony VPCCW1S1R Battery People of African descent from the Caribbean have made a significant contribution to British Black music for many generations. Large-scale Caribbean migration to England recommenced following the Second World War in 1948. The Empire Windrushcarried almost 500 passengers from Jamaica, Sony VPCCW1S1T Battery including Lord Kitchener, a calypso singer from Trinidad. By chance, a local newsreel company filmed him singing "London Is The Place For Me" as he got off the ship. In 2002, London Is The Place For Me: Trinidadian Calypso, 1950-1956 was finally released in Britain. Sony VPCCW1S1T/R Battery The 1951 Festival of Britain brought the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra (TAPSO) and Roaring Lion to public attention. The smart set in Oxford and Cambridge adopted both calypso and steelband for debutante parties. In 1959, Trinidadian Claudia Jones started the Notting Hill Carnival. Sony VPCCW1S1T/W Battery They brought Mighty Sparrow and others directly from Trinidad. Edric Connor had arrived in England from Trinidad in 1944. He starred in a West End musical called "Calypso" in 1948. A white Danish duo, Nina & Frederik, recorded several calypsos from 1958 to 1962, scoring in the charts. Sony VPCCW1Z4E Battery Cy Grant (from Guyana) sang a song by Lord Kitchener in the TV drama A Man From the Sun in 1956. It told the story of Caribbean migrants. From 1957 to 1960, Grant sang calypsos on the BBC TV news programme Tonight. In 1962. English comedian Bernard Cribbins had a hit with "Gossip Calypso".Sony VPCCW12EN/BU Battery Cecil Bustamante Campbell (Prince Buster) was born in 1938 in Orange Street, Kingston, Jamaica. In 1961 he signed to Blue Beat records. In 1962, Jamaica won its independence and Island Records was founded. One of the record label's producers, Chris Blackwell, brought Millie Small to Britain in 1963. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E Battery Her high-pitched, slightly nasal voice had wide appeal with "My Boy Lollipop", which reached number 2 in the UK. It was perceived as a novelty pop song, not the start of a boom in ska. It was not until 1969 that reggae artists began to receive significant airplay. Dave and Ansell Collins, Ken Boothe and John Holt had hits. Sony VAIO VGN-FW139N Battery Trojan Records was founded in 1967, named after producer Duke Reid, known as "The Trojan." It brought Jamaican recordings to Britain. Their first hit was Jimmy Cliff's "Wonderful World, Beautiful People" in 1969. The label had 28 other hits. Sony VAIO VGN-FW140E Battery The first Jamaican performers to reach number one in Britain were Desmond Dekker and the Aces with "Israelites" in 1969. The second act was Althea & Donna with "Up Town, Top Ranking" in 1977. Bob Marley came from Jamaica to London and recorded "Catch a Fire" in 1972, returning to record "Exodus" and "Kaya" in 1977. Sony VAIO VGN-FW145E Battery Eddy Grant was born in Guyana in 1948 and grew up in Brixton. He was part of The Equals, the first multi-racial group to reach number 1 in the UK, with "Baby come Back" in 1968. He took Caribbean music further in the direction of rock than anyone else. His gritty voice took "Electric Avenue" to the top 10 twice. His studio in Barbados has been used by Sting and Elvis Costello. Sony VAIO VGN-FW160E Battery Roots reggae was increasingly popular with the UK's black working-class youth from the 1970s onwards, its message ofRastafari and overcoming injustice striking a chord with those on the receiving end of racism and poverty. Jamaicans who had settled in the UK (and their children who had been born here) Sony VAIO VGN-FW180E Battery were instrumental in setting up a network of reggae soundsystems. The most popular soundsystems included Jah Shaka, Coxsone Outernational, Fatman, Jah Tubbys and Quaker City. A number of producers such as Dennis Bovell and Mad Professor began to record UK and Jamaican artists and release their records. Sony VAIO VGN-FW190E Battery Bands such as Aswad, Steel Pulse, Misty In Roots and Beshara released records and played gigs throughout the UK. As roots music's popularity waned in Jamaica in the 1980s, soundsystems such as Jah Shaka kept the faith in the UK, influencing a new generation of producers, Sony VAIO VPCS11B7E Battery soundsystems and artists, including The Disciples, Iration Steppas, Jah Warrior and The Rootsman. This scene has been referred to as "UK Dub". The 1990s saw a resurgence of interest in 70s roots reggae and dub with a number of UK-based specialist labels such as Pressure Sounds, Soul Jazz and Blood & Fire being set up to re-release classic recordings. Sony VAIO VPCS11M1E/W Battery "Punky Reggae Party" is a song written by Bob Marley as a positive response to the emerging UK punk scene. Roots and Dub music gained popularity with UK punks in the mid-70s, with Don Letts playing reggae records alongside punk ones at the Roxy nightclub and Johnny Rotten citingSony VAIO VPCS11M9R/B Battery Dr Alimantado's "Born for a Purpose" as one of his favourite records in a radio interview. After the Sex Pistols split, Rotten was sent to Jamaica by Virgin Records as a talent scout for their Frontline reggae sub-label. The Clash started out as a straight-ahead punk rock group, but their first album covered "Police & Thieves",Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E/B Battery a reggae track by Junior Murvin. Their bass playerPaul Simonon was a reggae enthusiast. Increasingly the group took significant influence from reggae, on tracks such as The Guns of Brixton, which used themes of impoverished criminality and a renegade lifestyle, with a punky edge. Sony VAIO VPCS12A7E Battery Their track "White Man In Hammersmith Palais" was written about the group's experience at a reggae dance. Jamaican reggae producer Lee Perry was brought in to produce the tune "Complete Control". The Ruts recorded the reggae-inspired "Babylon's Burning", "Jah War",Sony VAIO VPCS12A7R Battery "Love in Vein" and "Give Youth a Chance", while The Members recorded similar "White Reggae" tracks such as "Don't Push" and "Offshore Banking Business". Towards the end of the 1970s, punk and reggae groups would appear on the same bills at Rock Against Racism events. Sony VAIO VPCS12B7E Battery While most of the developments in the music took place in Jamaica (dub, toasting, dancehall, ragga) there was one form that was born in Britain. Lovers rock, developed in the 1970s, was a smooth, soulful version of reggae, spearheaded by Dennis Brown. Sony VAIO VPCS12C5E Battery The early years of "lovers rock" have two main resonances: London "blues parties" and discs by girl singers who sounded as if they were still worrying about their school reports. The record that kick-started the phenomenon was the 14-year-old Louisa Mark's plaintive reading of Robert Parker's soul hit, Sony VAIO VPCS12D7E Battery "Caught You In A Lie", with Matumbi as backing group and production by sound-system man Lloyd Coxsone (b. Lloyd Blackwood, Jamaica); this appeared on Coxsone's Safari imprint in 1975 and was impressive enough to see release in Jamaica by Gussie Clake. Sony VAIO VPCS11V9E Battery Several of Louisa Mark's subsequent titles, including "All My Loving" (Safari) and "Six Sixth Street" (Bushays), repeated the success and have remained favourites at revive sessions ever since. Mark's hit was followed by Ginger Williams' "Tenderness" (Third World), Sony VAIO VPCS11X9E Battery and a genre was born-essentially Philly/Chicago soul ballads played over fat reggae basslines. The style was consolidated by the husband-and-wife team of Dennis and Eve Harris who had a big hit with the white singer T.T. Ross's massively popular "Last Date" (Lucky), another key record, and set up a new imprint, Lover's Rock, giving the genre its name.Sony Vaio VGN-NW21MF Battery Later labels such as Fashion Records and Ariwa would go on to take lovers rock to more sophisticated plains and beyond the music's original market of working-class teenagers. and while the music media largely ignored their performers-singers like Peter Hunnigale, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF Battery Sylvia Tella, Michael Gordon and Keith Douglas they have deservedly scored hit after hit with audiences who trust what they hear rather than read. The influence of reggae was felt in rock almost immediately, but usually surfaced as a tangential reference in some stars' isolated songs. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery The Beatles song 1964 "I Call Your Name," for instance, has a ska break; a few years later, they would appropriate the reggae rhythm for 1968 "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da".[1] Chris Andrews (born 1942) was a songwriter for Sandie Shaw. The song "Yesterday Man" was inappropriate for her, so he sang it himself and it went to #3 in the British singles charts in 1965. Sony Vaio VGN-NW21ZF Battery At the time, the musical style was called bluebeat, a music genre that is now recognized by most as ska or reggae. He followed this with "To Whom It Concerns" (#13 in 1965) and "Something On My Mind" (number 41 in 1966). Paul McCartney bought Jamaican-imported singles, but this was not obvious in The Beatles' repertoire until "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" Sony Vaio VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery on the White Album. There was a gentle reggae beat in some of his later solo singles, such as "Another Day" and "Silly Love Songs". He also named one of his Christmas song covers "Rudolph The Red-Nosed Reggae". The first British top ten album to contain several reggae songs was Peter Frampton's "Frampton Comes Alive" in 1976. Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery Other pop hits include "Sugar Sugar" by the Archies (number 1 in 1969) and "I Can See Clearly Now" by Johnny Nash (number 5 in 1972). Also in the mid-1970s, art-rockers 10cc released a few reggae-styled singles, including "Dreadlock Holiday". Ska/reggae artist Judge Dread (named after a Prince Buster character) released his first single in 1972; Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery the somewhat X-rated "Big Six", which went to #11. Judge Dread (born Alexander Hughes) continued his popularity with other rude songs, chiefly enjoyed by skinheads, who had always been avid fans of ska and reggae. Skinheads were preceded by the mods, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/P Battery who were the first real white supporters of ska/bluebeat in the 1960s. Georgie Fame, a mod R&B favourite, popularised a ska feel in his music at times. The Police's first reggae single was "Roxanne", followed by "Don't Stand So Close to Me", "Walking on the Moon" and others. Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/S Battery Sting's somewhat interesting Jamaican accent attracted criticism, but the band was commercially successful. Blondie's "The Tide is High" was perhaps the first big white reggae hit in Britain and also draws on the lovers-rock elements of reggae. Both Harry Belafonte and Nina and Frederick had hits with "Mary's Boy Child", Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/W Battery but it was Boney Mwho gave this slow ballad a reggae rhythm in 1978 and took it to #1 in the British charts for four weeks. More long-term success was achieved by UB40, of Birmingham. They started life performing reggae-influenced material of their own creation, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery but their biggest contribution is perhaps their covers of reggae originals. "Kingston Town", "Many Rivers to Cross" and "Here I Am (Come and Take Me)" are a few of the more famous. Their chart-topping cover of "Red Red Wine" was an accident of sorts - they knew a reggae version of the song, but were unaware that the American pop singer Neil Diamond was its original author. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery Gospel music although a subgenre of black music in the UK today also arrived in England in the early post-war years, along with the large-scale immigrant influx and their wide variety of musical tastes. Pioneers in this field include an eight-piece a cappella family group from Trinidad called the Singing Stewarts - Oscar Stewart, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery Ashmore Stewart, Frankie Stewart, Phylis Stewart, Gloria Stewart, Timothy Stewart, Thedore Stewart and Del Stewart - who were the first to appear on a major British record label in the late 1960s. They impressed many English audiences with their unique interpretation of Negro Spirituals and traditional Gospel songs. Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery Based in the Midlands, Birmingham, they appeared on numerous radio shows and participated in the prestigious Edinburgh Festival, again increasing awareness of this genre. In later years and decades when black people began to settle in the UK, groups such as The Doyleys, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery Paradise, Lavine Hudson and the Bazil Meade-inspired London Community Gospel Choir began to drive the music much further towards the mainstream and out of the comfort zone of the black churches. The Singing Stewarts are featured in the book British Black Gospel:Dell 312-0749 Battery The Foundations of this vibrant UK sound by Steve Alexander Smith. Huddersfield-born Smith was inspired to write the book after spending time in the USA in the mid 1990's and witnessing the best that Black Gospel could offer. While many immigrants from the Caribbean brought with them the folk music of the area, Dell FU571 Battery it was not until the 1960s when The Spinners a folk group from Liverpool,England, who were the first multiracial singing group to have a major success in the UK brought Caribbean folk music into the mainstream.[2] Cliff Hall, their West Indian singer and guitarist, Dell KY265 Battery born in Cuba and brought up in Jamaica, brought many songs from the Caribbean to their repertoire including "Woman Sweeter than Man", "Matty Rag" and "Linstead Market".Dell KY285 Battery Caribbean literature is the term generally accepted for the literature of the various territories of the Caribbean region. Literature in English specifically from the former British West Indies may be referred to as Anglo-Caribbean or, in historical contexts, West Indian literature, although in modern contexts the latter term is rare.[ Dell MN631 Battery Most of these territories have become independent nations since the 1960s, though some retain colonial ties to the United Kingdom. They all share, apart from the English language, a number of political, cultural, and social ties which make it useful to consider their literary output in a single category. Dell PT434 Battery The more wide-ranging term "Caribbean literature" generally refers to the literature of all Caribbean territories regardless of language—whether written in English,Spanish, French, or Dutch, or one of numerous creoles. The literature of BrianAnguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Curaçao, the Bahamas, Dell Studio 17 Battery Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica,Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Martin, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicosand the U.S. Dell Studio 1735 Battery Virgin Islands would normally be considered to belong to the wider category of West Indian literature. Some literary scholars might also includeBermuda, though geographically Bermuda is not part of the Caribbean and cultural ties with the region are not very strong. Dell Studio 1737 Battery The term "West Indies" first began to achieve wide currency in the 1950s, when writers such as Samuel Selvon, John Hearne, Edgar Mittelholzer, V.S. Naipaul, andGeorge Lamming began to be published in the United Kingdom. A sense of a single literature developing across the islands was also encouraged in the 1940s by theBBC radio programme Caribbean Voices, Dell Studio 15 Battery which featured stories and poems written by West Indian authors, recorded in London under the direction of producer Henry Swanzy, and broadcast back to the islands. Magazines such as Kyk-Over-Al in Guyana, Bim in Barbados, and Focus in Jamaica, which published work by writers from across the region, also encouraged links and helped build an audience.[1] Dell Studio 1537 Battery Many—perhaps most—West Indian writers have found it necessary to leave their home territories and base themselves in the United Kingdom, the United States, orCanada in order to make a living from their work—in some cases spending the greater parts of their careers away from the territories of their birth. Dell Studio 1536 Battery Critics in their adopted territories might argue that, for instance, V. S. Naipaul ought to be considered a British writer instead of a Trinidadian writer, or Jamaica Kincaid and Paule Marshall American writers, but most West Indian readers and critics still consider these writers "West Indian".Dell Studio 1555 Battery West Indian literature ranges over subjects and themes as wide as those of any other "national" literature, but in general many West Indian writers share a special concern with questions of identity, ethnicity, and language that rise out of the Caribbean historical experience. Dell Studio 1557 Battery One unique and pervasive characteristic of Caribbean literature is the use of "dialect" forms of the national language, often termed creole. The various local variations in the language adopted from the colonial powers such as Britain, Spain,Portugal, France and the Netherlands, Dell LATITUDE D600 Battery have been modified over the years within each country and each has developed a blend that is unique to their country. Many Caribbean authors in their writing switch liberally between the local variation - now commonly termed nation language - and the standard form of the language.[2] Dell Latitude D610 Battery Two West Indian writers have won the Nobel Prize for Literature: Derek Walcott (1992), born in St. Lucia, resident mostly in Trinidad during the 1960s and 70s, and partly in the United States since then; and V. S. Naipaul, born in Trinidad and resident in the United Kingdom since the 1950. Dell Latitude D620 Battery (Saint-John Perse, who won the Nobel Prize in 1960, was born in the French territory of Guadeloupe.) Other notable names in (anglophone) Caribbean literature have included Earl Lovelace, Austin Clarke, Claude McKay, Orlando Patterson, Andrew Salkey, Dell Latitude D630 Battery Edward Kamau Brathwaite (who was born in Barbados and has lived in Ghana and Jamaica), Linton Kwesi Johnson, and Michelle Cliff, to name only a few. In more recent times, a number of new literary voices have emerged from the Caribbean as well as the Caribbean diaspora,Dell LATITUDE D800 Battery including Kittitian Caryl Phillips (who has lived in the UK since one month of age), Edwidge Danticat, a Haitian immigrant to the United States; Anthony Kellman from Barbados, who divides his time between Barbados and the United States; Andrea Levy of the United Kingdom, Dell Latitude D820 Battery Colin Channer and Marlon James, the author ofJohn Crow's DevilThe Book of Night Women, the unpublished screenplay "Dead Men", and the short story "Under Cover of Darkness", Antiguan Marie-Elena John, and Lasana M. Sekou from St. Maarten/St. Martin. Dell Latitude D830 Battery,Dell Latitude E5410 Battery,Dell Latitude E6510 Battery

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